France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Licq-Athérey is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule. Licq has a church whose origins date back to the Middle Ages and was revised in the nineteenth century. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE LIGI-ATHEREI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were equivalent to the historic counties of England, they came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, taxation systems, etc. and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today. In some cases, several modern regions or departments share names with the historic provinces, their borders may cover the same territory.
The list below shows the major provinces of France at the time of their dissolution during the French Revolution. Capital cities are shown in parentheses. Bold indicates a city, the seat of a judicial and quasi-legislative body called either a parlement or a conseil souverain. In some cases, this body met in a different city from the capital. Île-de-France Berry Orléanais Normandy Languedoc Lyonnais Dauphiné Champagne Aunis Saintonge Poitou Guyenne and Gascony Burgundy Picardy Anjou Provence Angoumois Bourbonnais Marche Brittany Maine Touraine Limousin Foix Auvergne Béarn Alsace Artois Roussillon Flanders and Hainaut Franche-Comté Lorraine.
Viodos-Abense-de-Bas is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule; the steeple of the church is a trinitarian one. The lands of the commune are watered by the Season, which flows into the Gave of Oloron, by its tributary, the brook Borlaas; the municipality of Viodos-Abense-de-Bas consists of eight districts: Bürgüa. The activity is focused on agriculture. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file BILDOZE-ONIZEPEA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arouetarrak. Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby is located in the former Basque province of Soule some 10 km east of Saint-Palais and 10 km south of Sauveterre-de-Béarn. Access to the commune is by the D11 road from Domezain-Berraute in the west passing through the west fork of the commune Etcharry the east fork and the village before continuing south-east to Charritte-de-Bas; the commune is mixed farmland. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed from south to north by the Lafoure with its tributary the Hourquet and the Lauhirasse with its tributary the Thiancoenia erreka; the commune name in basque is Arüe-Ithorrotze-Olhaibi. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan indicated that Ithorots signified "source of cold water" and Olhaïby "the ford of the huts"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy on the page numbers indicated in the table. Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 EHESS: Ithorots-Olhaïby on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database EHESS: Olhaïbi on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV'Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Luntz: Military: Military Inspection of Béarn Languedoc: Confessions of Languedoc) Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Arthez-Lasalle: Titles of Arthez-Lassalle Paul Raymond noted on page 11 of his 1863 dictionary that Aroue was one of the seven districts of Soule and depended on the messagerie of Barhoue. There was a Lay Abbey at Ithorots, vassal of the Viscounts of Soule; the fief of Olhaïby was a vassal of the Viscounts of Soule and its owner was one of ten potestats of Soule. The commune had a "Temple of Reason" during the French Revolution, undoubtedly because in the Béarnais region, Aroue was the only Basque commune to adopt the Jacobin anti-religion policy.
Between 1790 and 1794 Ithorots commune was merged with Olhaïby to form the new commune of Ithorots-Olhaïby. On 1 August 1973, the commune of Aroue merged with Ithorots-Olhaïby to form the new commune of Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of eight inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Amikuze. In 2009 the commune had 245 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty; the village has architecture typical of the eastern Basque Country: gable roofs covered with tiles, whitewashed walls with houses from the 16th century. As in many Basque villages, the fronton is adjacent to the church.
Two churches are registered as historical monuments: The Church of Saint-Étienne at Aroue is a Romanesque church rebuilt in the 19th century. There is a sculpture from the 12th century of Saint Jacques on a horse and a Spanish image of "Matamoro"; the Church of Saint-Samson at Ithorots The Church at Olhaïby has several items that are registered as historical objects: A Retable over the main altar A Candlestick An altar cross A tabernacle at the main altar A candlestick Statuettes A Painting: The Martyrdom of Saints Cyr and Judith A Tabernacle, Retable, 2 Candlesticks, Altar Cross, Painting A Processional Cross The town lies on the GR 65. It is at the beginning of the 7th section of the GR, listed by UNESCO as World Heritage; the presentation file to UNESCO locates the commune on the Via Podiensis on the Way of St. James. There is no real historical justification for this but it is an important fact for this small town. Justification was found by the pioneer who traced the paths in the region.
He saw in the horseman shown on the lintel of the door of the sacristy, a representation of Saint Jacques Matamoros. Franz Duboscq, born in Saint-Jean-de-Luz in 1924, MP and senator, former president of the council and mayor of the town until 2001. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ITHORROTZE and OLHAIBI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aroue and the 7th stage of GR 65 registered as World Heritage Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on Lion1906 Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on Google Maps Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aroüe, Olliaybi on the 1750 Cassini Map Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on the INSEE website (in F
Esquiule is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Béarn, it stands out as an outpost of the Basque area of Soule, the village being Basque speaking. It has played host to the carnivalesque performances known as maskaradak and its inhabitants arranged and performed one traditional theatre piece of Soule under the title Madalena de Jaureguiberry in 2000. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file ESKIULA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Camou-Cihigue is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule. Neughboring communes: Ossas-Suhare, in the north Aussurucq, in the north-west Alos-Sibas-Abense, in the east Alçay-Alçabéhéty-Sunharette, in the south The commune of Camou-Cihigue was formed in 1836, from the merger of the former commune of Camou Merged and the village of Cihigue. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file GAMERE-ZIHIGA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia