Grimlock is the name of several fictional robot characters in the Transformers robot franchise. He is portrayed as the immensely strong, power-mongering leader of the Dinobots, a small subfaction of Autobots that transform into dinosaurs. In 2007, USA Today polled people as to which Transformer they want to appear in the second installment in the Transformers film series. Grimlock is the leader of the Dinobots, as well as the most powerful member. Grimlock can be cold and contemptuous of those he considers beneath him, such as human beings, at times Autobot leader Optimus Prime himself, who Grimlock would gladly supplant as Autobot leader if he were able to, giving him a superiority complex as indicated by his Generation 1 tech specs, he is a valiant warrior whose actions command respect from all who are witness to them, both friend and foe. One of his most distinguishing features is his famous speech impediment, which leads him to shorten sentences and refer to himself as "Me Grimlock", never "I" - the reason for this varies from depiction to depiction, with some making it the result of true mental limitations, others vocal processor damage or a ruse Grimlock perpetrates to allow others to think of him as less intelligent than he is.
However he is still an Autobot and is willing to protect the Earth as much as the Autobots, does show a begrudging respect for Optimus Prime, however he was more accepting for Rodimus as leader when he became a Prime. Grimlock is among the strongest of the Transformers an equal to, or superior to Optimus Prime and Megatron in certain continuities. In Tyrannosaurus rex mode, his powerful jaws can snap anything that comes between them - from steel cables to a Decepticon limb, he can breathe fire and shoot an energy ray from his mouth. In robot mode, Grimlock wields an energon sword, whose blade is sheathed in crackling energon and can slice a 2-foot-thick concrete wall in one slash, he uses a double-barreled, self-propelled rocket launcher. He is invulnerable in his Tyrannosaurus Rex mode as shown with his battle with Megatron due to Megatron's primary weapon, his arm-mounted fusion cannon having little or no effect on Grimlock. Grimlock is the only Dinobot whose name doesn't begin with an S. Grimlock was one of the favorite Autobots of IGN.
Grimlock was voted the 6th top Transformer, considered to be "badass" in the comics by Topless Robot. According to X-Entertainment Grimlock was the 2nd top Transformers figure of all time. One of the original Grimlock toys is on display in London; the original character profiles written by Bob Budiansky and Dan Bobro indicate that Grimlock and the Dinobots were intended to come from Cybertron to Earth like the vast majority of other Transformers. However, the cartoon would diverge wildly from this. Grimlock is voiced by Gregg Berger; the discovery of fossilized dinosaur bones in a cavern in their volcano base set the Earthbound Autobots on the track to creating the Dinobots. Intrigued by the creatures, with additional knowledge supplied by Spike Witwicky and Ratchet created three "Dinobots" – Grimlock and Sludge, it has not been explained why he or the other Dinobots were able to be fitted with personalities which can only be found on Cybertron from Vector Sigma. Their brains are simple, it is evident that addition of personalities or "sparks" and its origin was after the fact, was hoped that this inconsistency would be overlooked.
Their design specs proved to be too accurate to the creatures they were modeled on, as their primitive brains went out of control, Grimlock destroyed Teletraan I, before the trio was stopped. Optimus Prime deemed them too dangerous to use again, had them sealed back up in the cavern, but when the majority of the Autobot force was captured by the Decepticons, Wheeljack freed them to go to their rescue. Equipped with new devices that enhanced their brainpower to functional, yet still impaired, the three Dinobots rescued their Autobot comrades, Optimus Prime admitted his error. In his private thoughts, Grimlock considered Optimus Prime too weak to lead, seeking the position for himself; when Soundwave read his mind and learned of this animosity, Megatron was able to trick Grimlock and the Dinobots into switching sides and capturing Optimus Prime. To stop the turncoat Dinobots, two new ones were created: Swoop, it was when Optimus Prime threw himself into harm's way to save Grimlock from an explosion that he accepted his mistake and rejoined the Autobots.
