Tarot card games
Tarot games called tarock games, are card games played with tarot decks known as Tarock decks. The basic rules first appeared in the manuscript of Martiano da Tortona, written before 1425; the games, known as "tarot", "tarock", "tarocco" and other spellings, are known in many variations cultural and regional. The deck which English-speakers call by the French name Tarot is called Tarocco in Italian, Tarock in German and various similar words in other languages. Tarot games originated in Italy, spread to most parts of Europe, notable exceptions being the British Isles, the Iberian peninsula, the Balkans, they are played with decks having four ordinary suits, one additional, longer suit of tarots, which are always trumps. They are characterised by the rule that a player who cannot follow to a trick with a card of the suit led must play a trump to the trick if possible. Tarot games may have introduced the concept of trumps to card games. More recent tarot games borrowed features from other games like bidding from Ombre and winning the last trick with the lowest trump from Trappola.
Tarot decks did not precede decks having four suits of the same length, they were invented not for occult purposes but purely for gaming. In 1781, Court de Gébelin published an essay associating the cards with ancient wisdom, the earliest record of this idea, subsequently debunked by Dummett; as a result, tarot cards have since been used for cartomancy and divination as well as gaming, although nowadays fortune-tellers tend to use specially-developed tarot decks rather than those used for games. Dummett classified Tarot games into three distinct types: Type I - in which there are other trumps with a value higher than one in addition to the Fool, the XXI and the I; these are only found in Italy. Type II - in which there are 3 high-value trumps, but the Fool is used as an'excuse'. Type III - in which there are 3 high-value trumps, but the Fool is the top trump. Tarocchi, similar names in other languages, is a specific form of playing card deck used for different trick-taking games. An earlier name of the game Trionfi is first recorded in the diary of Giusto Giusti in September 1440.
The name Tarochi was first used in Ferrara June 1505, the name Taraux appeared in Avignon in December of the same year. The names Tarocco and Tarot developed in times beside different writing forms; the poet Francesco Berni still mocked on this word in his Capitolo del Gioco della Primiera written in 1526. The name Trionfi developed as a general term for trick-taking games, although it has completely disappeared in its original function as deck name. Other different games claimed the name without any use of Tarocchi cards; the first basic rules for the game of Tarocco appear in the manuscript of Martiano da Tortona, the next are known from the year 1637. Excluding Piedmontese tarocchi, more related to French tarot, Italian tarocchi are all of Type I, i.e. they have trumps other than the I and XXI that are worth more than one card point. Winning the final trick awards a set number of points. Sicilian tarocchi is played in only four towns with 63 cards from the Tarocco Siciliano deck. Tarocchini uses the 62 card Tarocco Bolognese deck.
These games have four face cards in each suit but dropped some of their pip cards early in their history. Both decks include 21 trumps and The Fool, a suitless card that excuses the player from following suit; the French adopted tarot games after their occupation of Milan in the late 15th century. French tarot, known locally as Jeu de Tarot, is one. Played with the Italian-suited Tarot de Marseille, the game is now played with the French-suited Tarot Nouveau; the Tarot Nouveau, of Frankfurt origin, has trumps which depict scenes of traditional social activities. Jeu de Tarot is now the most popular card game in France after Belote and many tournaments are held by the Fédération Française de Tarot. A Tarot Nouveau deck consists of 56 cards of four suits and 22 emblematic cards called atouts; each suit consists of fourteen cards: ten pip cards, four face cards: the Roi, Dame and Valet. Of the atouts, 21 are numbered from 1 to 21, a non-numbered card called "Fou" which "excuses" the player from following suit.
