Chester A. Arthur
Chester Alan Arthur was an American attorney and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885. Arthur was born in Fairfield, grew up in upstate New York, practiced law in New York City, he served as quartermaster general of the New York Militia during the American Civil War. Following the war, he devoted more time to Republican politics and rose in New York Senator Roscoe Conkling's political machine. Appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant to the lucrative and politically powerful post of Collector of the Port of New York in 1871, Arthur was an important supporter of Conkling and the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. In 1878, the new president, Rutherford B. Hayes, fired Arthur as part of a plan to reform the federal patronage system in New York; when Garfield won the Republican nomination for president in 1880, Arthur, an eastern Stalwart, was nominated for vice president to balance the ticket. Six months into his term, Garfield was assassinated and Arthur assumed the presidency.
At the outset, Arthur struggled to overcome a negative reputation as a Stalwart and product of Conkling's machine. To the surprise of reformers, he took up the cause of civil service reform. Arthur enforced the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, he presided over the rebirth of the United States Navy, but was criticized for failing to alleviate the federal budget surplus, accumulating since the end of the Civil War. Arthur signed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which resulted in denying citizenship to Chinese Americans until 1898 and barring Chinese immigration until 1943. Building on the 1875 Page Act, which barred Chinese women from entering the country, it was the first total ban on an ethnic or national group from immigrating to the country. Suffering from poor health, Arthur made only a limited effort to secure the Republican Party's nomination in 1884. Journalist Alexander McClure wrote, "No man entered the Presidency so profoundly and distrusted as Chester Alan Arthur, no one retired... more respected, alike by political friend and foe."
Although his failing health and political temperament combined to make his administration less active than a modern presidency, he earned praise among contemporaries for his solid performance in office. The New York World summed up Arthur's presidency at his death in 1886: "No duty was neglected in his administration, no adventurous project alarmed the nation." Mark Twain wrote of him, "t would be hard indeed to better President Arthur's administration." Over the 20th and 21st centuries, Arthur's reputation faded among the public. He is ranked as an average president by historians and scholars. Arthur's obscurity has caused some historians and journalists to describe him as "the Most Forgotten U. S. President". Chester Alan Arthur was born October 1829, in Fairfield, Vermont. Arthur's mother, Malvina Stone, was born in Berkshire, the daughter of George Washington Stone and Judith Stevens, her family was of English and Welsh descent, her grandfather, Uriah Stone, had served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Arthur's father, William Arthur, was born in Dreen, County Antrim, Ireland to a Presbyterian family of Scots-Irish descent. Malvina Stone met William Arthur when Arthur was teaching school in Dunham, near the Vermont border, they married in Dunham on April 1821, soon after meeting. The Arthurs moved to Vermont after the birth of Regina, they moved from Burlington to Jericho, to Waterville, as William received positions teaching at different schools. William Arthur spent a brief time studying law, but while still in Waterville, he departed from both his legal studies and his Presbyterian upbringing to join the Free Will Baptists. William Arthur became an outspoken abolitionist, which made him unpopular with some members of his congregations and contributed to the family's frequent moves. In 1828, the family moved again, to Fairfield, where Chester Alan Arthur was born the following year, he was named "Chester" after Chester Abell, the physician and family friend who assisted in his birth, "Alan" for his paternal grandfather.
The family remained in Fairfield until 1832, when William Arthur's profession took them on the road again, to churches in several towns in Vermont and upstate New York. The family settled in the Schenectady, New York area. Arthur had seven siblings who lived to adulthood: Regina, the wife of William G. Caw, a grocer and community leader of Cohoes, New York who served as town supervisor and village trustee Jane Almeda, the wife of James H. Masten, who served as postmaster of Cohoes and publisher of the Cohoes Cataract newspaper Ann, a career educator who taught school in New York, as well as working in South Carolina in the years before and after the Civil War. Malvina, the wife of Henry J. Haynesworth, an official of the Confederate government and a merchant in Albany, New York before being appointed as a captain and assistant quartermaster in the U. S. Army during Arthur's presidency William, a medical school graduate who became a career Army officer and paymaster, he was wounded during his Civil War service.
William Arthur retired in 1898 with the brevet rank of
Nix v. Hedden
Nix v. Hedden, 149 U. S. 304, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that, under U. S. customs regulations, the tomato should be classified as a vegetable rather than a fruit. The Court's unanimous opinion held that the Tariff Act of 1883 used the ordinary meaning of the words "fruit" and "vegetable," instead of the technical botanical meaning. John Nix founded the John Nix & Co. fruit commission in New York City in 1839. The company became one of the largest sellers of produce in New York City at the time, was one of the first companies to ship produce from Virginia and Bermuda to New York. In 1883, President Chester A. Arthur signed the Tariff Act of March 3, 1883, requiring a tax to be paid on imported vegetables, but not fruit; the John Nix & Co. company filed a suit against Edward L. Hedden, Collector of the Port of New York, to recover back duties paid under protest, they argued against the tariff by pointing out that, botanically, a tomato is a fruit due to its seed-bearing structure growing from the flowering part of a plant.
At the trial, the plaintiffs' counsel entered into evidence definitions of the words "fruit" and "vegetables" from Webster's Dictionary, Worcester's Dictionary, the Imperial Dictionary. They called two witnesses, in the business of selling fruit and vegetables for 30 years, asked them, after hearing these definitions, to say whether these words had "any special meaning in trade or commerce, different from those read." During testimony, one witness testified that in regard to the dictionary definition: does not classify all things there, but they are correct as far as they go. It does not take all kinds of fruit or vegetables. I think the words'fruit' and'vegetable' have the same meaning in trade today that they had on March 1, 1883. I understand that the term'fruit' is applied in trade only to such plants or parts of plants as contain the seeds. There are more vegetables than those in the enumeration given in Webster's Dictionary under the term'vegetable,' as'cabbage, turnips, peas and the like,' covered by the words'and the like' Another witness testified that "I don't think the term'fruit' or the term'vegetables' had, in March 1883, prior thereto, any special meaning in trade and commerce in this country different from that which I have read here from the dictionaries."Both the plaintiffs' counsel and the defendant's counsel made use of the dictionaries.
The plaintiffs' counsel read in evidence from the same dictionaries the definitions of the word tomato, while the defendant's counsel read in evidence from Webster's Dictionary the definitions of the words pea, cucumber and pepper. Countering this, the plaintiff read in evidence from Webster's and Worcester's dictionaries the definitions of potato, parsnip, cabbage and bean; the court unanimously decided in favor of the respondent and found that the tomato should be classified under the customs regulations as a vegetable, based on the ways in which it is used, the popular perception to this end. Justice Horace Gray, writing the opinion for the Court, stated that: The passages cited from the dictionaries define the word'fruit' as the seed of plants, or that part of plants which contains the seed, the juicy, pulpy products of certain plants and containing the seed; these definitions have no tendency to show that tomatoes are'fruit,' as distinguished from'vegetables,' in common speech, or within the meaning of the tariff act.
Justice Gray, citing several Supreme Court cases stated that when words have acquired no special meaning in trade or commerce, the ordinary meaning must be used by the court. In this case dictionaries cannot be admitted as evidence, but only as aids to the memory and understanding of the court. Gray acknowledged that botanically, tomatoes are classified as a "fruit of the vine". In making his decision, Justice Gray mentioned another case where it had been claimed that beans were seeds — Justice Bradley, in Robertson v. Salomon, 130 U. S. 412, 414 found that though a bean is botanically a seed, in common parlance a bean is seen as a vegetable. While on the subject, Gray clarified the status of the cucumber, squash and bean. Nix has been cited in three Supreme Court decisions as a precedent for court interpretation of common meanings dictionary definitions.. Additionally, in JSG Trading Corp. v. Tray-Wrap, Inc. 917 F.2d 75, a case unrelated to Nix aside from the shared focus on tomatoes, a judge wrote the following paragraph citing the case: In common parlance tomatoes are vegetables, as the Supreme Court observed long ago, although botanically speaking they are a fruit..
Regardless of classification, people have been enjoying tomatoes for centuries. In 2005, supporters in the New Jersey legislature cited Nix as a basis for a bill designating the tomato as the official state vegetable. Carrot – defined to be a fruit in European Union law, for the purpose of jam classification.
