Hearts is one of the four suits in playing cards of both the French deck and the German deck. However, the symbol is different: in a French deck and in a German-suited deck. In Bridge, for which in Germany the French deck is common, it is called by Cœur. In games using German-suited cards the suit of Hearts is called "Red". In the Swiss-German deck the suit of Hearts is replaced by the suit of Roses; the roses are depicted in yellow. The origin of the term "heart" to describe the symbol, which only marginally resembles a true heart, is not known. In general, equivalents in other languages mean "heart"; the first playing cards published in Europe did not have any of the suits encountered in modern French suited-decks. Latin suits may have been adapted from card games in the Muslim world. French suits were introduced by French playing-card makers at the end of the 15th century by adapting Germanic suits. French retailers produced a simpler design compared with the earlier suits, allowing easier reproduction and therefore a lower manufacturing cost.
The sign of heart is taken from the Germanic suits, but has been simplified.. The heart has a form of cardioid, the lower part of which ends in a point; the symbol is drawn with its tip down, the two lobes of the cardioid pointing upwards. The hearts are coloured red; the following gallery shows the hearts of a 52-card deck of French playing cards. Not shown is the Knight of Hearts, used in tarot card games: The gallery below shows a suit of Hearts from a German suited deck of 32 cards; the pack is of the Saxonian pattern: The symbol ♥ is in the CP437 and therefore in the WGL4. In Unicode, a black heart ♥ and a white ♡ heart are defined: In the game of Watten, the King of Hearts is the highest Trump
Bavarian Tarock, Haferltarock or just Tarock, is a card game played in Bavaria and several regions of Austria as well as in Berlin. The name is a clue to its origin as an attempt to design a game resembling Tapp Tarock but without using a Tarock pack; the original form of Bavarian Tarock thus incorporated several elements of the true Tarock games, whilst being played with a 36-card German deck. However, during the last century, it has evolved into "quite a fine game" that, has less in common with its Tarock progenitor, it is descended from Tapp Tarock via the similar game of Tapp, played in Württemberg, is thus related to Bauerntarock and Dobbm. It should not be confused with Königrufen known as Austrian Tarock or just Tarock. Bavarian Tarock came from the Württemberg game of Tapp known as Württemberger Tarock, which arose from the desire to play Tapp Tarock without Tarock playing cards; the game spread to Bavaria while it was still being played with German-suited cards i.e. around the mid-19th century and became known there as'Haferltarock' or'Haferltarok' or as'Tarock'.
The earliest record of its rules identified by Dummett dates to the 1920s, however mention is made that as early as 1880 the game was being played in Munich with a "kitty of 30 or 50 pfennigs" and in 1888 of the "pleasant game of Haferltarock being played for a mark". The earliest version of the rules involves 3 bids as in Tapp, but no payment or bidding for additional points. Instead there are fixed payments to or from a pot. During the 1930s, the game evolved to allow trump suits other than Hearts with a bid of Frage and to reward the winner of a game in which the opponents were Schneider. After the Second World War the game developed further, dropping any special status accorded to the suit of Hearts and introducing a far more elaborate auction; the result is "quite a fine game", better than Tapp albeit further removed from the ancestral Tapp Tarock. Ludwig Thoma, the prominent German author, was an avid player of Bavarian Tarock before and during the First World War. German playing cards are used, traditionally those of the Bavarian pattern, with the values Sow to 6.
The card deck has a total of 36 cards. In the trade, special card games are sold. In Bavarian Tarock, a card's trick-taking value increases with its face value; the Sow is the highest card and it is followed by the: Ten > King > Ober > Unter > Nine > Eight > Seven > Six The cards have the same point values as in Bavarian Schafkopf. The 10, with ten card points, is just below the Sow, but well above the King and Unter; the value of the Spatzen lies only in their trick-taking ability during a game, but they have no points value when calculating scores at the end of the round. In the original game, Hearts formed the permanent trump suit. In the variant, Hearts are the permanent trump suit if the talon is used to replenish cards. In the complex version of the game, the trump suit is chosen by the declarer. There are no permanent trump cards in this version, as for exrmple, in Skat, Doppelkopf or Schafkopf. Bavarian Tarock is a game for 3 players. Three cards are called the stock or gstaat; this is the same as the talon in many Tarock games.
If 4 players are available, the dealer sits out, so that there are 3 players and one dealer who rotates. The player who wins the bidding is the'declarer'; the declarer plays against the other two, the opposition or defenders, must score at least 61 points to win the deal. In earlier variants, it is a draw and there is no payment if both sides score 60; the game is played for small stakes, the amount won depending on the nature of the bid. The rules of Bavarian Tarock have evolved over time; this section will describe three of the main stages: the earliest known rules, an intermediate variant and a current variant. The following is a summary of the earliest known rules. Although published in 1923, they reflect the form of "Ur-Haferltarock" played in the 19th century; each player draws a card from the pack. The player who draws the highest card becomes the first dealer; the dealer shuffles, offers the cut to his right, places 3 cards as a stock or gstaat on the table. He deals 11 cards to each player in packets.
There are three bid options: Frage is a bid to score 61 or more points against the two defenders with the aid of the stock, i.e. the winning bidder may pick up the stock and exchange up to 3 cards with it, laying his discards to one side. The discards belong to the declarer. Hearts are always trumps. Solo is in effect a Suit Solo, identical to Frage except that the stock is not picked up and a suit other than Hearts may be named as trumps. Herzsolo is a Heart Solo. Again the stock is not used. Hearts are trumps. Bidding starts with forehand who says "pass" or "I'll play". If unchallenged, he may announce any of the three contracts. If a subsequent player wishes to overcall the first bidder, he says "I'll play better ". If unchallenged, he may only play a Herzsolo. To overcall the second bidder, a player announces "I'll play the best", but may only play a H
Troggu is a member of the tarot family of card games. Synonyms for the games name are: Trogga and Tappä, it is played in the area of Visp, Switzerland, in Upper Wallis in St. Niklaus and Grächen. After Troccas, it is the second most played tarot card game in Switzerland. According to card game researcher, John McLeod, Troggu was invented in the 18th century; the reasons for this assumption concerns the rules for the Fool. In earlier Tarot card games and in modern French Tarot, the fool is played as an "Excuse", a card which exempts the player from following suit. In modern Tarock games in such regions as Austria and Hungary, the fool is played as Tarock XXII, the highest ranking trump; the rules of Troggu contain a mixture of both variations and may be a transitional game from the traditional rules of the Fool to the more modern one. Troggu or a related game may have spread to Belgium in the 18th century as that would explain tarot decks sold as "Cartes de Suisse" where the Fool was numbered XXII.
The closest known relative of Troggu is the game of Tape, played in Fribourg until the late 20th century. The game traditionally uses the Italian suited Swiss 1JJ Tarot deck but removes the 1 through 4 of the swords and batons and the 7 through 10 of the cups and coins for a total of 62 cards. Troggu players prefer the German translated version as opposed to Troccas players who use the French version; the French suited Tarot Nouveau can be a substitute if the red 7 through 10 and black 1 through 4 are removed. Like in most tarot games, the red or round suit pip cards are in reverse order. In Troggu, there are 114 points and the cards are counted individually; the value of the cards are as follows: The game can be played by three to eight players with five to seven being ideal. Like most tarot games and play is counter-clockwise; the number of cards dealt and the size of the tapp depends on the number of players involved. After a round of bidding, the winner of the auction can exchange cards with the tapp but must not discard cards worth 5 points.
In games with seven or eight players, the Tappist can call a trump, not worth 5 points. The player who holds this card will be the Tappist's secret partner; the Tappist leads the first trick, others must follow suit. If a player is void of the suit, they must play a trump. Only when void of the suit led and trumps can any card be sloughed; the winner of the trick leads the next one. The Fool is the highest trump but if it is the last trump in the player's possession, the player can elect to play another card instead of following suit. Once this occurs, the Fool is no longer a trump but an excuse that must be reserved for the last trick
Industrie und Glück
Industrie und Glück is a pattern of French suited playing cards used to play tarock. The name originates from an inscription found on the second trump card; this deck was developed during the nineteenth century in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The earliest known examples were made in Vienna in 1815. After the collapse of the empire in World War I, it remained the most used tarot deck in Central Europe and can be found throughout the former parts of the empire. Though Industrie und Glück packs were not designed for cartomancy, their imagery was incorporated into Argentine fortune telling decks produced in the mid-20th century and misleadingly presented as an ancient gypsy oracle. In the Industrie und Glück deck, each suit contains four face cards; the 5s through 10s in red suits and the 1s through 6s in the black suits are removed and 22 trumps are added for a total of 54 cards. In Central European tarock games, the order of the black suits from highest to lowest goes from K, Q, C, J, 10, 9, 8, 7 but the red suits goes from K, Q, C, J, 1, 2, 3, 4.
The Sküs, named after the French Excuse, is considered the 22nd and highest trump and no longer has its excusing power despite its name. The lowest trump is called the pagat after il bagatto. Unlike the Italian tarocco decks which depict Renaissance allegorical motifs or the French Tarot Nouveau which added modern themes, all Industrie und Glück trumps illustrate genre scenes of rural life with no themes. All trumps except the unnumbered Excuse use Roman numerals unlike the Tarot Cego decks; the pip cards and face cards lack corner indices. Around seven versions of this deck were once made but only two survive; the older of the two surviving versions is found in the southern half of the former empire and the other in the northern half. The southern version can be found where the northern version is sold but is not as widespread. Both share many pictures in the trump suit but some are arranged differently. In the northern version, the 21st trump is nicknamed mond; this was a result of a mistranslation of the French monde for The World tarot card.
The southern version, now manufactured only by Modiano and Piatnik, lacks the moon. The Czechs use the northern version but since receiving their independence at end of the First World War, the second trump has lacked the Industrie und Glück inscription. A 78-card version by Piatnik was once made to play the Austrian game of Droggn although players used only 66 of them. There was a mysterious 73-card version from the 1930s by Piatnik, composed like the 54-card deck but with 19 more trumps, it is believed to have been used for a lost version of Minchiate
German playing cards
German playing cards are a style of playing cards used in many parts of Central Europe. Playing cards entered German-speaking lands around the late 1370s; the earliest cards were Latin-suited like in Italy and Spain. After much experimentation, the cards settled into new suits of Acorns, Leaves and Bells around 1450. Related Swiss playing cards are used in German-speaking Switzerland; the French suit symbols were derived from the German ones around 1480. German-suited cards spread throughout Central Europe into areas that were once under German or Austrian control, they were produced and used as far east as Russia until the early 20th century. German-suited decks are not well known all over these countries including parts of Germany itself as they have been undergoing strong competition from French playing cards since the late 17th-century. Traditional card games in which the German suits are used include Skat, Schafkopf and Watten. German suited decks tend to have fewer cards than either Italian sets.
The typical northern German pack has 32 cards ranking from 7, 8, 9, 10, Under Knave, Over Knave and Ace for a total of 32 cards. The "Ace" is a Deuce as indicated by its two pips. Southern patterns have 36 cards by including the 6. In Bavaria and South Tyrol, the 6 of Bells is known as the Weli or Belle, used as a wild card; the Weli first appeared around 1855 in the discontinued Tyrolean pattern and the Salzburg and William Tell patterns. The 7 of Bells is sometimes known as the Belli and the 7 of Acorns as the Spitz or Soacher and they are of comparable use, with the Weli being the higher card. For instance, in the Bavarian Watten game the top three cards following the respective trump ace are - in descending order: Maxi and Spitz. With the exception of the New Altenburg pattern, all cards with the rank of 10 include the Roman numeral X at the top centre of the card; the ace in German and Swiss German sets have a peculiar history. Aces disappeared from German decks during the 15th century; when the Ace was promoted above the King in French packs during the 16th century, the deuce did so as well in Germany leading to the conflation of the Ace and Deuce.
This is why in some sets the ace depicts two pips and is called a Daus. Confusion is avoided when the 7 or 6 became the lowest card in most packs during the 17th and 18th centuries. Players avoid confusion by alternatively calling the Ace/Deuce a Sau. Many regions have their own pattern which features number of cards; some patterns are descended from much earlier ones like the Saxon pattern which can trace their ancestry to the 15th-century Stukeley type cards named after their identifier, William Stukeley, in 1763. Northern patterns are used to play Skat. In northern patterns, the acorns are red; the only traditional northern pattern still in production is the Saxon pattern where only pip cards have corner indices. It is a product of a long evolution from the primitive Stukeley type cards imported from Nuremberg, they have been marginalized by the New Altenburg or German pattern, created by Walter Krauss in the former East Germany, which added corner indices to every card but the Aces. The 36 card Bavarian and Salzburg patterns are descended from the Old Bavarian pattern which itself goes back to the 15th-century Augsburg pattern.
Their most notable feature are that the Obers and Unters are engaged in combat except in the suit of leaves where they accompany their fighting comrades by playing musical instruments. Since the 1980s, Italian manufacturers have included 5s into their Salzburg decks to allow the German speaking South Tyroleans to play Italian card games that require 40 cards with suits they are more familiar with. Salzburg decks inherited the "Weli" from its extinct sibling, the Tyrolean pattern; the Bohemian pattern is descended from the Old Bavarian but has only 32 cards like the northern ones. The Salzburg and Bohemian patterns are not reversible and lack corner indices. Most games require only 32 cards by excluding the 6s such as Schafkopf. Games that require the full deck include Tarock; the Bavarian pattern developed into various different types. In all variants the Obers and Unters are portrayed as fighters, with the Ober and Unter of Leaves carrying a drum and fife respectively. Bavarian cards have an aspect ratio of 2:1.
In the non-reversible pattern which used to be commonplace, various pictorial designs were used on the pip cards. These individual scenes are now only found on the Deuces; the usual variants found today are the: Bavarian-Swabian pattern Bavarian Doppelbild, Munich type Bavarian Doppelbild, Stralsund type Non-reversible images of the nowadays common reversible cards Franconian reversible pattern Bohemian pattern Salzburg pattern Variants no longer common today: Old Bavarian pattern with variants in Poland and Russia Isarkreis pattern Nuremberg Eagle cards Regensburg pattern Tyrolean pattern The Augsburg pattern was on
A trick-taking game is a card or tile-based game in which play of a hand centers on a series of finite rounds or units of play, called tricks, which are each evaluated to determine a winner or taker of that trick. The object of such games may be tied to the number of tricks taken, as in plain-trick games such as Whist, Contract bridge, Napoleon, Rowboat and Spoil Five, or to the value of the cards contained in taken tricks, as in point-trick games such as Pinochle, the Tarot family, Rook, All Fours, Manille and most evasion games like Hearts; the domino game Texas 42 is an example of a trick-taking game, not a card game. Trick-and-draw games are trick-taking games in which the players can fill up their hands after each trick. In most variants, players are free to play any card into a trick in the first phase of the game, but must follow suit as soon as the stock is depleted. Trick-avoidance games like Reversis or Polignac are those in which the aim is to is avoid taking some or all tricks; the earliest card games were trick-taking games originating from China and spreading westwards during the early part of the second millennium.
Michael Dummett noted. They were played without trumps, following suit was not required but only the highest card of the suit led wins, rotation was counter-clockwise, they were plain-trick games, that the pip cards of one or more suit are in reverse order so that the lower cards beat the higher ones. Two revolutions occurred in European trick-taking games that would lead to the development of more sophisticated card games; the first is the invention of trumps in the 15th century. The second was bidding in the 17th century. According to card game researcher David Parlett, the oldest known European trick-taking game, Karnöffel, was mentioned in 1426 in the Bavarian town Nördlingen – half a century after the introduction of playing cards to Europe, which were first mentioned in Spain in 1371; the oldest known "trumps" appear in Karnöffel, where specific ranks of one suit were named Karnöffel, Pope etc. and subject to an elaborate system of trumping powers. Around 1440 in Italy, special cards called.
These special cards are now known as tarots, a deck augmented by tarots as a tarot deck. The trionfi/tarots formed a fifth suit without the ordinary ranks but consisting of trumps in a fixed hierarchy, but one can get a similar effect by declaring all cards of a fixed or randomly determined suit to be trumps. This method, originating with Triomphe, is still followed by a number of modern trick-taking games that do not involve an auction. Trumps were retroactively added to some games, such as Trappola, it is much rarer for trumps to be removed. The invention of trumps became so popular that few European trick-taking games exist without them; this did not stop the two-handed Piquet from becoming the most popular card game in Europe during the 16th century. Parlett suggests the invention of trumps let players in games involving more than two a greater chance of heading a trick; the invention of bidding for a trump suit is credited to Ombre, the most popular card game of the 17th century. Rather than having a randomly selected trump suit, players can now hold an auction for it.
The most popular games of the 18th-century was tarot. During this time, many tarot games borrowed bidding over the stock. In the 20th century, Whist developed into the last global trick-taking game, it is possible that the origin of the practice of counting tricks was the counting of cards won in tricks. It was therefore a logical development to accord some cards a higher counting-value, some cards no value at all, leading to point-trick games. Point-trick games are at least as old as tarot decks and may predate the invention of trumps. Elfern and Fünfzehnern are possible candidates although the earliest references date to the 19th century. Nearly all point-trick games are played with tarot decks or stripped decks, which in many countries became standard before 1600, neither point-trick games nor stripped decks have a tradition in England. While there are a number of games with unusual card-point values, such as Trappola and All Fours, most point-trick games are in the huge family of Ace–Ten card games beginning with Brusquembille.
Pinochle is a representative of this family, popular in the United States. Other examples include Skat. In contrast to Europe, Chinese trick-taking games did not develop trumps or bidding, they diverged into multi-trick games where melds can only be beaten by other melds provided they have the same number of cards. During the Qing dynasty, these multi-trick games evolved into the earliest draw-and-discard games where the players' objective is to form melds and "go out" rather than capturing the opponents' cards. Khanhoo is an example of a multi-trick game. Multi-trick games are probably the source for climbing games like Winner and Dou Dizhu which first appeared during the Cultural Revolution. Certain actions in trick-taking games with three or more players always proceed in the same direction. In games originating in North and West Europe, including England and the United States and Canada, the rotation is clockwise; when games move from one region to another, they tend to preserve their original sense of rotation
Minchiate is an early 16th-century card game, originating in Florence, Italy. It is no longer played. Minchiate can refer to the special deck of 97 playing cards used in the game; the deck is related to the tarot cards, but contains an expanded suit of trumps. The game was more complex than tarocchi; the minchiate represents a Florentine variant on the original game. Florence is one of the contenders for the birthplace of tarot; the earliest reference to tarot cards known as trionfi, is dated to 1440 when a notary in Florence recorded the transfer of two decks to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. The word minchiate comes from a dialect word meaning "nonsense" or "trifle", derived from mencla, the vulgar form of mentula, a Latin word for "phallus"; the word minchione is attested in Italian as meaning "fool", minchionare means "to laugh at" someone. The intended meaning may be "the game of the fool", considering that the card "The Fool" called "The Excuse", features prominently in the game play of all tarot games.
In tarocchini, sminchiate is a signal used to communicate to a teammate. The earliest reference to minchiate is found in a 1466 letter by Luigi Pulci to Lorenzo de' Medici. However, this game was believed to be played by a 78-card deck as evidenced by the Rosenwald sheets, uncut sheets of Florentine tarots dated from 1480 to 1500. There are two other differences from 97-card minchiate. First, in 97-card minchiate the sequence for some of the lower trumps goes from lowest to highest: Fortitude, Justice and Chariot. In the Rosenwald ordering it is Justice, Fortitude and Wheel. Second, the Rosenwald sheets contains the Popess as the second trump, not found in the 97-card deck. In a Florentine song written around 1500, the trumps in a tarot deck were listed as exactly as the Rosenwald sheets with the exception of the missing Popess which means that this card was dropped from the deck by that time; the song ranks the other trumps as Fortitude, Justice and Wheel, which suggests it is a transitional stage from the Rosenwald sheets to the 97-card deck's order.
97-card minchiate was first known as germini, after the Gemini card, the highest of the newly introduced trumps. The earliest record of germini dates to 1506; this deck was created by inserting the 20 new trumps as a single block between trump 15 and The Star, now trump 36. The new deck proved so much more popular that the 77-card deck ceased production and the older name of minchiate was transferred over to the larger deck during the 17th century; the game spread from Florence to the rest of France during that century. In Sicily, it was called gallerini while in Liguria it was known as ganellini but the rules used in these regions are lost save for cryptic references that they were quite different from the Florentine game. All surviving rules are derived from the type played in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal States. By the 18th century, minchiate had overtaken the original game of tarot in popularity in Italy. Paolo Minucci published a commentary on the game in 1676, the game is described in detail by Romain Merlin in Origine des cartes à jouer, published in Paris in 1869.
It was known in Germany during the late 18th century. The game was still played in Genoa in the 1930s, but its popularity declined in the late 19th and early 20th century; the minchiate deck differs from other tarot decks in several features. The first and most obvious difference is that the trumps have doubled in number. Minchiate uses additive Roman numerals for its trumps. Due to the large number of trumps, players called them by their number with the exception of the arie. Minchiate decks come in two standard patterns and which coexisted for two centuries. Earlier Minchiate dates from the early 16th century or the late 15th century. There are the four standard Latin suits of swords, batons and cups. In the minchiate deck, however, in the suits of cups and coins, the "knaves" or "pages" have been replaced by "maids"; the knights, mounted figures in the tarot of Marseilles and similar designs, are centaurs or sphinxes in many minchiate decks. The suits follow the Portuguese pattern with the exception of the batons which follows the northern Italian suit-system.
This pattern died out around 1900. The Republic of Lucca produced their own version of Minchiate decks which were similar to the ones used in nearby Florence but with several graphical differences. Kings are seated under arches, knights are humans riding horses, all knaves are male, the Fool is playing with a dog; this pattern died out in the eighteenth century. The Later Minchiate pattern appeared around the early 18th century as a luxury edition. In this version, the eight highest trumps lose their red backgrounds. Around 1820, this pattern was redesigned to give it a flatter, plainer appearance with changes to a quarter of the trump and court cards while restoring the red background to the high trumps; this pattern survived in Liguria until the 1930s. The trumps of the minchiate deck, their corresponding tarot of Marseilles cards and the esoteric Rider-Waite tarot deck are: By comparing the Rosenwald sheet with 16th century trump lists, the Popess was dropped in the late 15th century which shifted every trump above the first down one rank.
The Empress and Pope became the new II, III, IIII the latter now wearing a secular crown as opposed to a papal tiara. Since the five lowest trumps were collectively known as the p