In a rare display of modesty and humility, Grimlock apologized to Prime, admitted his jealousy of the leader, accepted fault for the battle. The two subsequently patched up their differences. Although content for the moment to remain a soldier, rather than a leader, Grimlock still had trouble accepting orders, only agreeing to help stem the tide of natural disasters ravaging Earth due to Cybertron being pulled into its orbit when he realized he would die if he did not. Grimlock and the Dinobots were semi-regularly called into action when the Autobots were faced with challenges that required extra strength, such as the Sub-Atlantican invasion of Washington, D. C. or the Decepticons' control of
Galvatron is a name adopted by several fictional characters in the Transformers robot superhero franchise. He is the recreated form of Megatron, the Decepticon leader. Powerful and intelligent, although with questionable sanity, Galvatron's primary weapon is his particle accelerator cannon, mounted on his right arm, which can fire blasts of assorted types, including electrochemical energy and particle beams, he transforms into a futuristic laser-cannon emplacement and can, on rare occasions, assume the form of a laser pistol, shrinking as he does so to allow other beings to wield him. Galvatron's toy tech spec identified him as a city commander, much like the Autobot toy Ultra Magnus; the bio fails to indicate whether or not he is a recreated Megatron, instead mentioning that he is both "determined to lead the Decepticons" and that he "plots against his allies". Galvatron in the cartoon has shown to be more violent to his subordinates than his past self Megatron. Throwing them aside, kicking them while they're down going as far as attack both the Autobots and his own Decepticons out of blind rage—all while spewing venomous insults and death threats.
Galvatron of the Marvel UK comics was rated the number 5 comic book villain by Lester Wong of GameAxis Unwired magazine. Galvatron makes his debut in The Transformers: The Movie. On the Decepticons' return journey to Cybertron following their attack on Autobot City in the Earth year 2005, a mortally wounded, but still functional Megatron was jettisoned into space along with several other damaged Decepticons in order to reduce Astrotrain's mass to reach Cybertron; as Megatron and the others drifted through space, they encountered Unicron, who made an offer - in return for Megatron's service, he would give him a new body and new troops to command. Facing destruction as an alternative, Megatron agreed to Unicron's offer, was reformatted into a new, more powerful body, being rechristened as Galvatron. Commanded by Unicron to destroy the Autobot Matrix of Leadership, Galvatron first returned to Cybertron to settle a score with Starscream, who had set him adrift in space and was now being crowned as the new Decepticon leader in a pompous ceremony.
Demonstrating his new power, Galvatron obliterated Starscream with a single blast from his new cannon mode. The other Decepticons accepted Galvatron as their leader. Unicron's subsequent consumption of Cybertron's moons enraged Galvatron, but when Unicron mentally tortured him to put him in his place, Galvatron submitted. Leading another attack on Autobot City, he pursued Ultra Magnus and the Autobots to the Planet of Junk, where he seized the Matrix from Ultra Magnus, attempted to use its power against Unicron. Unable to open the Matrix, Galvatron was powerless as Unicron transformed and attacked Cybertron with his bare hands. Unicron swallowed Galvatron and destroyed Cybertron's Decepticon defenders. Shortly thereafter, a group of Autobots entered Unicron's body, where young Autobot Hot Rod encountered the Decepticon leader. Although Galvatron proposed an alliance with the Autobot against Unicron, he was once again tortured mentally by Unicron, who ordered him to destroy Hot Rod or face his own obliteration.
To end the torture, Galvatron engaged Hot Rod in battle. Galvatron gained the upper hand over the smaller Autobot. However, when Hot Rod seized the Matrix from Galvatron, he was reformatted into the much larger and more powerful Rodimus Prime. Rodimus defeated Galvatron and hurled him through Unicron's armor and into the void of space, before unleashing the power of the Matrix and destroying Unicron. Now leaderless and forced off Cybertron by the Autobots, the Decepticons retreated to the ruined world of Chaar, low on Energon, where they bickered and fought amongst each other over their dwindling Energon resources. Galvatron’s Unicron-created minions, Cyclonus and the Sweeps, set out to find their leader, who has disappeared. Using the information stored in Unicron's memory banks, they traced Galvatron to the planet Thrull, they found him immersed in a pool of lava-like plasma, rescued him only to discover that the plasma had seeped into Galvatron's head casing and damaged his "metaprocessor", resulting in insanity.