Tax Reform Act of 1986
The U. S. Congress passed the Tax Reform Act of 1986 to simplify the income tax code, broaden the tax base and eliminate many tax shelters. Referred to as the second of the two "Reagan tax cuts", the bill was officially sponsored by Democrats, Richard Gephardt of Missouri in the House of Representatives and Bill Bradley of New Jersey in the Senate; the Tax Reform Act of 1986 was given impetus by a detailed tax-simplification proposal from President Reagan's Treasury Department, was designed to be tax-revenue neutral because Reagan stated that he would veto any bill, not. Revenue neutrality was achieved by offsetting tax cuts for individuals by eliminating $60 billion annually in tax loopholes and shifting $24 billion of the tax burden from individuals to corporations by eliminating the investment tax credit, slowing depreciation of assets, enacting a stiff alternative minimum tax on corporations; the top tax rate for individuals for tax year 1987 was lowered from 50% to 38.5%. Many lower level tax brackets were consolidated, the upper income level of the bottom rate was increased from $5,720/year to $29,750/year.
This package consolidated tax brackets from fifteen levels of income to four levels of income. The standard deduction, personal exemption, earned income credit were expanded, resulting in the removal of six million poor Americans from the income tax roll and a reduction of income tax liability across all income levels; the higher standard deduction simplified the preparation of tax returns for many individuals. For tax year 1987, the Act provided a graduated rate structure of 11%/15%/28%/35%/38.5%. Beginning with tax year 1988, the Act provided a nominal rate structure of 15%/28%/33%. However, beginning with 1988, taxpayers having taxable income higher than a certain level were taxed at an effective rate of about 28%; this was jettisoned in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, otherwise known as the "Bush tax increase", which violated his Taxpayer Protection Pledge. The Act increased incentives favoring investment in owner-occupied housing relative to rental housing. Prior to the Act, all personal interest was deductible.
Subsequently, only home mortgage interest was deductible, including interest on home equity loans. The Act phased out many investment incentives for rental housing, through extending the depreciation period of rental property to 27.5 years from 15-19 years. It discouraged real estate investing by eliminating the deduction for passive losses. To the extent that low-income people may be more to live in rental housing than in owner-occupied housing, this provision of the Act could have had the tendency to decrease the new supply of housing accessible to low-income people; the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit was added to the Act to provide some balance and encourage investment in multifamily housing for the poor. Moreover, interest on consumer loans such as credit card debt was no longer deductible. An existing provision in the tax code, called Income Averaging, which reduced taxes for those only making a much higher salary than before, was eliminated; the Act, increased the personal exemption and standard deduction.
The Individual Retirement Account deduction was restricted. The IRA had been created as part of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, where employees not covered by a pension plan could contribute the lesser of $1500 or 15% of earned income; the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 removed the pension plan clause and raised the contribution limit to the lesser of $2000 or 100% of earned income. The 1986 Tax Reform Act retained the $2000 contribution limit, but restricted the deductibility for households that have pension plan coverage and have moderate to high incomes. Non-deductible contributions were allowed. Depreciation deductions were curtailed. Prior to ERTA, depreciation was based on "useful life" calculations provided by the Treasury Department. ERTA set up the "accelerated cost recovery system"; this set up a series of useful lives based on three years for technical equipment, five years for non-technical office equipment, ten years for industrial equipment, fifteen years for real property.
TRA86 lengthened these lives, lengthened them further for taxpayers covered by the alternative minimum tax. These latter, longer lives approximate "economic depreciation," a concept economists have used to determine the actual life of an asset relative to its economic value. Defined contribution pension contributions were curtailed; the law prior to TRA86 was that DC pension limits were the lesser of 25% of compensation or $30,000. This could be accomplished by any combination of elective deferrals and profit sharing contributions. TRA86 introduced an elective deferral limit of $7000, indexed to inflation. Since the profit sharing percentage must be uniform for all employees, this had the intended result of making more equitable contributions to 401's and other types of DC pension plans; the 1986 Tax Reform Act introduced the General Nondiscrimination rules which applied to qualified pension plans and 403 plans that for private sector employers. It did not allow such pension plans to discriminate in favor of compensated employees.
