Apollo of Veii
The Apollo of Veii is a life-size painted terracotta Etruscan statue of Apollo, designed to be placed at the highest part of a temple. The statue was discovered in the Portonaccio sanctuary of ancient Veii, in what is now central Italy, dates from c. 510 - 500 BC. It was created in late-archaic Etruscan style, it was discovered in 1916, is now on display in the National Etruscan Museum in Rome. The statue was made by Vulca, the only Etruscan artist whose name is known; this terracotta statue was part of a scene of Apollo and Heracles contending over the Ceryneian Hind, placed 12 metres above the ground on beams on the acroterion of the Portonaccio Sanctuary of Minerva. The statue is dressed in a tunic and short cloak, advancing towards the left with the right arm outstretched and bent. Together with other statues, it decorated the roof beams of the Portonaccio temple, a sanctuary dedicated to Minerva. Placed on high plinths, this series of statues were acroterial, they stood some twelve metres above the ground level and though they were created separately, they narrated events from Greek mythology that were at least in part tied to the god Apollo.
This statue, together with the statue of Heracles, formed a group representing one of the labours of the hero before his apotheosis made him one of the divinities of Olympus. The myth narrates the contention between the god and the hero for the possession of the doe with the golden horns. There was also a statue of Mercury united to this group, of which only the head and a part of the body remain. Apollo, dressed in a tunic and short cloak, advances towards his left with his right arm outstretched and bent; the group was conceived for a lateral vision and the solid volume of the figures united with the dissymmetry both in Apollo and in the Heracles torso suggest that the artist understood optical deformations. The style of the statues is in the ambit of the “international” Ionic style that characterizes the Etruscan artistic culture of the late 6th century BC; the sculpture reaches a high level of expression. Antefix Etruscan civilization Ornament List of classical architecture terms Spivey, Nigel.
Etruscan Art. London: Thames and Hudson. Statue website
There are three main hypotheses as to the origins of the Etruscan civilization in the Early Iron Age. Autochthonous development in situ out of the Villanovan culture, as claimed by the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus who described the Etruscans as indigenous people who had always lived in Etruria. A migration from the Aegean sea, as claimed by a couple of Greek historians: Herodotus, who described them as a group of immigrants from Lydia in Anatolia, Hellanicus of Lesbos who claimed that the Tyrrhenians were the Pelasgians from Thessaly, who entered Italy at the head of the Adriatic sea; the third hypotheses is reported by Livy and Pliny the Elder, puts the Etruscans in the context of the Rhaetian people to the north and other populations living in the Alps. An autochthonous population that diverged genetically was suggested as a possibility by Cavalli-Sforza. Helmut Rix's classification of the Etruscan language in a proposed Tyrsenian language family reflects this ambiguity, he finds Etruscan on one hand genetically related to the Rhaetic language spoken in the Alps north of Etruria, suggesting autochthonous connections, but on the other hand the Lemnian language found on the "Lemnos stele" is related to Etruscan, entailing either Etruscan presence in "Tyrsenian" Lemnos, or "Tyrsenian" expansion westward to Etruria.
In particular the Lemnian language could have arrived in the Aegean Sea during the Late Bronze Age, when Mycenaean rulers recruited groups of mercenaries from Sicily and various parts of the Italian peninsula. The latest mtDNA study suggests that the Etruscans appear to fall close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations; this coincides with the Rhaetic language, spoken north of the Alps in the area of the Urnfield culture of Central Europe. The Villanovan culture branched from the Urnfield culture around 1100 BC and thus Villanovan culture is ancestral to the Etruscan civilization. Dionysius of Halicarnassus asserted: Indeed, those come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere else, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living. With this passage, Dionysius launched the autochthonous theory, that the core element of the Etruscans, who spoke the Etruscan language, were of "Terra itself".