Galvatron returns to normal, the Decepticon empire was reestablished with Galvatron as the new leader. When the Hate Plague began to sweep the universe, Galvatron was the only Decepticon, able to avoid infection teaming up with the resurrected Optimus Prime in order to recover a protective alloy that would shield the user from the plague's effects; when Galvatron first saw the effects of the Plague at the Morgans' lab, he uttered that the infected Autobots and some of his fellow Decepticons had "all gone mad," and that said lab with the infected Transformers was no place for him. He became infected in the process of recovering the alloy, but was cured along with all the other victims of the plague when Optimus Prime unleashed the power of the Matrix; the same process cured Galvatron's insanity. A year the short truce ended as Galvatron formulated a new plan. Although appearing coherent throughout the scheme, it was shown to be his most insane - rejecting notions of conquest, Galvatron now sought the d
Sideswipe is a fictional robot superhero character in the Transformers franchise. Because of trademark restrictions, toys of the character are sometimes marketed as SideSwipe. Sideswipe is described in his tech file as a brave but brash warrior, he is as skilled as his twin brother Sunstreaker in combat, but is less ruthless. Sideswipe transformed into a red Lamborghini Countach, while his brother, transformed into a yellow Lamborghini Countach; because of his jetpack, Sideswipe was one of few G1 Autobots with the ability to fly and capacity for space flight. In 1984 CBC's The Journal did a report on how some people considered Transformers like Sideswipe and other war toys too violent for children. Dreamwave comics artist Pat Lee says. Sideswipe was part of the initial crew of Autobots aboard the Ark when it crash-landed on Earth four million years ago, he awakened along with his fellow Transformers in 1984, with both he and his brother being reformatted into Lamborghini sports cars. Sideswipe loaned Optimus Prime the use of his rocket pack when the Decepticons nearly escaped from Earth with a starship full of energon.
Throughout Seasons 1 and 2, Sideswipe was voiced by Michael Bell. Sideswipe and Sunstreaker operated together; when antimatter-fueled Decepticons attacked the Ark on one occasion in the episode "Roll for It", Sideswipe and Sunstreaker took to the air to battle with the incoming seeker jets, in a rambunctious, if ineffective, display of "jet judo." When investigating tremors that were shaking the Autobot base, Ironhide's scanner found some interesting objects inside a rock wall. Sideswipe, using his piston-like arms, helped Brawn remove the rock wall and found a cave full of dinosaur bones, the discovery of which would lead to the development of the Dinobots. Towards the end of 1985, impersonating himself as the Stunticon Breakdown, is among the team of five Autobots who disguised themselves as the Stunticons. Penetrating the Decepticons' camp, the Autobots ran into trouble when the real Stunticons arrived, trying to prove their identities by forming Menasor. With a combination of Windcharger's magnetic powers and Mirage's illusion-creating ability, the Autobots were able to appear as Menasor too, but the deception was soon revealed, though they were still able to thwart the Decepticons' plans.
Another major role for Sideswipe was stopping the Combaticons' plot to pull the Earth into the sun, in which he and other Autobots team up with Decepticons to travel to Cybertron. Sideswipe himself reversed the effects of the plot. In an early script for The Transformers: The Movie there was a scene planned where Sideswipe, Red Alert and Tracks hop off Ultra Magnus to attack Devastator, but they are pushed back and Red Alert is shot in the back and killed. Sideswipe appears in the first two episodes of the Japanese series Transformers: Headmasters, participating with Ultra Magnus, the Trainbots, Prowl on a shootout against the Triple Changers and Sixshot. During a segment of this intense shootout, Sideswipe manages to hit Frenzy and after foiling a new Decepticon assault, has a line. Sideswipe appeared in the 1984 sticker and story book Return to Cybertron written by Suzanne Weyn and published by Marvel Books. Sideswipe was featured in the 1985 Transformers audio book Autobots' Lightning Strike.