Of the atouts, only the Fool and trumps 1 and 21 are considered to be "counting" cards because they are worth more than 1 point. Winning the last trick awards bonuses only if it is won with the lowest trump. Tarot games from Piedmont, the Italian region bordering France, are more similar to French tarot than other Italian games as it was the French that introduced tarot to that region; these games use the 78-card Tarocco Piemontese deck, derived from the Tarot de Marseille. The most common Piedmontese tarot games are Scarto, Chiamare il Re, Partita which can be found in Pinerolo and Turin. Piedmontese games are the simplest tarot games and can be used to introduce new players on basic rules and features. Troccas, a Swiss tarot game, is related and is played with the 78-card Swiss 1JJ Tarot, another derivative of the Tarot de Marseille. Danish Grosstarok, which focuses on winning the final trick uses the Tarot Nouveau. Tarock games, Dummett's Type III, differ from other forms in the function of the Fool, n
Esoteric Tarot is the art of reading Tarot cards, the practice of using cards to gain insight into the past, present or future by formulating a question drawing and interpreting cards. Reading Tarot cards is a type of cartomancy. One of the earliest reference to Tarot triumphs, the first reference to Tarot as the devil's picture book, is given by a Dominican preacher in a fiery sermon against the evils of the devil's instrument. References to the Tarot as a social plague continue throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but there are no indications that the cards were used for anything but games anywhere other than in Bologna; as Dummett notes, "...it was only in the 1780s, when the practice of fortune-telling with regular playing cards had been well established for at least two decades, that anyone began to use the Tarot pack for cartomancy." The belief in the divinatory meaning of the cards is associated with a belief in their occult properties: a held belief in the 18th century propagated by prominent Protestant clerics and freemasons.
One of them was Court de Gébelin. From its humble uptake as an instrument of prophecy in France, the Tarot went on to become a thing of hermeneutic, mystical and psychological properties, it was used by Romani people when telling fortunes, as a Jungian psychological apparatus capable of tapping into "absolute knowledge in the unconscious", a tool for archetypal analysis, a tool for facilitating the Jungian process of Individuation. Many involved in occult and divinatory practices attempt to trace the Tarot to ancient Egypt, divine hermetic wisdom, the mysteries of Isis; the first of those was Antoine Court de Gébelin, a French clergyman, who wrote that after seeing a group of women playing cards he had the idea that Tarot was not a game of cards but was in fact of ancient Egyptian origin, of mystical cabbalistic import, of deep divine significance. De Gébelin published a dissertation on the origins of the symbolism in the Tarot in volume VIII of work Le Monde primitif in 1781, he thought the Tarot represented ancient Egyptian Theology, including Isis and Typhon.
For example, he thought the card he knew as the Papesse and known today as the High Priestess represented Isis. He related four Tarot cards to the four Christian Cardinal virtues: Temperance, Justice and Prudence, he relates The Tower to a Greek fable about avarice. Although the ancient Egyptian language had not yet been deciphered, de Gébelin asserted the name "Tarot" came from the Egyptian words Tar, "path" or "road", the word Ro, Ros or Rog, meaning "King" or "royal", that the Tarot translated to the Royal Road of Life. Egyptologists found nothing in the Egyptian language to support de Gébelin's etymologies. Despite this lack of any evidence, the belief that the tarot cards are linked to the Egyptian Book of Thoth continues to the present day; the actual source of the occult Tarot can be traced to two articles in volume eight, one written by himself, one written by M. le C. de M.***. The second has been noted to have been more influential than de Gébelin's; the author takes de Gébelin's speculations further, agreeing with him about the mystical origins of the Tarot in ancient Egypt, but making several additional, influential, statements that continue to influence mass understanding of the occult tarot to this day.
He makes the first statement proposing that the Tarot is, in fact, The Book of Thoth, that it is associated with the Romani people, makes the first association of Tarot with cartomancy. The first to assign divinatory meanings to the Tarot cards were cartomancer Jean-Baptiste Alliette in 1783 and Mlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormand. According to Dummett, Etteilla: devised a method of tarot divination in 1783, wrote a cartomantic treatise of tarot as the Book of Thoth, created the first society for Tarot cartomancy, the Société littéraire des associés libres des interprètes du livre de Thot. created the first corrected Tarot, The Grand Ettielle deck created the first Egyptian tarot to be used for Tarot cartomancy published, under the imprint of his society, the Dictionnaire synonimique du Livre de Thot, a book that "systematically tabulated all the possible meanings which each card could bear, when upright and reversed.". Etteilla also: suggested that Tarot was repository of the wisdom of Hermes Trismegistus was a book of eternal medicine was an account of the creation of the world argued that the first copy of the tarot was imprinted on leaves of goldMichael Dummett suggests that Etteilla was attempting to scoop Court de Gébelin as the author of the occult tarot.