They are therefore the owners of the Villanovan culture. Picking up this theme, Bonfante states:...the history of the Etruscan people extends... from c. 1200 to c. 100 BC. Many sites of the chief Etruscan cities of historical times were continuously occupied from the Iron Age Villanovan period on. Much confusion would have been avoided if archaeologists had used the name'Proto-Etruscan'.... For in fact the people... did not appear suddenly. Nor did they start to speak Etruscan. An additional elaboration conjectures that the Etruscans were...an ethnic island of ancient peoples isolated by the flood of Indo-European speakers. In 1942, the Italian historian Massimo Pallottino published a book entitled The Etruscans. Pallottino presented various hypotheses, he said "no one would dream of asking where Frenchmen came from originally. He meant that the formation process for Etruscan civilization took place in nearby. Formulating a different point of view on the same evidence, Pallottino says:... we must consider the concept'Etruscan' as... attached to... a nation that flourished in Etruria between the eighth and first centuries BC...
We may discuss the provenance of each of these elements but a more appropriate concept... would be that of formation... the formative process of the nation can only have taken place on the territories of the Etruscans proper. J. P. Mallory compares the Etruscans to other remnant non Indo-European central Mediterranean populations, such as the Basques of the Iberian Peninsula and southern France, who absorbed the art styles and alphabet of their Greek neighbors. Certain Greek and Roman authors saw the presence of the Etruscans in Italy as a "historical problem", since they differed from the other civilizations in the area. In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of prince Anchises and the goddess Venus, his father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy. The journey of Aeneas from Troy, which led to the founding of the city of Rome, is recounted in Virgil's Aeneid, where the historicity of the Aeneas legend is employed to flatter the Emperor Augustus. Romulus and Remus, appearing in Roman mythology as the traditional founders of Rome, were of Eastern origin: their grandfather Numitor and his brother Amulius were alleged to be descendants of fugitives from Troy.
Herodotus reports the Lydians' claim that the Etruscans came from Lydia in Asia Minor: This is their story: their king divided the people into two groups, made them draw lots, so that the one group should remain and the other leave the country. They came to the Ombrici, where they founded cities and have lived since, they no longer called themselves Lydians, but Tyrrhenians, after the name of the king's son who had led them there. The classical scholar Michael Grant commented on this story, writing that it "is based on erroneous etymologies
Fiesole is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, 5 km northeast of that city. Both Harvard University and Georgetown University have their centers of Italian Renaissance Studies domiciled in Fiesole; the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio is set in the slopes of Fiesole. The city was featured in the novels Peter Camenzind by Hermann Hesse and A Room with a View by E. M. Forster. Since the 14th century the city has always been considered a getaway for the upper class of Florence and up to this day Fiesole remains noted for its expensive residential properties; the city is considered to be the wealthiest and most affluent suburb of Florence. In 2016 the city had the highest median family income in the whole of Tuscany. Fiesole was founded in the 9th–8th century BC, as it was an important member of the Etruscan confederacy, as may be seen from the remains of its ancient walls; the first recorded mention of the town dates to 283 BC, when the town known as Faesulae, was conquered by the Romans.
In pagan antiquity it was the seat of a famous school of augurs, every year twelve young men were sent thither from Rome to study the art of divination. Sulla colonized it with veterans, who afterwards, under the leadership of Gaius Mallius, supported the cause of Catilina. Fiesole was the scene of Stilicho's great victory over the Germanic hordes of the Vandals and Suebi under Radagaisus in 406. During the Gothic War the town was several times besieged. In 539 Justin, the Byzantine general, razed its fortifications, it was an independent town for several centuries in the early Middle Ages, no less powerful than Florence in the valley below, many wars arose between them. Dante reflects this rivalry in his Divine Comedy by referring to "the beasts of Fiesole.". By the 14th century, rich Florentines had countryside villas in Fiesole, one of them is the setting of the frame narrative of the Decameron. Boccaccio's poem Il Ninfale fiesolano is a mythological account of the origins of the community.