Sideswipe appeared in the 1986 story and coloring book The Lost Treasure of Cybertron by Marvel Books. Sideswipe was featured in the 1993 Transformers: Generation 2 coloring book "Decepticon Madness" by Bud Simpson. Sideswipe returned in the pages of the BotCon exclusive Transformers: Universe comics, he was amongst the Autobot heroes of the Great War welcomed back to Cybertron. However, all of them were transported away by Unicron. Reformatted into a new body, he was forced to fight for Unicron's amusement, he ends up fighting his own brother. All were subsequently freed by the resurrected Optimus Primal, Sideswipe went on to serve him as part of the new Autobot faction. Although Universe ended at issue # 3, the flashback of Optimus Prime would reveal. In the final battle between the forces of Optimus Primal and Unicron, the Chaos-Bringer had disappeared, with Primal's forces making it out. Sideswipe was among those seen escaping. In this reimagining of the Generation One story, the Ark was discovered by the terrorist Cobra organization, all the Transformers inside were reformatted into Cobra vehicles remotely controlled by the Televipers.
In this storyline Sideswipe and Sunstreaker both turned into Cobra Stingers. Destro attempted to use them in a battle against G. I. Joe, but the two of them were temporarily put out of commission by Wheeljack, they were seen fighting the Decepticons on Cobra Island. Sideswipe reappeared in the third crossover series as part of the combined Autobot/G. I. Joe force trying to rescue Optimus Prime. Sideswipe returned in the fourth crossover as part of a group led by Prowl working with former G. I. Joe leader Hawk to stop the spread of Cybertronian technology on Earth. After failing to apprehend Destro, the group relaxed on their ship - only to be attacked by the Monster Pretenders, with Sideswipe being incapacitated, he was shown being repaired. Before the civil war between the Autobots and the Decepticons, Sideswipe was a merchant. After the war broke out he joined the Autobots; when Optimus Prime disappeared in an accident with a space bridge, the Au
The Porsche 935 was a race car developed and manufactured by German automaker Porsche. Introduced in 1976 as the factory racing version of the 911 Turbo and prepared for FIA-Group 5 rules, it was an evolution of the Carrera RSR 2.1 turbo prototype, the second place overall finisher in the 1974 24 Hours of Le Mans. Beginning with the 1977 season, Porsche offered the 935 to customers entering the World Championship for Makes, in the IMSA GT Championship and in the German Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft; the 935 went on to win the 1979 24 Hours of Le Mans overall, other major endurance races, including Sebring and the 1,000 km Nürburgring. Of the 370 races it was entered, it won 123. No other make could challenge the 935, due to the non-availability of customer models; each race, at the time featured at least five 935s. The 935 utilised a 3.3 L Type 935 twin-turbocharged flat-six engine which used a mechanical fuel injection system. All of the high performance components combined enabled the engine to have a power output up to 630 kW, the engine produced turbo lag at low RPM due to the large turbochargers.
The dominance of the 935 ended with changes in the FIA rules which came into effect in 1982, replacing the six numbered groups with only three groups, namely A, B and C. For 1976, endurance racing had two world championships: the 1976 FIA World Championship for Makes for Group 5 special production cars, the 1976 World Sportscar Championship season for Group 6 prototypes up to 3.0 L. Accordingly, the 935 and the new Porsche 936 were the two-pronged Porsche effort for 1976, sponsored by Martini Racing, which had supported Porsche 917 or 908 entries in 1970 and 1971, like the 1971 Le Mans winner; each championship had seven races, with only Dijon hosting both on the same weekend, while on two other weekends, the races were run in different countries, which forced Porsche to divide its resources. Jacky Ickx and Jochen Mass were the main drivers. Rolf Stommelen, recovering from his bad crash in the 1975 Spanish GP, was the backup, along with Manfred Schurti. Under Group 5 rules known as "silhouette rules", several significant modifications were allowed, provided that the basic silhouette of the car remain unchanged when viewed from the front.