Etteilla in fact claimed to have been involved with Tarot longer than Court de Gébelin. Mlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormand outshone Ettiella and was the first cartomancer to people in high places, being the personal confidant of Empress Josephine and other notables. Lenormand used both regular playing cards, in particular the Piquet pack, as well as cards derived from Etteilla's Egyptian root, she was so famous that a deck was published in her name, the Grand Jeu de Mlle Lenormand, two years after her death in 1843. The concept of the cards as a mystical key was extended by Éliphas Lévi. Lévi was educated in the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, was ordained as a deacon, but never became a priest. Dummett notes that it is from Lévi's book Dogme et rituel that the "whole of the modern occultist movement stem
Tārūt Island is an island in the Persian Gulf belonging to the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, connected by two causeways to Qatif. It is six kilometers from the coast, is the longest island in the Persian Gulf after Qeshm Island, extending from Ra’s Tannurah in the north to Qatif in the west; the island has an area of 70 square kilometers, a population of 77,757. It contains a number of towns and villages, including Tārūt itself and Darīn. Tarout history dates back to pre-5000 BC, it is considered as one of the most ancient sites that were inhabited by humans, as well as one of the oldest areas along the Arabian Peninsula. Tarout was the heart of Dilmun Kingdom and had a major role in the history of the region since 3000 BC. Human habitation in this area over the centuries was large and archaeological discoveries were found until, rare in most parts of the world's archaeological sites; the Island had a significant role in trade activity in the entire Persian Gulf region. It was a central point for trade between Mesopotamia and along the coastal areas in the east of the Arabian Peninsula.
Its strong relationships with many of the urbanized areas along the region were well known. The Christian practice that a marriage was only valid if blessed by a priest was first mandated by a synod of Christians living in the region held in Darin in 676 CE by Patriarch George I—chief bishop of the Church of the East, one of the two main churches of the Syriac Christian tradition; the ancient Arabic name for the place was apparently'Ishtarut. Ishtarut or Ashtaroot, which means, as was believed by the Babylonians, the Canaanites and Phoenicians. In the Middle Ages the island was called Dairin or Daryn, for one of its cities.. The Treaty of Darin was signed on the island in 1915 between the United Kingdom. Archaeological finds indicate that the island has been inhabited since 5000 BC, it was occupied by the Persian Empire, the Islamic Empire. The most important collections found in the Tarout was pure golden statue representing Ashtaroot goddess; the statue was found placed on the ground in one of the palm groves in the Tarout.
There are many other statues and pottery vessels and traditional weapons found in the Tarout that are displayed in the Riyadh Museum. It contains a Portuguese fort, located in Al Deyrah; the Portuguese castle was repaired in the 951H, built on the ruins of former settlements and one of the oldest ones, dating back to over 5,000 years ago. The site consists of the Fortress of Al-Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Al Fehani, built in 1303H as well as the Fortress of Abu Al-leaf, located between the Tarout and Al Qatif, in addition to the three mosques on the old road from Al Qatif. In 1959 a man cleaning a street discovered rocks with Sabaean inscriptions on them; the most famous artefacts found on Tārūt were unearthed by Danish archaeologists in 1968. When the municipality of Qatīf wanted to build a causeway to Tārūt in 1962 they took sand from the hill known as Tell Rafī’ah, found Stone Age artifacts, including pottery, a statue; the last discovery was in 1993 on Tell Rafī’ah. Sometimes archaeological ruins are discovered by accident.