Robert Browning mentions “sober pleasant Fiesole” several times in his poem "Andrea Del Sarto". Remnants of Etruscan walls. Roman baths. Roman theatre. Palazzo Comunale of the 14th century; the cathedral of Fiesole, containing the shrine of St. Romulus, according to legend the first Bishop of Fiesole, that of his martyred companions the shrine of St. Donatus of Fiesole; the Badia or ancient cathedral of St. Romulus, built in 1028 by Bishop Jacopo Bavaro with materials taken from several older edifices, at the foot of the hill on which Fiesole stands, supposed to cover the site of the martyrdom of St. Romulus; the old cathedral became a Benedictine abbey, which passed into the hands of the Canons Regular of the Lateran. It once possessed a valuable library; the abbey was closed in 1778. The room in the Episcopal Palace where Carmelite bishop St. Andrew Corsini lived and died; the little Church of Santa Maria Primerana in the cathedral square, where the same saint was warned by Our Lady of his approaching death.
Built in 996 and further expanded in medieval times, has maintained the Gothic presbytery from that period. It received a new façade with graffito decoration by Ludovico Buti; the interior, on a single hall, has a 13th-century panel portraying Madonna with Child. In the transept are two marble bas-reliefs by Francesco da Sangallo, a terracotta from Andrea della Robbia's workshop; the church of S. Alessandro, with the shrine of St. Alexander and martyr; the Monastery of San Francesco on the crest of the hill, with the cells of St. Bernardine of Siena and seven Franciscan Beati. Church of San Girolamo, the home of Venerable Carlo dei Conti Guidi, founder of the Hieronymites of Fiesole. San Domenico, the novice-home of Fra Angelico and of St. Antoninus of Florence. Fontanelle, a villa near S. Domenico, where St. Aloysius came to live in the hot summer months, when a page at the court of Grand Duke Francesco de' Medici. Villa I Tatti, a campus of Harvard University Villa Medici in Fiesole. Villa Le Balze, a campus of Georgetown University Villa Palmieri Villa Schifanoia.
Villa Sparta, former residence in exile of the Greek royal family Fonte Lucente, where a miraculous crucifix is revered. Castello di Vincigliata Episcopal Seminary of FiesoleIn the neighbourhood are: Monte Senario, the cradle of the Servite Order, where its seven holy founders lived in austerity S. Martino di Mensola, with the body of St. Andrew, an Irish saint, still incorrupt. Monte Ceceri and the monument to Leonardo da Vinci's attempted flight Angelo Maria Bandini, Italian author Bernard Berenson, American art historian Giovanni Bocaccio, Renaissance humanist Arnold Böcklin, Swiss painter St. Andrew Corsini, a Florentine Carmelite friar, Bishop of Fiesole Alexandre Dumas, French writer Bridget of Fiesole, 9th century Irish nun Mino da Fiesole, Florentine sculptor and painter Helen of Greece and Denmark, queen mother of Romania. Hermann Hesse, German writer, featured the city in his well-known novel Peter Camenzind Paul of Greece, King of Greece Paul Klee, German painter Francesco Landini, singer, poet and instrument maker Elisabeth Mann-Borgese
Cerveteri is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome. Known by the ancient Romans as Caere, by the Etruscans as Caisra or Cisra, as Agylla by the Greeks, its modern name derives from Caere Vetus used in the 13th century to distinguish it from Caere Novum, it is the site of the ancient Etruscan city, one of the most important Etruscan cities with an area more than 15 times larger than today's town. Caere was one of the city-states of the Etruscan League and at its height, around 600 BC, its population was around 25,000 - 40,000 people; the ancient city was situated about 7 km from the sea, a location which made it a wealthy trading town derived from the iron-ore mines in the Tolfa Hills. It had three sea ports including Pyrgi, connected to Caere by a road about 13 km long and 10 m wide, Punicum. Pyrgi was famous for its sanctuary of monumental temples from 510 BC, built by the king of Caere and dedicated to the goddesses Leucothea and Ilithyia, of which impressive and beautiful sculptures are exhibited at the Villa Giulia.
