Satyajit Ray was an Indian filmmaker, music composer, graphic artist and author regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century. Ray was born in Calcutta into a Bengali Kayastha family, prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves during a visit to London. Ray directed 36 films, including feature films and shorts, he was a fiction writer, illustrator, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant for young children and teenagers. Feluda, the sleuth, Professor Shonku, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him, he was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali, won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.
This film, along with Apur Sansar, form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting and editing, designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a Golden Lion, a Golden Bear, 2 Silver Bears, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, an Academy Honorary Award in 1992; the Government of India honored him with the Bharat Ratna, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray gained a prestigious position over his life time. In 2004, Ray was ranked number 13 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations. Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray was a writer, philosopher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal, he set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic.
Ray was born to Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name'Ray' from the Mughals. Although they were Bengali Kayasthas, the Rays were'Vaishnavas' as against majority Bengali Kayasthas who were'Shaktos'. Sukumar Ray died when Satyajit was three, the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School and completed his BA in economics at Presidency College, Calcutta affiliated with the University of Calcutta,though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he studied at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan, his mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art, he admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose and Benode Behari Mukherjee. He produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee.
His visits to Ajanta and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art. In 1943, Ray started work at D. J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design and he was treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm; the British were better paid, Ray felt that "the clients were stupid." Ray worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, Rupasi Bangla, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's Chander Pahar, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India, he worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu. Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was influenced by the work.
He used it as the subject of his first film, featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film. Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947, they screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city, he came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films and western classical music. In 1949, Ray married his first cousin and long-time sweetheart; the couple had a son, now a film director. In the same year, French director Jean Renoir came to Calcutta to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, Renoir encouraged him in the project. In 1950, D. J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films.
Muhammad Yusuf Khan, better known as Dilip Kumar, is an Indian film actor, producer and activist, known for his work in Hindi cinema. Popularly known as The Tragedy King and The First Khan, he has been credited with bringing realism to film acting since his first film and is regarded as one of the greatest actors of world cinema. Kumar debuted as an actor in the film Jwar Bhata, produced by Bombay Talkies. In a career spanning over six decades, Dilip Kumar worked in over 65 films. Kumar is known for roles in films such as the romantic Andaz, the heartwarming Babul, the impassioned Deedar, the swashbuckling Aan, social drama Daag, the dramatic Devdas, the comical Azaad, Naya Daur, Madhumati, the epic historical Mughal-e-Azam, the social dacoit crime drama Gunga Jamuna, the comedy Ram Aur Shyam. In 1976, Dilip Kumar took a five-year break from film performances and returned with a character role in the film Kranti and continued his career playing leading roles in films such as Shakti and Saudagar.
His last film was Qila. He is the first recipient of the Filmfare Best Actor Award. Critics have acclaimed him as one of the greatest actors in the history of Indian cinema. Dilip Kumar never married her, he married actress Saira Bano in 1966. He and his wife live in the Bandra suburb of Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra in India. Kumar was born Mohammad Yusuf Khan to Ayesha Begum and Lala Ghulam Sarwar Ali Khan in a Muslim Hindkowan-Punjabi Awan family of 12 children on 11 December 1922 at home in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar area of Peshawar, British India, his father was a fruit merchant who owned orchards in Peshawar and Deolali. Mohammad Yusuf Khan was schooled at Barnes School, Nashik, he grew up in the same religiously mixed neighbourhood as Raj Kapoor, his childhood friend, his colleague in the film industry. In 1940, while still in his teens and after an altercation with his father, Mohammad Yusuf Khan left home for Pune in Maharashtra. With the help of a Parsi café-owner and an elderly Anglo-Indian couple, Kumar met a canteen contractor.
Without letting on his family antecedents, he got the job on the merit of his knowledge of good written and spoken English. He set up a sandwich stall at the army club and when the contract ended, he headed home to Mumbai, having saved Rs. 5000. In 1942, anxious to start a venture to help his father with household finances, he met Dr. Masani at Churchgate Station, who asked him to accompany him to Bombay Talkies, in Malad. There he met actress Devika Rani, owner of Bombay Talkies, who asked him to sign up with the company on a salary of Rs. 1250 per month. There he met actor Ashok Kumar, who influenced his acting style by telling him to act "natural", he met Sashadhar Mukherjee, both of these people became close to Kumar over the years. Kumar helped out in the story-writing and scripting department because of his proficiency in Urdu language. Devika Rani requested him to change his name to Dilip Kumar, cast him in a lead role for Jwar Bhata, which marked Kumar's entry into the Hindi film industry.
Dilip Kumar's first film was Jwar Bhata in 1944. After a few more unsuccessful films, it was Jugnu, in which he starred alongside Noor Jehan, that became his first major hit at the box office, his next major hits were the 1948 films Mela. He got his breakthrough role in 1949 with Mehboob Khan's Andaz, in which he starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Nargis. Shabnam released that year was another box office hit Kumar went on to have success in the 1950s playing leading roles in several box office hits such as Jogan, Hulchul, Daag, Amar, Uran Khatola, Insaniyat in which he co-starred with Dev Anand, Naya Daur, Yahudi and Paigham; some of these films established his screen image as the "Tragedy King". Kumar suffered from depression due to portraying many tragic roles and on the advice of his psychiatrist, he took on light-hearted roles. Mehboob Khan's big-budget 1952 swashbuckling musical Aan featured him in one of his first lighter roles and marked his first film to be shot in technicolor and to have a wide release across Europe with a lavish premiere in London.
He had further success with lighter roles as a thief in the comedy Azaad, as a royal prince in the romantic musical Kohinoor He was the first actor to win the Filmfare Best Actor Award and went on to win it a further seven times. He formed popular on-screen pairings with many of the top actresses at the time including Madhubala, Nargis, Meena Kumari and Kamini Kaushal. 9 of his films in the 1950s were ranked in the Top 30 highest-grossing films of the decade. In the 1950s, Dilip Kumar became the first actor to charge ₹1 lakh per film. In 1960, he portrayed Prince Salim in K. Asif's big-budget epic historical film Mughal-e-Azam, the highest-grossing film in Indian film history for 11 years until it was surpassed by 1971 film Haathi Mere Saathi and by the 1975 film Sholay. If adjusted for inflation, Mughal-e-Azam was the highest-grossing Indian film through to the early 2010s, equivalent to over ₹1000 crore in 2011; the film told the story of Prince Salim, who revolts against his father Akbar, falls in love with a courtesan.
The film was most
Ali Akbar Khan
Ali Akbar Khan was a Hindustani classical musician of the Maihar gharana, known for his virtuosity in playing the sarod. Trained as a classical musician and instrumentalist by his father, Allauddin Khan, he composed several classical ragas and film scores, he established a music school in Calcutta in 1956, the Ali Akbar College of Music in 1967, which moved with him to the United States and is now based in San Rafael, with a branch in Basel, Switzerland. Khan was instrumental in popularizing Indian classical music in the West, both as a performer and as a teacher, he first came to America in 1955 on the invitation of violinist Yehudi Menuhin and settled in California. He was a Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Music at the University of Santa Cruz. Khan was accorded India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan, in 1989. Nominated five times for the Grammy Award, Khan was a recipient of the MacArthur Fellowship and the National Endowment for the Arts's National Heritage Fellowship.
Ali Akbar Khan was born in the village of Shibpur, Nabinagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria, in present-day Bangladesh, to renowned musician and teacher, Allauddin Khan and Madina Begum. Soon after his birth, Khan's family returned to Maihar where his father was the primary court musician for the Maharaja of the princely state. From an early age Khan received training from his father in various instruments as well as vocal composition, but gravitated towards the sarod. Allauddin was a perfectionist and a strict taskmaster, Khan's lessons started before dawn and lasted 18 hours a day. Khan learned to play the tabla and the pakhavaj from his uncle, Aftabuddin Khan, who he visited at Shibpur. During this period he met several prominent musicians, such as the sarodist Timir Baran and flautist Pannalal Ghosh, who came to study with his father. Shankar and Annapurna Devi were married in 1941. Of his training on the sarod, he wrote: If you practice for ten years, you may begin to please yourself, after 20 years you may become a performer and please the audience, after 30 years you may please your guru, but you must practice for many more years before you become a true artist—then you may please God.
Ali Akbar Khan, after years of rigorous training, gave his debut performance at a music conference in Allahabad in 1936, at the age of 13. Three years in December 1939, he accompanied Ravi Shankar on the sarod during the latter's debut performance at the same conference. In 1938 Khan gave his first recital on All India Radio and starting in January 1940, he gave monthly performances on AIR, Lucknow. In 1944, both Shankar and Khan left Maihar to start their professional careers as musicians. In 1943, on his father's recommendation, Khan was appointed a court musician for the Maharaja of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh. There, he taught and composed music besides giving recitals and was accorded the title of Ustad by the Maharaja; when the princely states were wound down with India's independence in 1947 and Hanwant Singh died in a plane crash in 1948, Khan moved to Bombay. In Bombay, he won acclaim including Chetan Anand's Aandhiyan. Lata Mangeshkar sang the title song, "Har Kahin Pe Shaadmani" and as a token of her respect to sarod maestro, did not charge any fee.
This was followed by Satyajit Ray's Devi, Merchant-Ivory's The Householder, Tapan Sinha's Khudito Pashan, for which he won the "Best Musician of the Year" award. He played Sarod for a song in 1955 film Seema which had the music composed by Shankar Jaikishan. In 1993, he would score some of the music for Bernardo Bertolucci's Little Buddha. Beginning in 1945, Khan started recording a series of 78 rpm disks at the HMV Studios in Bombay. For one such record he conceived a new composition Raga Chandranandan, based on four evening ragas, Chandrakauns and Kaushi Kanada; this record was a huge success in India, the raga found a worldwide audience when a 22-minute rendition was re-recorded for the Master Musician of India LP in 1965 − one of Khan's seminal recordings. He traveled extensively in the West. In 1956, Khan founded the Ali Akbar College of Music in Calcutta, with the mission to teach and spread Indian classical music, he founded another school of the same name in Berkeley, California in 1967 and moved it to San Rafael, California.
Khan performed in Boston with Shankar Ghosh in 1969 for the Peabody Mason Concert series. In 1985 he founded another branch of the Ali Akbar College of Music in Switzerland. Khan was the first Indian musician to record an LP album of Indian classical music in the United States and to play sarod on American television. Khan has participated in a number of classic jugalbandi pairings, most notably with Ravi Shankar, Nikhil Banerjee and violinist L. Subramaniam. A few recordings of duets with Vilayat Khan exist, he collaborated with Western musicians. In August 1971, Khan performed at Madison Square Garden for the Concert for Bangladesh, along with Ravi Shankar, Alla Rakha and Kamala Chakravarty.
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines, its purpose is to. Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel Crafoord Prizes in astronomy and mathematics, geosciences and polyarthritis Sjöberg Prize Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography Tobias Prize Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in mathematics, the natural sciences and medicine Söderberg Prize in economics or jurisprudence Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Etc; the academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: Mathematics Astronomy and space science Physics Chemistry Geosciences Biosciences Medical sciences Engineering sciences Social sciences Humanities and for outstanding services to science The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808.
In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry, technology and zoology; these lasted into the 1860s. Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections, which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för...", among them Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik. Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Current publicationsAmbio Acta Mathematica Arkiv för matematik Acta Zoologica Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter, biographies of deceased members Porträttmatrikel, portraits of current members Zoologica Scripta, jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken.
The purpose of the academy was to focus on useful knowledge, to publish in Swedish in order to disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, founded in 1719 and published in Latin; the location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital was intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, which some of the founding members were familiar with. Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
Mangalampalli Balamuralikrishna was an Indian Carnatic vocalist, multi-instrumentalist, playback singer and character actor. He was awarded the Madras Music Academy's Sangeetha Kalanidhi in 1978, he has garnered two National Film Awards, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1975, the Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian honor in 1991, for his contribution towards arts, the Mahatma Gandhi Silver Medal from UNESCO in 1995, the Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government in 2005, the Sangeetha Kalanidhi by Madras Music Academy, the Sangeetha Kalasikhamani in 1991, by the Fine Arts Society, Chennai to name a few. Balamuralikrishna started his career at the age of six. Up to the present time, he has given over 25,000 concerts worldwide, he accompanied Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, gave jugalbandi concerts with Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia, Pandit Ajoy Chakrabarty and Kishori Amonkar, among others. He is known for popularizing the compositions of Sri Bhadrachala Ramadasu and Sri Annamacharya.
Balamuralikrishna's concerts combine sophisticated vocal skills and rhythmic patterns of classical music with the popular demand for entertainment value. Balamuralikrishna has been invited to give concerts in many countries, including the US, Canada, UK, France, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Middle East and many more. Apart from his native tongue, his works include ones in other languages like Kannada, Tamil, Hindi and Punjabi, he appeared as featured soloist with an award-winning British choir, performing the "Gitanjali Suite" with words from Rabindranath Tagore's Nobel Prize-winning poetry and music by "Dr. Joel", the noted UK-based Goan composer, his clear diction in several languages prompted an invitation to record Tagore's entire Rabindra Sangeet compositions in Bengali, preserving them for posterity. He has sung in French, ventured into jazz fusion, collaborating with the top Carnatic percussion teacher, Sri T. H. Subash Chandran, in a concert for Malaysian royalty. In February 2010, he did a three-day concert in Visakhapatnam.
Balamuralikrishna was born in Madras Presidency. His father was a well known musician and his mother was a veena player. Balamuralikrishna's mother died when he was raised by his father. Observing his interest in music, his father put him under the tutelage of Parupalli Ramakrishnayya Pantulu, a direct descendant of the shishya parampara of Tyagaraja. Under his guidance, the young Balamuralikrishna learned Carnatic music. At the age of eight, he gave his first full-fledged concert at a Thyagaraja Aradhana in Vijayawada. Musunuri Suryanarayana Murty Bhagavatar, a Harikatha performer, saw the musical talent in him and gave the prefix "Bala" to the young Balamuralikrishna. Balamuralikrishna thus began his musical career at a young age. By the age of fifteen he had mastered all the 72 melakartha ragas and had composed krithis in the same; the Janaka Raga Manjari was published in 1952 and recorded as Raagaanga Ravali in a nine-volume series by the Sangeeta Recording Company. Not content with his fame as a Carnatic vocalist soon started playing the kanjira, mridangam and violin.
He accompanied various musicians in violin and is noted to give solo viola concerts. Characteristic of Balamuralikrishna's musical journey has been his non-conformism, spirit of experimentation and boundless creativity. Balamuralikrishna has experimented with Carnatic music system by keeping its rich tradition untouched. Ragas like Ganapathi, Mahati, Lavangi etc. are credited to him. The ragas which he invented represent his quest for new frontiers. Ragas like Lavangi are set to four notes in ascending and descending scale. Ragas created by him, like Mahathi, Sidhdhi, Sumukham have only four notes, he innovated the tala system. He has incorporated "gati bhEdam" in the "sashabda kriya" part of the existing Tala chain, thus throwing open a new chain of Tala system. Saint Arunagirinaadhar used to inject such systems in his famous Thirupugazh, but only as Sandham, while Balamuralikrishna is known to be the pioneer in bringing such Sandhams into a logical rhythm, with Angam and definition. Thri Mukhi, Saptha Mukhi and Nava Mukhi are the basic classifications he has for his New Tala System.
He gave his authorisation to S. Ram Bharati to found "Academy of Performing Arts and Research" in Switzerland and is working on music therapy, he established the'MBK Trust' with the objective of developing art and culture and for carrying out extensive research into music therapy. A dance and music school,'Vipanchee' is a part of this Trust. Balamuralikrishna has over 400 compositions to his credit and is one of the few people to have composed in all the 72 Melakarta Ragas and has created several ragas, with 4 notes and 3 notes and has invented a new Tala system, his compositions encompass every facet in Carnatic Music that includes Varnas, Thillanas, Bhavageethas. Balamuralikrishna has sung in several films in Telugu, Sanskrit and Tamil, he made his acting debut with the Telugu film Bhakta Prahlada as Narada, has acted in few films in Telugu and Tamil. Balamuralikrishna died at his residence in Chennai on 22 November 2016, his end came in deep sleep at around five in the evening, due to a cardiac arrest.
He was cremated with full state honours at Besant Nagar Crematoriu
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence, he emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He has been described by the Amar Chitra Katha as the architect of India, he was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru. The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s.
He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, his idea of a secular nation-state was validated when the Congress, under his leadership, swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces. But these achievements were compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape; the Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India.
Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor; as Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, 1962, he remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India, his father, Motilal Nehru, a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children; the elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one", he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. His father had him educated at home by private tutors. Under the influence of a tutor, Ferdinand T. Brooks, he became interested in theosophy.
He was subsequently initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant. However, his interest in theosophy did not prove to be enduring and he left the society shortly after Brooks departed as his tutor, he wrote: "for nearly three years was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly". Nehru's theosophical interests had induced him to the study of the Hindu scriptures. According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of.... provided Nehru the initial impulse for long intellectual quest which culminated...in The Discovery of India." Nehru became an ardent nationalist during his youth. The Second Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War intensified his feelings. About the latter he wrote, " Japanese victories stirred up my enthusiasm... Nationalistic ideas filled my mind... I mused of Indian freedom and Asiatic freedom from the thraldom of Europe." When he had begun his institutional schooling in 1905 at Harrow, a leading school in England, he was influenced by G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi books, which he had received as prizes for academic merit.
He viewed Garibaldi as a revolutionary her