A compensated employee for the purposes of testing a plan's compliance for the 2006 plan year is any employee whose compensation exceeded $95,000 in the 2005 plan year. Therefore, all new hires are by definition nonhighly compensated employees. A plan could not give benefits or contributions on a more favorable basis for
Protectionism in the United States
Protectionism in the United States is protectionist economic policy that erected tariff and other barriers to trade with other nations. This policy was most prevalent in the 19th century, it attempted to restrain imports to protect Northern industries. It was opposed by Southern states that wanted free trade to expand cotton and other agricultural exports. Protectionist measures included tariffs and quotas on imported goods, along with subsidies and other means, to ensure fair competition between imported goods and local goods. In today's age the US is still protectionist, according to Global Trade Alert the US has adopted over 1000 protectionist measures since the Global Economic Crisis in 2008, more than any other country since. Britain was the first country to use a large-scale infant industry promotion strategy. However, its most ardent user was the U. S.. Britain did not want to industrialize the American colonies, implemented policies to that effect. Thus, the American Revolution was, to some extent, a war against this policy, in which the commercial elite of the colonies rebelled against being forced to play a lesser role in the emerging Atlantic economy.
This explains why, after independence, the Tariff Act of 1789 was the second bill of the Republic signed by President Washington allowing Congress to impose a fixed tariff of 5% on all imports, with a few exceptions. Most American intellectuals and politicians during the country's catching-up period felt that the free trade theory advocated by British classical economists was not suited to their country, it was against the advice of economists like Adam Smith and Jean Baptiste Say that the United States were protecting their industries. Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States and economist Daniel Raymond were the first theorists to present the argument of the emerging industry, not the German economist Friedrich List. Indeed, List started out as a free trade advocate and only converted to the infant industry argument following his exile in the U. S. Hamilton feared that Britain's policy towards the colonies would condemn the United States to be only producers of agricultural products and raw materials.
Washington and Hamilton believed that political independence was predicated upon economic independence. Increasing the domestic supply of manufactured goods war materials, was seen as an issue of national security. In his Reports, Hamilton argued that the competition from abroad and the "forces of habit" would mean that new industries that could soon become internationally competitive would not be started in the United States, unless the initial losses were guaranteed by government aid. According to him, this aid could take the form of import duties or, in rare cases, prohibition of imports, he called for customs barriers to allow American industrial development and to help protect infant industries, including bounties derived in part from those tariffs. He believed that duties on raw materials should be low. Hamilton explained that despite an initial "increase of price" caused by regulations that control foreign competition, once a "domestic manufacture has attained to perfection... it invariably becomes cheaper".
The Congress passed a tariff act, imposing a 5% flat rate tariff on all imports.. Between 1792 and the war with Britain in 1812, the average tariff level remained around 12.5%. In 1812 all tariffs were doubled to an average of 25% in order to cope with the increase in public expenditure due to the war. A significant shift in policy occurred in 1816, when a new law was introduced to keep the tariff level close to the wartime level—especially protected were cotton and iron goods; the American industrial interests that had blossomed because of the tariff lobbied to keep it, had it raised to 35 percent in 1816. The public approved, by 1820, America's average tariff was up to 40 percent. According to Michael Lind, protectionism was America's de facto policy from the passage of the Tariff of 1816 to World War II, "switching to free trade only in 1945", it has been argued that one of the underlying motivations for the American Revolution itself was a desire to industrialize, reverse the trade deficit with Britain, which had grown by a factor of ten in the space of a few decades, from £67,000 to £739,000.
Between 1816 and the end of the Second World War, the U. S. had one of the highest average tariff rates on manufacturing imports in the world. Given that the country enjoyed an exceptionally high degree of "natural" protection due to high transportation costs at least until the 1870s, we can say that the U. S. industries were the most protected in the world until 1945. There was a brief episode of free trade from 1846, coinciding with the zenith of classical liberalism in Europe, during which American tariffs were lowered, but this was followed by a series of recessions and the panic of 1857, which led to higher tariff demands than President James Buchanan, signed in 1861. In the 19th century, statesmen such as Senator Henry Clay continued Hamilton's themes within the Whig Party under the name "American System (Abraham Lin
Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 known as the ERTA or "Kemp–Roth Tax Cut", was a federal law enacted by the 97th United States Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. The act was a major tax cut designed to encourage economic growth. Republican Congressman Jack Kemp and Republican Senator William Roth had nearly won passage of a tax cut during the presidency of Jimmy Carter, Reagan made a major tax cut his top priority upon taking office. Though Democrats maintained a majority in the House of Representatives during the 97th Congress, Reagan was able to convince conservative Democrats like Phil Gramm to support the bill. ERTA passed Congress on August 4, 1981, was signed into law on August 13, 1981. ERTA was one of the largest tax cuts in U. S. history, ERTA and the Tax Reform Act of 1986 are known together as the Reagan tax cuts. Along with spending cuts, Reagan's tax cuts were the centerpiece of what some contemporaries described as the conservative "Reagan Revolution."