Little is known of the ancient city. Two of them have been excavated, one of the other in the north of the city. Parts of the city walls are still visible today and excavations opened up a theatre. Three necropolis were found; the contents of the tombs were excavated chaotically and illegally. One famous and important work of art is the Sarcophagus of the Spouses; the most famous attraction of Cerveteri is the Necropoli della Banditaccia, declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site together with the necropolis in Tarquinia. It covers an area of 400 hectares, of which 10 hectares can be visited, encompassing a total of about 1,000 tombs housed in characteristic mounds, it is the largest ancient necropolis in the Mediterranean area. The name Banditaccia comes from the leasing of areas of land to the Cerveteri population by the local landowners; the tombs date from the 9th century BC to the Etruscan period. The earliest tombs are in the shape of a pit; the most important tombs include: Tomb Regolini-Galassi with rich gold finds from the mid-7th century BC Tomb of the capitals, middle 6th century BC Tomb of the shields and chairs, middle 6th century BC Tomb of the Painted Lions, 620 BC Tomb of the Reliefs, 4th - 2nd century BC Tomb of the Sea Waves, 4th-3rd century BC Tomb of the Alcove, 4th - 3rd century BC Tomba della capanna Tomba dei Vasi Greci Tomba dei Doli Tomba calabresiFrom the Etruscan period are two types of tombs: tumulus-type tombs and the so-called "dice", the latter being simple square tombs built in long rows along roads within the necropolis.
The visitable area contains two such roads, the Via dei Monti Ceriti and the Via dei Monti della Tolfa. The tumuli are circular structures built in tuff, the interiors, carved from the living rock, house a reconstruction of the house of the dead, including a corridor, a central hall, several rooms. Modern knowledge of Etruscan daily life is dependent on the numerous decorative details and finds from such tombs. One of the most famous tombs is the Tomb of the Reliefs, identified from an inscription as belonging to the Matuna family and provided with an exceptional series of frescoes, bas-reliefs and sculptures portraying a large series of contemporary life tools; the most recent tombs date from the 3rd century BC. Some of them are marked by external cippi, which are cylindrical for men, in the shape of a small house for women. A large number of finds excavated at Cerveteri are in the National Etruscan Museum, with others in the Vatican Museums and many other museums around the world. Others pottery, are in the Archaeological Museum at Cerveteri itself.
The Rocca Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, including a medieval section reachable from the 1950s addition through a triumphal arch. Palazzo Ruspoli, rebuilt as baronial palace by the Orsini in 1533; the portico and the loggia on the façade are from the 17th century. It is connected to Santa Maria Maggiore through a passetto, built in 1760; the small church of Sant'Antonio Abate, with a 1472 fresco by Lorenzo da Viterbo. The medieval burgh of Ceri Castle of Cerenova Around the city of Cerveteri is an Italian DOC wine region that produces red and white blended wines; the red wines are blends of 60% Sangiovese and Montepulciano, 25% Cesanese and up to 30% of Canaiolo and Barbera. The grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 15 tonnes/ha and the final wine must have a minimum alcohol level of 11%; the white wines are composed of a minimum blend of 50% Trebbiano Romagnolo and Giallo, a maximum of 35% Malvasia di Candia and a maximum of 15% Friulano, Verdicchio and Bombino bianco. The grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 14 tonnes/ha and the final wine must have a minimum alcohol level of 12%.
For the ancient bishopric that had its seat in Cerveteri and is now a titular see, see Caere. Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany Livry-Gargan, France Almuñécar, Spain Drago Troccoli, Luciana. 2006. Cerveteri. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico. Izzet, Vedia E. 2000. "The Etruscan sanctuary at Cerveteri, Sant’Antonio: Preliminary report of excavations 1995–8." Papers of the British School at
Lars Porsena was an Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome. He ruled over the city of Clusium. There are no established dates for his rule, but Roman sources place the war at around 508 BC. Lars Porsena came into conflict with Rome after the revolution that overthrew the monarchy there in 509 BC, resulting in the exile of the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus; the deposed monarch, whose family was of Etruscan origin and failed to retake the throne a number of times before appealing to Porsena for assistance. Lars Porsena agreed to help. At that time Clusium was said to be a powerful Etruscan city. At this point, the histories diverge. According to most mainstream Roman accounts, including Livy, Lars Porsena attacked and besieged Rome, but was sufficiently impressed by particular acts of Roman bravery in defending the city that he chose to make peace. Other accounts, suggest that Lars Porsena succeeded in subduing the city, that the Etruscans were only driven out some time afterwards.