Many vessels have been found on Tārūt carved from steatite from Tell Rafī'ah. The source of the steatite was in South Western Persia, but the carving industry seems to have been a local one. Among the ancient statues discovered in Tārūt is one of a naked man made out of dark grey stone, it was found in the 1950s by a man ploughing his field. It is 94 cm high, the man is standing in a reverential posture, with wide eyes, it is certainly Sumerian in origin, though it was found about 1000 kilometers from the nearest city of Sumer. It is a high quality object, but was destroyed by the superstitious villagers, who thought it had something to do with spirits, so cut it in half and beheaded it, it now stands the National Museum of Riyadh. In 1962 when some of the inhabitants of the village of Rabī'iyah were replacing their former thatched houses with buildings of stone and plaster, a man climbing some of the hills looking for stones, they chanced upon a jar, discovered a number of graves, which experts suggested were to be Jewish in origin.
They found many earthenware vessels at the same site. At Khārijīyah in the north of Tārūt many clay figurines have been found. Tarout Island represents one of the most important sea ports in all parts of Saudi Arabia. In ancient times, the island was a vital seaport to receive boats from the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Tarout was a metropolis on the island, which took its name from its castle, located in the heart of the island, surrounded by small villages. Tarout Castle is located in the center of Tarout Island at the edge of Al Deyrah village; the castle was built in the period from 1515 to 1521. So far it is unknown who built it, although some archeologists suggest that
The French game of tarot jeu de tarot, is a trick-taking strategy tarot card game played by three to five players using a traditional 78-card tarot deck. The game is the second most popular card game in France and is known in French-speaking Canada. France is one of the first two countries outside of Italy to start playing tarot, the other being Switzerland; the tarot card game was played with the Italian suited Tarot of Marseilles deck which lacked reversible face cards and trumps and corner indices. For ease of play, a deck style known as the "Tarot Nouveau" or "Bourgeois Tarot" is used in the modern times; this deck, which began to appear around the late 19th century, uses French suits and replaces the traditional Renaissance allegorical images of the atouts with depictions of typical fin de siècle genre scenes of French life and leisure. In English, the game is referred to as the French tarot; this is done to differentiate the card game from other uses of the tarot deck that are more familiar in the Americas and English-speaking countries the decks used for cartomancy and other divinatory purposes, to distinguish it from other card games played with a tarot deck.
The most unique feature that distinguishes French tarot from other forms of tarot games is the over-trumping rule. Tarot became the second-most popular card game in France since the latter part of the 20th century, trailing only the Belote. Part of the reason why the French tarot game persisted is the fact that the rules have been consistent wherever the game is played. While various types of tarot games were played in France since the 16th century, the dominant form now popular is the 19th-century rule set from Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. However, it is important to note that details of gameplay outside of sanctioned tournaments may vary from circle to circle so that the known rules and terminologies are more typical than definitive; the game of tarot is played using a 78-card tarot deck. This deck is composed of: 21 numbered trump cards, 1 unnumbered trump card: the "Excuse" or "Fool" 3 of which are trumps with particular importance: the 1 of trumps, the 21 of trumps and the "Excuse" as these determine the contract the taker commits to in that particular game.
4 suits of 14 cards each: numbered "pip cards" from 1 to 10 have no true value, except when taking its "fold" or add.5 point at counting, four "face cards". Three cards known as oudlers are of particular importance in the game: the 1 of trumps, the 21 of trumps, the Excuse; these cards, when captured by the high bidder, lower the point threshold needed to fulfill the contract. In colloquial French, oudlers are referred to as bouts; the ranking of the hearts, clubs and spades from the top is: King, Knight, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. As an aside, the trumps and Fool can be removed to yield a 56-card deck similar to a 52-card French deck but with the additional Cavalier court card in each suit; this deck configuration, plus the Fool, was copied using culture-neutral card designs and values to create the deck for the Rook game. The only card with a special effect is L'Excuse; the Excuse may be played on any trick. However, it doesn't win the trick; the card normally remains the property of the person who played it, not the winner of that trick.