The 935's engine was a 418 kW version of the regular 3.0 L flat-six, with 60 mkp torque at 5,400 rpm. Boost was between 1.35 and 1.55 and fuel consumption was 52 litre per 100 km. Capacity was reduced to 2.85 L, with the turbo charging penalty factor of 1.4, it fit into the 4.0 L class which had a prescribed minimum weight of only 970 kg. Porsche, having a lot of experience with lightweight cars, had managed to get the Carrera RSR prototype to under 800 kg; the empty 935 tipped the scales at 900 kg, weight distribution could be balanced with an additional 70 kg. Preseason testing at the fast Paul Ricard circuit showed a top speed of 183 mph. In addition to the aspirated 340 hp Carrera RSR introduced in 1974, Porsche offered a customer racing version of the 911 Turbo prepared for the more standard Group 4 rules, the 485 hp Porsche 934; some customer teams modified their 934s to Group 5 rules with body kits supplied by Porsche, these were designated 934/5. Cologne-based Kremer Racing entered a 935 K1 built on a factory shell which in the first race, the six-hour Mugello, finished second behind the Martini Racing sponsored factory entry of Mass and Ickx.
Porsches occupied the first seven places ahead of a BMW in eighth, which according to the points scheme meant that Porsche had now twenty points, BMW three. The factory 935 scored the pole, fastest lap and win at the six-hour Vallelunga, where a BMW was second and the best 934 finished fifth. After the second race, the CSI rule makers insisted that the "whale tail" hood of the road-going 930 must fit on the race car; the air-to-air intercooler setup under the rear hood had to be altered to a more compact air-to-water layout, which cost Porsche several weeks of testing and half a million Deutsche marks. The hastily modified 935 again won the pole and fastest lap at the six-hour Silverstone, but due to a clutch problem at the start, the Martini car could finish only tenth, with the second-placed Kremer 935 collecting valuable points for Zuffenhausen. A private BMW 3.5 CSL had beaten it to the finish by a second. More worrisome to Porsche was the fact that BMW Motorsport had entered a turbo, a 3.2 CSL driven by Ronnie Peterson and Gunnar Nilsson.
That new BMW had qualified only one second behind the factory 935, but two seconds ahead of the third placed Kremer 935. The powerful BMW did not last long in the race, due to gearbox problems. Porsche ran the 935 with the 911's original fender-mounted headlights, in two different guises: a sprint version with a wider version of its wheel arches, a high speed version with modified aerodynamics; the sprint setup was used. However, after studying the rulebooks, Porsche engineers, namely Norbert Singer, discovered a loophole regarding the modifications of fenders that gave them the liberty to remove the headlights to reduce drag and create more downforce, to which the venting slits contribute; this "flat nose" with headlights in the front spoiler, became the distinguishing feature of the 935 and was offered on the roadgoing 930 as the flachbau, or "flatnose", part of Porsche's sonderwunsch, or "special wish" program. The 935 now had extended "long tail" rear fenders, similar to the low drag setup seen years earlier on the Carrera RS.
General Dynamics F-16XL
The General Dynamics F-16XL is a derivative of the F-16 Fighting Falcon, with a cranked-arrow delta wing. It was conceived as a technology demonstrator entered in the United States Air Force's Enhanced Tactical Fighter competition but lost to the F-15E Strike Eagle. Several years after the prototypes were shelved, they were turned over to NASA for additional aeronautical research. Both aircraft are stored at Edwards AFB. In 1977, the F-16XL started out. Under the leadership of Harry Hillaker, the original goal of the program was to be a quick project to demonstrate the applicability of supersonic transport technologies to military aircraft; the big wing generated a lot of lift, typical aerodynamic limitations of delta wings were overcome by the F-16's relaxed static stability. The F-16's electronic flight control system was tweaked to allow control at high angles of attack; the wing was a big fuel tank which increased range. The study went on for two years; the goal of the cranked arrow was to have a high sweep inboard panel for low drag at supersonic speeds, a low sweep outboard panel to provide better handling and maneuverability at subsonic speeds.
