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Tariff of 1789

The Tariff Act of 1789 was the first major piece of legislation passed in the United States after the ratification of the United States Constitution and it had two purposes. It was to protect manufacturing industries developing in the nation and was to raise revenue for the federal government, it was sponsored by Congressman James Madison, passed by the 1st United States Congress, signed into law by President George Washington. The act levied a 50¢ per ton duty on goods imported by foreign ships. In the aftermath of the American Revolution, the weak Congress of the Confederation had been unable to impose a tariff or reach reciprocal trade agreements with most European powers, creating a situation in which the country was unable to prevent a flood of European goods which were damaging domestic manufacturers while Britain and other countries placed high duties on U. S. goods. The country faced major debts left over from the Revolutionary War, needed new sources of funding to maintain financial solvency.

One of the major powers granted under the new Constitution was the ability to levy tariffs, after the 1st Congress was seated, passage of a tariff bill became one of the most pressing issues. The debates over the purpose of the tariff exposed the sectional interests at stake: Northern manufacturers favored high duties to protect industry. Madison navigated the tariff to passage, but he was unable to include a provision in the final bill that would have discriminated against British imports. After passing both houses of Congress, President Washington signed the act in law on July 4, 1789; the tariff would form the bulk of federal revenue in subsequent years. The American Revolution was followed by an economic reorganization, which carried in its wake a period of uncertainty and hard times. During the conflict and investment had been diverted from agriculture and legitimate trade to manufacturing and privateers. Men had gone into occupations. Lowered prices, resulting from the cessation of war demands, in combination with the importation of the cheaper goods of Europe, were fast ruining such infant manufacturing concerns as had sprung up during the war, some of which were at a comparative disadvantage with the resumption of normal foreign trading relations.

Another factor which made the situation more distressing was the British Navigation Acts. The only clause in the treaty of peace concerning commerce was a stipulation guaranteeing that the navigation of the Mississippi would be forever free to the United States. John Jay had tried to secure some reciprocal trade provisions without result. Pitt, in 1783, introduced a bill into the British Parliament providing for free trade between the United States and the British colonies, but instead of passing the bill, Parliament enacted the British Navigation Act 1783, which admitted only British built and manned ships to the ports of the West Indies, imposed heavy tonnage dues upon American ships in other British ports, it was amplified in 1786 by another act designed to prevent the fraudulent registration of American vessels and by still another in 1787, which prohibited the importation of American goods by way of foreign islands. The favorable features of the old Navigation Acts that had granted bounties and reserved the English markets in certain cases to colonial products were gone.

The British market was further curtailed by the depression there after 1783. Although the French treaty of 1778 had promised "perfect equality and reciprocity" in commercial relations, it was found impossible to make a commercial treaty on that basis. Spain demanded, as the price for reciprocal trading relations, a surrender by the United States for 25 years the right of navigating the Mississippi, a price that the New England merchants would have been glad to pay. France and the Netherlands made treaties but not on terms. Only Sweden and Prussia made treaties guaranteeing reciprocal commercial privileges; the weakness of Congress under the Articles of Confederation prevented retaliation by the central government. Congress asked for power to regulate commerce.but was refused by the states upon which rested the execution of such commercial treaties as Congress might negotiate. The states themselves attempted retaliatory measures, from 1783 to 1788, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia levied tonnage dues upon British vessels or discriminating tariffs upon British goods.

Whatever effect these efforts might have had were neutralized by the fact that the duties varied 0% to 100%, which drove British ships to the free or cheapest ports to flood the market with their goods. Commercial war between the states turned futility into chaos. Adoption of the Constitution meant the elimination of many of the economic ills under which industry and commerce had struggled since the war. A reorganization was essential and the immediate economic results were salutary, its most important additions to the power of Congress were those relating to finance and commerce: it enabled the federal government to levy taxes, regulate trade, coin money, protect industry, direct the settlement of the West, and, as events proved, to establish credit and redeem its securities. Under it, freedom of trade was insured throughout the young republic. In the months leading up to the passage of the Tariff Act, Congress received several petitions from different cities representing manufacturing groups asking for relief from the flo

East Timor at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games

East Timor participated in the 2009 Southeast Asian Games in the city of Vientiane, Laos from 9 December 2009 to 18 December 2009. Before the games, East Timor was preparing its national athletes locally, its Olympic Committee planned that East Timor should join more sports this time compared to those of the previous SEAG editions. East Timor was expecting to boost its medal tally and gain a silver and a gold medal in the biennial event. East Timor participated in the sport of boxing at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games; the country sent two athletes namely: Manuel Batisia. Oriando dos Santos contested in the men's light flyweight division and gained a bronze medal when he lost to Harry Tanamor of Philippines; the latter joined the men's featherweight division but lost early to Charly Suarez of Philippines thus losing hope of gaining a medal. East Timor participated in the sport of karatedo at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games, it participated in the women's team kumite division. Furthermore, it became a source of medal for East Timor.

The karateka,Sonia Soarescorreia, won a bronze medal in the women's kumite division - 61 kg and below. East Timor participated in the sport of taekwondo at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games, it sent two athletes to join the sport. Those were: Mateus João Felgueiras. Almeida competed in the men's flyweight division while Felgueiras competed in the men's finweight division. In addition, the sport became a source of medal of East Timor at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games. Almeida won a bronze medal

Åby Church

Åby Church is a church located in Åby Parish in Aarhus, Denmark. The church is situated in west of Midtbyen; the church is today a parish church in the Church of Denmark, serving a parish population of 10.925. The Åby Church pastorate is shared with the Åbyhøj Church to the north; the church is situated in the western neighbourhood Åby, a village. The original church constructed of ashlar was built c. 1200 and in the Late Middle Ages it was lengthened towards the west. Two imposts in the chancel arch which were transferred to the new building, the one in the south is, owing to its cylindrical shape, assumed to be an imitation in stone of a decorated wooden post; the present building was constructed in 1872-73 when it was decided it wasn't economical to renovate the former medieval church. The church was designed by Vilhelm Theodor Walther, who worked as the royal building inspector for Jutland at the time, in romanesque style imitation inspired by Italian elements; the walls are bands of yellow and red bricks and the building resembles a traditional apse, chancel and tower.

In 1929 the tower spire was clad in copper. In the north wall by the tower a walled off entrance with a staircase presents a curiosity. In older churches there was a north and south entrance - men and women entrances - and in most churches the north entrance have been walled off; the original medieval church had two entrances and it is thought the architect Vilhelm Theodor Walther chose to emulate this by deliberately putting in a walled off entrance. While nothing in the interior remains from the original church a couple of items of church furniture were transferred from the demolished church and are still in use; these are the altar-piece from 1598 with a carved crucificial group in front of the middle panel and Old Testament paintings on the side panels and the Romanesque baptismal font of granite. A crucifix from the latter half of the 11th century has been in the National Museum since 1870, it is the earliest of the Jutland crucifixes which belong with the »golden altars« and was made in the same workshop as the Lisbjerg altar.

List of Churches in Aarhus Website of Åby Church Website of Åby Pastorate Church of Denmarks' page for Åby Parish

Generation (Canadian TV program)

Generation was a Canadian current affairs television program which aired on CBC Television in 1965. The program examined contemporary concerns in the context of the generation gap. Issues such as careers, Quebec's Quiet Revolution, religion or tobacco were the subject of various episodes. For most of its run, Generation was a local Toronto programme. In mid-1965, it was broadcast nationally with selected local episodes supplemented by episodes produced from various regions. June Callwood, Katie Johnson and Bill McVean were additional hosts during the national broadcasts; the half-hour program aired locally on CBLT from late 1963 until mid-1966. It was broadcast on the national CBC network Wednesdays at 10:30 p.m. from 4 August to 15 September 1965. Allan, Blaine. "Generation". Queen's University. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2010

Angophora hispida

Angophora hispida grows as a mallee, or as a tree to about 7 m in height. A. Hispida's small size when compared to its Angophora and Eucalyptus relatives, leads to it being known by the common name dwarf apple, it is native to a small patch of central New South Wales – from just south of Sydney up to the Gosford area. The plant's leaves hug the stem with heart-shaped bases, its previous name – A. cordifolia – referred to these cordate leaves. Another distinctive feature are the red bristly hairs that cover the branchlets, flower bases and new growth; this leads to the specific epithet hispida. Common names include dwarf apple and scrub apple, banda in the Cadigal language. Loddiges Nursery called it the Rough Metrosideros after the dwarf apple was described by James Edward Smith in 1797 as Metrosideros hispida, having been collected by Surgeon-General of New South Wales, John White in 1795. Antonio José Cavanilles described it the same year as Angophora cordifolia, having been collected somewhere near the shoreline in Port Jackson.

The latter name remained in use until 1976, when A. hispida was erected by Don Blaxell, who had established that Smith's name had been published four months earlier in May of 1797. Smith had been sent a specimen by Surgeon-General White, which flowered in 1798, he went on to publish a fuller description accompanied by an illustration by James Sowerby in 1805. Kevin Thiele and Pauline Ladiges published a phylogenetic study based on morphology and came up with the smudgy apple as the dwarf apple's closest relative. Brooker and colleagues consider it to be more related to the broad-leaved apple. More genetic work has been published showing Angophora to be more related to Eucalyptus than Corymbia, the name Eucalyptus hispida has been proposed for this species if it were to be placed in the eucalypt genus. Hybrids with Angophora costata and A. bakeri have been recorded. The dwarf apple grows as a small mallee to 7 m high, it has greyish flaky bark. Like other members of the genus Angophora and unlike other eucalypts, the leaves are arranged oppositely along the stem.

Sitting on petiole 0–4 mm long, the leaves are ovate to elliptic in shape, measure 5–10 cm in length and 3–4.5 cm across, with a blunt rounded apex, a cordate base. They are a pale yellow-green greyish on their undersurface. New growth is covered in reddish hairs. Flowering takes place from November to January; the showy creamy-white flower heads are terminal and umbellate, each composed of three to seven flowers on 0.8–3.2 cm long pedicels, which in turn branch off from a 1.5–7 cm long peduncle. Like the new leaves and stems, developing buds are covered in reddish hair. Globular in shape with longitudinal ribbing, they grow to a diameter of 0.9–1.3 cm. The flowers fall leaving the cup-shaped woody seed pods or fruit, which measure 1.5–2.6 cm long and 1.3–2 cm in diameter. These shed the mature seed in March; the oval-shaped seeds are flat, measuring 0.8 -- 1 cm long. The dwarf apple is found only in the Sydney Basin, as far south as O’Hares Creek off the Georges River, on dry sandstone soils low in nutrients.

The associated plant communities are heath, scrubland or open woodland, with such species as scribbly gums, red bloodwood, narrow-leaved apple heath banksia, rusty banksia, silver banksia, scrub sheoak, wax flower and parrot pea. It grows from sea level with an annual rainfall of 800 to 1600 mm; the dwarf apple regenerates from bushfire by resprouting from its woody base, known as a lignotuber, or epicormic shoots. It can flower within a year of being burnt and plays an important role as a food source for nectar-eating insects after bushfire; the flowers attract birds such as the noisy miner and wattlebirds and a wide variety of insects, including honeybees, native bees, flies and butterflies, a wide array of beetles, including the rose chafer, green-velvet flower chafer, the variable jewel beetle, the cowboy beetle, a scarab beetle Bisallardiana gymnopleura, as well as members of the scarab genus Phyllotocus and soldier beetle genus Telephorus. The dwarf apple is a host for larvae of froghoppers, known as spittlebugs.

Angophora hispida has been recorded as a host for the mistletoe species Muellerina eucalyptoides. This is a small tree suitable for larger gardens, its red new growth and profuse white flowers are attractive horticultural features. Flowering in summer, the flowers attract brightly coloured beetles, it requires good drainage to grow well. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium – Occurrence data for Angophora hispida Media related to Angophora hispida at Wikimedia Commons

Mina Wylie

Wilhelmina "Mina" Wylie was one of Australia's first two female Olympic swimming representatives, along with friend Fanny Durack. Wylie grew up in South Coogee, where her father Henry Wylie built Wylie's Baths in 1907; the Baths are the oldest surviving communal sea baths in Australia. After competing against each other in the Australian and New South Wales Swimming Championships in the 1910/11 swimming season and Durack persuaded officials to let them attend the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden where women's swimming events were being held for the first time. Durack won Wylie a silver medal. Twenty-seven women contested the 100 metre event, including six from Great Britain and four from Germany. Swimsuits reached down to the mid-thigh although some were sleeveless; the pool was built in an inlet of competitors swam without lane ropes. Durack's time in the 100 m final was 1:22.2, Wylie's was 1:25.4. Wylie competed in New South Wales and Australian championships from 1906 to 1934, winning 115 titles, including every Australian and New South Wales championship event in 1911, 1922 and 1924 in freestyle and breaststroke.

She was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1975. List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame List of Olympic medalists in swimming Wilhelmina Wylie collection at the State Library of New South Wales Sport Australia Hall of Fame ABC article on the 1912 Stockholm Games "Too much Boldness and Rudeness - Australia's first Olympic Ladies Swimming Team" National Centre for History Education