None of the accounts, suggests that Tarquinius Superbus was returned to the throne. Thus, if Lars Porsena did indeed capture Rome, he may have done so with the intent of controlling it himself, not restoring the former dynasty. Accounts of the war include a number of matters directly concerning Porsena. One story tells that, during his siege of Rome, a Roman youth named Gaius Mucius sneaked into the Etruscan camp with the approval of the Senate, intent on assassinating Porsena. However, when Mucius came into the king's presence, he could not distinguish Porsena from his secretary, attired. Through misrecognition Mucius stabbed the secretary and tried to flee, he was captured by the Etruscans and brought before Porsena, whereupon Mucius bluntly declared his identity and his intent. He advised Porsena that he was the first of 300 Roman youths who would attempt such a deed, one after another until they succeeded. To prove his valour, Mucius thrust his right hand into a sacrificial fire, thereby earning for himself and his descendants the cognomen Scaevola.
Astonished and impressed by the young man's courage, Porsena gave Mucius his freedom and dismissed him from the camp. According to Livy, Porsena sought peace by treaty afterward. Another tale of the war concerns the Roman hostages taken by Porsena as part of the treaty. One of the hostages, a young woman named Cloelia, fled the Etruscan camp, leading away a group of Roman virgins. Porsena demanded that she be returned, the Romans consented. On her return, Porsena was so impressed by her bravery that he asked her to choose half the remaining hostages to be freed, she selected all the youngest Roman boys. Afterwards the Romans gave Cloelia the unusual honour of a statue at the top of the Via Sacra, showing Cloelia mounted on a horse—that is, as an eques. Livy recounts that during his own time, public auctions of goods at Rome were by tradition referred to as "selling the goods of king Porsena", that this somehow relates to the war with Clusium. Livy concludes most it is because, when Porsena departed Rome, he left behind as a gift for the Romans his stores of provisions.
In 507 BC, Porsena once again sent ambassadors to the Roman senate, requesting the restoration of Tarquinius to the throne. Legates were sent back to Porsena, to advise him that the Romans would never re-admit Tarquinius, that Porsena should out of respect for the Romans cease requesting Tarquinius' readmittance. Porsena agreed. Porsena restored to the Romans their hostages, the lands of Veii, taken from Rome by treaty. Livy records that, by these matters, a faithful peace between Rome was created. In 508 BC, after the siege of Rome, Porsena split his forces and sent part of the Clusian army with his son Aruns to besiege the Latin city of Aricia; the Clusians besieged Aricia. Porsena's tomb is described as having a 15 m high rectangular base with sides 90 m long, it was adorned by massive bells. Lars Porsena's tomb, together with the rest of the city of Clusium, was razed to the ground in 89 BC by the Roman general Cornelius Sulla; the story of Lars Porsenna and the Roman hostage Cloelia is the basis of the libretto Il trionfo di Clelia by Pietro Metastasio.
The French writer Madeleine de Scudéry wrote Clélie in 1661. Lays of Ancient Rome by Thomas Babington Macaulay tells the legendary story of the Roman Horatius defending the bridge into Rome against Lars Porsena's oncoming Etruscan army. Evans, John Karl. Plebs Rustica; the Peasantry of Classical Italy I: the Peasantry in Modern Scholarship. Evans, John Karl. War and Children in Ancient Rome. Routledge
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, the second of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned 575–535 BC. Roman and Greek sources describe his servile origins and marriage to a daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Rome's first Etruscan king, assassinated in 579 BC. Servius is said to have been the first Roman king to accede without election by the Senate, having gained the throne by popular support. Several traditions describe Servius' father as divine. Livy depicts Servius' mother as a captured Latin princess enslaved by the Romans; the Emperor Claudius discounted such origins and described him as an Etruscan mercenary, named Mastarna, who fought for Caelius Vibenna. Servius was a popular king, one of Rome's most significant benefactors, he had military successes against Veii and the Etruscans, expanded the city to include the Quirinal and Esquiline hills. He is traditionally credited with the institution of the Compitalia festivals, the building of temples to Fortuna and Diana and, less plausibly, the invention of Rome's first true coinage.
Despite the opposition of Rome's patricians, he expanded the Roman franchise and improved the lot and fortune of Rome's lowest classes of citizens and non-citizens. According to Livy, he reigned for 44 years, until murdered by his daughter Tullia and son-in-law Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In consequence of this "tragic crime" and his hubristic arrogance as king, Tarquinius was removed; this cleared the way for the abolition of Rome's monarchy and the founding of the Roman Republic, whose groundwork had been laid by Servius' reforms. Before its establishment as a Republic, Rome was ruled by kings. In Roman tradition, Rome's founder Romulus was the first. Servius Tullius was the sixth, his successor Tarquinius Superbus was the last; the nature of Roman kingship is unclear. Some were native Romans, others were foreign. Romans had a complex ideological relationship with this distant past. In Republican mores and institutions kingship was abhorrent. On the one hand, Romulus was held to have brought Rome into being more-or-less at a stroke, so complete and purely Roman in its essentials that any acceptable change or reform thereafter must be clothed as restoration.
On the other, Romans of the Republic and Empire saw each king as contributing in some distinctive and novel way to the city's fabric and territories, or its social, religious, legal or political institutions. Servius Tullius has been described as Rome's "second founder", "the most complex and enigmatic" of all its kings, a kind of "proto-Republican magistrate"; the oldest surviving source for the overall political developments of the Roman kingdom and Republic is Cicero's De republica, written in 44 BC. The main literary sources for Servius' life and achievements are the Roman historian Livy, whose Ab urbe condita was accepted by the Romans as the standard, most authoritative account. Livy's sources included at least some official state records, he excluded what seemed implausible or contradictory traditions, arranged his material within an overarching chronology. Dionysius and Plutarch offer various alternatives not found in Livy, Livy's own pupil, the etruscologist and emperor Claudius, offered yet another, based on Etruscan tradition.
Most Roman sources name Servius' mother as Ocrisia, a young noblewoman taken at the Roman siege of Corniculum and brought to Rome, either pregnant by her husband, killed at the siege: or as a virgin. She was given to Tanaquil, wife of king Tarquinius, though slave, was treated with the respect due her former status. In one variant, she became wife to a noble client of Tarquinius. In others, she served the domestic rites of the royal hearth as a Vestal Virgin, on one such occasion, having damped the hearth flames with a sacrificial offering, she was penetrated by a disembodied phallus that rose from the hearth. According to Tanaquil, this was a divine manifestation, either of the household Lar or Vulcan himself, thus Servius was divinely fathered and destined for greatness, despite his mother's servile status. Servius' birth to a slave of the royal household made him part of Tarquin's extended familia. Ancient sources infer him as protégé, rather than adopted son, as he married Tarquinius' and Tanaquil's daughter, named by some sources as Gegania.
All sources agree that before his accession, either in his early childhood or members of the royal household witnessed a nimbus of fire about his head while he slept, a sign of divine favour, a great portent. He proved a responsible son-in-law; when given governmental and military responsibilities, he excelled in both. In Livy's account, Tarquinius Priscus had been elected king on the death of the previous king, Ancus Marcius, whose two sons were too young to inherit or offer themselves for election; when Servius' popularity and his marriage to Tarquinius' daughter made him a successor to the throne, these sons attempted to seize the throne for themselves. They hired two assassins, who attacked and wounded Tarquinius. Tanaquil o
Tarquinia Corneto, is an old city in the province of Viterbo, Italy known chiefly for its ancient Etruscan tombs in the widespread necropoleis or cemeteries which it overlies, for which it was awarded UNESCO World Heritage status. In 1922 it was renamed after the ancient city of Tarchna. Although little is visible of the once great wealth and extent of the ancient city, archaeology is revealing glimpses of past glories; the Etruscan and Roman city is situated on the long plateau of La Civita to the north of the current town. The ancient burial grounds, dating from the Iron Age to Roman times, were on the adjacent promontories including that of today's Tarquinia. Tarquinii was one of the most important Etruscan cities. Basing on archaeological finds, Tarchuna eclipsed its neighbours well before the advent of written records, it is said to have been a flourishing city when Demaratus of Corinth brought in Greek workmen. Descendants of Demaratus, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, became kings of ancient Rome.