Working with NASA's Langley Research Center, the company invested significant Internal Research and Development funds for wind tunnel testing and that led to the Model 400. It featured all moving wing tips for an all moving vertical tail; these surfaces were the horizontal tail surfaces from the F-16A. These surfaces were dropped as they did not provide adequate control at low speed, high angle of attack. There would have been no provision for wing-tip mounted missiles; the main wing incorporated forebody strakes to enhance vortex generation for high angle of attack maneuverability, negative stability for improved subsonic lift and reduced supersonic drag. It was built around a 40-inch fuselage stretch. Both the large wing and fuselage stretch yielded a dramatic increase in range at all speeds. In 1979, with a strong positive response by the USAF, GD released the Model 400 for a company funded preliminary design effort. In 1980, the USAF signed on as a partner, providing the third and fifth production F-16 airframes for conversion.
These two airframes became the only examples of the F-16XL. In March 1981, the USAF announced the Enhanced Tactical Fighter program to procure a replacement for the F-111 Aardvark; the concept envisioned an aircraft capable of launching deep interdiction missions without requiring additional support in the form of fighter escort or jamming support. Under the leadership of program director Randy Kent, General Dynamics submitted the F-16XL, while McDonnell Douglas submitted a variant of the F-15 Eagle. Though the two aircraft were competing for the same role, they were different in design approach; the F-15E is an F-15D two-seat trainer with the back-seat station modified to support ground-attack instruments, while the F-16XL has major structural and aerodynamic differences from the original F-16. As such, the XL would have required much more effort and money to put into full production. Additionally, the Strike Eagle has two engines, which gives it more thrust and capacity to carry more weapons and/or armor.
Furthermore, engine redundancy can be useful for an aircraft whose mission involves operating within the reach of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missiles, in addition to the standard threats of fighter aircraft and interceptors. In February 1984, the USAF awarded the ETF contract to McDonnell Douglas; the two F-16XLs were returned to the Air Force and placed in storage at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The wing and rear horizontal control surfaces were replaced with a cranked-arrow delta wing 120% larger than the original wing. Extensive use of carbon fiber composites allowed the savings of 600 lb of weight but the F-16XL was still 2,800 lb heavier than the original F-16A. Less noticeable is that the fuselage was lengthened by 56 in by the addition of two sections at the joints of the main fuselage sub-assemblies. With the new wing design, the tail section had to be canted up 3°, the ventral fins removed, to prevent them from striking the pavement during takeoff and landing.
However, as the F-16XL exhibits greater stability than the native F-16, these changes were not detrimental to the handling of the aircraft. These changes resulted in a 25% improvement in maximum lift-to-drag ratio in supersonic flight and 11% in subsonic flight, a plane that handled much more smoothly at high speeds and low altitudes; the enlargements increased fuel capacity by 82%. The F-16XL could deliver it 40 % farther; the enlarged wing allowed a total of 27 hardpoints: 16 wing stations of capacity 750 lb each 4 semi-recessed AIM-120 AMRAAM stations under fuselage 2 wingtip stations 1 centerline station 2 wing "heavy/wet" stations 2 chin LANTIRN stationsHowever, the "heavy/wet" stations interfered with up to four wing stations. In 1988, the two aircraft turned over to NASA for research; the first aircraft was fitted with an active suction titanium glove encasing the left wing and delivered to the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards AFB. Designed and built by North American Aviation, the glove had laser-cut holes that were nominally 0.0025 in diameter.