Included in the act was an across-the-board decrease in federal income tax rates. The top marginal tax rate fell from 70 percent to 50 percent, the bottom rate dropped from 14 percent to 11 percent. To prevent future bracket creep, the new tax rates were indexed for inflation. ERTA slashed estate taxes, capital gains taxes, corporate taxes. Critics of the act claim that it worsened federal budget deficits, while supporters credit it for bolstering the economy during the 1980s. Due to deficit concerns in the midst of the early 1980s recession, many of the cuts implemented by ERTA were rescinded by the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982; the Office of Tax Analysis of the United States Department of the Treasury summarized the tax changes as follows: phased-in 23% cut in individual tax rates over 3 years. The maximum expense in calculating credit was increased from $2000 to $2400 for one child and from $4000 to $4800 for two or more kids; the credit increased from a maximum of $400 or $800 to 30 % of $10,000 income or less.
The 30% credit is diminished by 1% for every $2,000 of earned income up to $28000. At $28000, the credit for earned income is 20%; the amount a married taxpayer who files a join return increased under the Economic Recovery Tax Act to $125,000 from $100,000, allowed under the 1976 Act. A single person is limited to an exclusion of $62,500, it increases the amount of a one time exclusion of gain realized on the sale of principal residence by a persons at least 55 years old. Republican Congressman Jack Kemp and Republican Senator William Roth had nearly won passage of a major tax cut during the presidency of Jimmy Carter, but President Carter had prevented passage of the bill due to concerns about the deficit. Supply-side economics advocates like Kemp and Reagan asserted that cutting taxes would lead to higher government revenue due to economic growth, a proposition, challenged by many economists. Upon taking office, Reagan made the passage of Kemp-Roth bill his top domestic priority; as Democrats controlled the House of Representatives, passage of any bill would require the support of some House Democrats in addition to the support of congressional Republicans.
Reagan's victory in the 1980 presidential campaign had united Republicans around his leadership, while conservative Democrats like Phil Gramm of Texas were eager to back some of Reagan's conservative policies. Throughout 1981, Reagan met with members of Congress, focusing on winning support from conservative Southern Democrats. In July 1981, the Senate voted 89-11 in favor of the tax cut bill favored by Reagan, the House subsequently approved the bill in a 238-195 vote. Reagan's success in passing a major tax bill and cutting the federal budget was hailed as the "Reagan Revolution" by some reporters; the Accelerated Cost Recovery System was a major component of the ERTA and was amended in 1986 to become the Modified Accelerated cost Recovery System. The system changed the way. Instead of basing the depreciation deduction on an estimate of the expected useful life of assets, the assets were placed into categories: 3, 5, 10, or 15 years of life. For example, the agriculture industry saw a re-evaluation of their farming assets.