Numerous Roman religious rites and ceremonies derived from Tarchuna, in imperial times a collegium of sixty haruspices continued to exist there. The emergence of Tarchuna as a trading power as early as the 8th Century BC was influenced by its control of mineral resources located in the Tolfa Hills to the south of the city and midway to the Caeretan port of Pyrgi. In 509 BC, after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, the family of Tarquinius Superbus went into exile in Caere, he sought to regain the throne at first by the Tarquinian conspiracy and, when that failed, by force of arms. He convinced the cities of Tarchuna and Veii to support him and led their armies against Rome in the Battle of Silva Arsia. Although the Roman army was victorious, it is recorded by Livy that the forces of Tarchuna fought well on the right wing pushing back the Roman left wing. After the battle the forces of Tarchuna returned home. At the end of the 5th century and during the first half of the 4th century BC a brief revival took place, both in the political and artistic sphere under the ascendancy of the Spurinna family, whose members contributed to the renewed expansion of Tarchuna and the repopulation and growth of towns in the hinterland.
The Spurinnas' tomb, known as the Tomba dell'Orco, is decorated with frescoes of a banquet uniting members of the family who are identified by inscriptions. The Spurinna family was prominent in Tarquinii up to the 1st century AD. Two fragmented slabs, known as the Elogia Tarquiniensis, pay tribute to Velthur Spurinnas and Aulus Spurinnas, give a rare glimpse of Etruscan history, including the mention of one King Orgolnium of Caere, recalling the family name of Urgulanilla, which included among its members the wife of the emperor Claudius. During this period, Tarchuna overtook Caere and other Etruscan cities in terms of power and influence. In this period colossal walls were built around the city in response to threats from the Celts and from Rome. Tarchuna, not affected by Celtic invasions colonised all its held territories in about 385 BC; this new flourishing state allowed a rapid recovery of all activities. Large burial monuments decorated by paintings, with sarcophagi and funerary sculptures in stone, reflect the eminent social position of the new aristocratic classes, but several inscriptions on walls and sarcophagi show the gradual process of an democratic transition was taking place.
However, during the 4th century BC when Tarchuna's expansion was at its peak, a bitter struggle with Rome took place. In 358 BC, the citizens of Tarchuna put to death 307 Roman soldiers; when Tarchuna came under Roman domination is uncertain, as is the date at which it became a municipium. Little is known about Tarquinii in Roman times, but the flax and forests of its extensive territory are mentioned by classical authors, Tarquinii offered to furnish Scipio with sailcloth in 195 BC. A bishop of Tarquinii is mentioned in 456 AD; the ancient city had shrunk to a small fortified settlement on the "Castellina" location during the early Middle Ages, while the more strategically placed Corneto grew progressively to become the major city of the lower Maremma sea coast after the destruction of the port of Centumcellae. The last historic references to Tarquinii are from around 1250, while the name of Corneto was changed to Tarquinia in 1922. Reversion to historical place names, was a frequent phenomenon under the Fascist Government of Italy as part of the nationalist campaign to evoke past glories.
The main necropolis of Tarchuna, part of which can be visited today, is the Monterozzi necropolis with some 6,000 tombs, at least 200 of which include beautiful wall paintings, many of which were tumulus tombs with chambers carved in the rock below. The painted scenes are of a quality unrivalled elsewhere in the Etruscan world and give a valuable insight into the secretive world of the Etruscans, docume