Distance between holes varied between 0.055 in depending on the suction. The glove covered over 5 ft² of the wing, it was intended to suck away turbulent airflow over the wing
A weapon, arm or armament is any device that can be used with intent to inflict damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, law enforcement, self-defense, warfare. In broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a tactical, material or mental advantage over an adversary or enemy target. While ordinary objects such as sticks, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs and axes, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological weapons and cyberweapons. Something, re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed weaponized, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized laser; the use of objects as weapons has been observed among chimpanzees, leading to speculation that early hominids used weapons as early as five million years ago. However, this can not be confirmed using physical evidence because wooden clubs and unshaped stones would have left an ambiguous record.
The earliest unambiguous weapons to be found are the Schöningen spears, eight wooden throwing spears dating back more than 300,000 years. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana, numerous human skeletons dating to 10,000 years ago may present evidence of traumatic injuries to the head, ribs and hands, including obsidian projectiles embedded in the bones that might have been caused from arrows and clubs during conflict between two hunter-gatherer groups, but the evidence interpretation of warfare at Nataruk has been challenged. The earliest ancient weapons were evolutionary improvements of late neolithic implements, but significant improvements in materials and crafting techniques led to a series of revolutions in military technology; the development of metal tools began with copper during the Copper Age and was followed by the Bronze Age, leading to the creation of the Bronze Age sword and similar weapons. During the Bronze Age, the first defensive structures and fortifications appeared as well, indicating an increased need for security.
Weapons designed to breach fortifications followed soon after, such as the battering ram, in use by 2500 BC. The development of iron-working around 1300 BC in Greece had an important impact on the development of ancient weapons, it was not the introduction of early Iron Age swords, however, as they were not superior to their bronze predecessors, but rather the domestication of the horse and widespread use of spoked wheels by c. 2000 BC. This led to the creation of the light, horse-drawn chariot, whose improved mobility proved important during this era. Spoke-wheeled chariot usage peaked around 1300 BC and declined, ceasing to be militarily relevant by the 4th century BC. Cavalry developed; the horse increased the speed of attacks. In addition to land based weaponry, such as the trireme, were in use by the 7th century BC. European warfare during the Post-classical history was dominated by elite groups of knights supported by massed infantry, they were involved in mobile combat and sieges which involved various siege tactics.
Knights on horseback developed tactics for charging with lances providing an impact on the enemy formations and drawing more practical weapons once they entered into the melee. By contrast, infantry, in the age before structured formations, relied on cheap, sturdy weapons such as spears and billhooks in close combat and bows from a distance; as armies became more professional, their equipment was standardized and infantry transitioned to pikes. Pikes are seven to eight feet in length, used in conjunction with smaller side-arms. In Eastern and Middle Eastern warfare, similar tactics were developed independent of European influences; the introduction of gunpowder from the Asia at the end of this period revolutionized warfare. Formations of musketeers, protected by pikemen came to dominate open battles, the cannon replaced the trebuchet as the dominant siege weapon; the European Renaissance marked the beginning of the implementation of firearms in western warfare. Guns and rockets were introduced to the battlefield.
Firearms are qualitatively different from earlier weapons because they release energy from combustible propellants such as gunpowder, rather than from a counter-weight or spring. This energy is released rapidly and can be replicated without much effort by the user; therefore early firearms such as the arquebus were much more powerful than human-powered weapons. Firearms became important and effective during the 16th century to 19th century, with progressive improvements in ignition mechanisms followed by revolutionary changes in ammunition handling and propellant. During the U. S. Civil War new applications of firearms including the machine gun and ironclad warship emerged that would still be recognizable and useful military weapons today in limited conflicts. In the 19th century warship propulsion changed from sail power to fossil fuel-powered steam engines. Since the mid-18th century North American French-Indian war through the beginning of the 20th century, human-powered weapons were reduced from the primary weaponry of the battlefield yielding to gunpowder-based weaponry.
Sometimes referred to as the "Age of Rifles", this period was characterized by the development of firearms for infantry and cannons for support, as well as the beginnings of mechanized weapons such as the machine gun. Of particular note, Howitzers were able to destroy masonry fortresses and other fortifications, this single invention caused a Revolution in
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word