Items such as automobiles and swine were given 3 year depreciation values, things like buildings and land had a 15-year depreciation value. The idea was that there would be a rise in tax cuts due to the optimistic consideration of depreciating values; this would in turn put more cash into the pockets of business owners to promote investment and economic growth. The most lasting impact and significant change of the Act was the indexing of the tax code parameters for inflation starting in years after 1984. Of the nine federal tax laws between 1968 and this Act, si
Revenue Act of 1924
The United States Revenue Act of 1924 known as the Mellon tax bill cut federal tax rates and established the U. S. Board of Tax Appeals, renamed the United States Tax Court in 1942; the bill was named after U. S. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon; the Revenue Act was applicable to incomes for 1924. The bottom rate, on income under $4,000, fell from 1.5% to 1.125%. A parallel act, the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, granted all non-citizen resident Indians citizenship, thus the Revenue Act declared that there were no longer any "Indians, not taxed" to be not counted for purposes of United States Congressional apportionment. President Calvin Coolidge signed the bill into law. Both a normal Tax and a surtax were levied against the net income of individuals, as shown in the following table: Exemption of $1,000 for single filers and $2,500 for married couples and heads of family. A $400 exemption for each dependent under 18
Frank William Taussig
Frank William Taussig was an American economist and educator. Taussig is credited with creating the foundations of modern trade theory, he was born on December 28, 1859 in St. Louis, the son of William Taussig and Adele Wuerpel, his parents encouraged his literary and musical interests, he played the violin at an early age. He was educated at Smith Academy in that same city, he went to Washington University there but, after a year transferred to Harvard from where he graduated in 1879. He traveled in Europe for a year, he did graduate work at Harvard in law and economics while he was secretary to President Charles W. Eliot for some years, he was appointed assistant professor at Harvard. He became professor of economics in 1892, he remained at Harvard for the balance of his professional career except for several years spent in federal service and some time spent traveling in Europe recovering from a nervous disorder. Taussig was an open advocate of forced sterilization of races and classes he considered inferior.
In his 1911 textbook Principles of Economics, Taussing remarked: "Certain types of criminals and paupers breed only their kind, society has a right and a duty to protect its members from the repeated burden of maintaining and guarding such parasites.... The human race could be immensely improved in quality, its capacity for happy living immensely increased, if those of poor physical and mental endowment were prevented from multiplying."Paul Douglas was a graduate student under Taussig at Harvard in the Fall of 1915 and recalled the experience. Douglas had studied two years in graduate school at Columbia University with Edwin Seligman, an ideological enemy of Taussig. Given the opportunity to criticize the Columbia school of economic thought by confronting Douglas, Taussig attempted to humiliate him to the delight of the Harvard pupils who filled the lecture hall to witness the "slaughter." Douglas turned the tables and trapped Taussig in a logical economic debate. Douglas recalled, "The following day, Taussig cordially shook hands with me at the end of the hour....
We became fast friends for the rest of his life. Trying as the experience was, it was the best thing, it forced me to master the reasoning of the great economic theorists and to stand my ground under verbal and logical bombardment." In a 1912 article in The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Professor Taussig favored protecting the beet sugar industry with a tariff on sugar imports. A beet sugar industry gives intangible benefits by adding to the versatility and capabilities of American agriculture. Unskilled labor gains employment in the labor-intensive beet sugar sector of agriculture. Beet sugar grows best in cool climates of the irrigated regions of Colorado, Idaho and California, he was the editor of the Quarterly Journal of Economics from 1889 to 1890 and from 1896 to 1935, president of the American Economic Association in 1904 and 1905, chair of the United States Tariff Commission from 1917 to 1919. In March 1919, he was called to Paris to advise in the adjustment of commercial treaties, in November, on invitation of Woodrow Wilson, he attended the second industrial conference in Washington, D.
C. for promoting peace between capital and labour. He was a strong supporter of the League of Nations, he died on November 1940, aged 80, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Taussig is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery, Massachusetts; the successor to his chair at Harvard was Joseph Schumpeter. In 1888, he married Edith Thomas Guild. One of their four children was Helen B. Taussig, a noted pediatrician and cardiologist. F. W. Taussig's first wife died in 1910, he married Laura Fisher. Much of Taussigs work is available from Internet Archive: 1883: Protection to Young Industries as Applied to the United States 1885: History of the Present Tariff, 1860–83 1888: The Tariff History of the United States eighth edition, 1931, 1892: The Silver Situation in the United States 1896: Wages and Capital 1911, 1915, 1927 Principles of Economics, volume 1, Volume 2 1918: Some Aspects of the Tariff Question 1915: Inventors and Money Makers, Brown University lectures 1920: Free Trade, the Tariff, Reciprocity 1887 - 1935: Economic theory exam questions Britannica Online Profile of Frank W. Taussig at the History of Economic Thought website.
Department of Economics, University of Victoria Frank William Taussig at Find a Grave Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Taussig, Frank William". Encyclopædia Britannica. London & New York. Gilman, D. C.. "Taussig, Frank William". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Works written by or about Frank William Taussig at Wikisource "F. Taussig". JSTOR