Two common exceptions to the above behaviors are seen when the Excuse is played on the last trick, what happens depends on whether the side playing the Fool has taken all the previous tricks. If the side has taken all previous tricks, the card takes the last trick. For 3 or 4 players; the 4-player variant is considered the most challenging and is the one played in competitions. The following rules are for 4 players. Players draw for the first deal. All trumps rank higher than any suited card. From this point, the deal will pass to the right for each subsequent deal; the player at the left of the dealer cuts the deck. The dealer deals out the entire deck, counter-clockwise, starting with the player on their right; each player is dealt their cards in "packets" of three consecutive cards at a time. In addition, a chien of 6 cards is dealt one card at a time into the center of the table, while dealing to the other players. A card may be dealt to the dog at any time, but the dealer may not: deal the dog two consecutive cards, deal the dog a card from the middle of a player's "packet", or deal the first or last card of the deck to the dog.
A common valid dealing order is Player A -> Player B -> dog -> Player C -> Dealer, but this is just one possi
Tarot is the sixth full-length album by the Spanish power metal band Dark Moor. The songs of the album are all named after the Major Arcana deck in the Tarot card game; the first single extracted from the album was "The Chariot". Manda Ophius of the Dutch symphonic metal band Nemesea is the guest female vocalist on Tarot; the final track, "the Moon", samples Ludwig van Beethoven's "Symphony No. 5" and "Moonlight Sonata". The bonus track, "Mozart's March" is based on Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's "Rondo A'la Turca", it was performed live in Granada, Piorno Rock, back in 2002, five years before it was released. "The Magician" - 1:29 "The Chariot" - 4:20 "The Star" - 4:25 "Wheel of Fortune" - 3:55 "The Emperor" - 4:07 "Devil in the Tower" - 7:49 "Death" - 4:58 "Lovers" - 4:04 "The Hanged Man" - 5:27 "The Moon" - 11:28 "The Fool" - 4:12 "Mozart's March - 2:42 Alfred Romero - Vocals Enrik Garcia - Guitars / piano Daniel Fernandez - Bass Roberto Cappa - Drums Manda Ophuis - Guest vocals Hendrik Jong - Clean guitar Andy C.
- Guest drums
Tarot is a heavy metal band from Finland. They are most famous for the song “Wings of Darkness” from the 1986 album Spell of Iron. While having enjoyed a broad underground popularity in Finland, the band has never been famous elsewhere until gaining new success in recent years when their singer and bassist Marco Hietala joined Nightwish in 2002. Tarot was formed by the Hietala brothers in the early 80's. Back the band was called “Purgatory”; as Purgatory reached the point when they got the record deal, the label wanted them to change their name. Since the band has been known as Tarot; the line-up settled into the form of Zachary Hietala, Mako H and Pecu Cinnari. The "Wings of Darkness" single saw the daylight in April 1986 and in December that same year Tarot released their first full-length album Spell of Iron. In April 1988, following the release of a single "Rose on the Grave", their second album Follow Me into Madness was released. After the second album, there was a hiatus in the band. During this'vacation' the line-up changed a little bit and a keyboardist was added to the band as Janne Tolsa joined Tarot and replaced the second guitarist Mako H.
After long preparation, the third album To Live Forever came out in February 1993. Tarot received good publicity in Japan, making their first live album To Live Again to be released as a Japanese special edition in November 1994; the live album was recorded at Tavastia Club, Helsinki in August 1994. Some of the songs from the live album were released the following year on a limited edition bonus CD with the next studio album, Stigmata. To Live Forever was remixed and re-released in 2006 together with all the previous albums. Much anticipated For the Glory of Nothing came out in 1998. Shining Black, a Tarot compilation album, came out in Japan in December 1998. While Tarot was inactive, Marco played in the bands Conquest and Sinergy. Together with other members of Conquest, Marco played cover songs under the name Metal Gods. Marco became a member of Nightwish in 2001. Tolsa played the keyboards for Virtuocity's Secret Visions album. In summer 2002 Tarot played a special 80s' gig in Kuopio, playing material only from the first two albums.
In March 2003, the compilation Shining Black was released again in the rest of the world. Tarot signed a new record deal with Spinefarm Records and the new studio album Suffer Our Pleasures was released. While the album did well in Finland, it was noticed elsewhere. During these years Marco was busy with his other band Nightwish by recording and touring around the world. Tolsa worked on an album with Eternal Tears of Sorrow and toured with the industrial metal band Turmion Kätilöt. Early spring 2006, Tarot's earlier label Bluelight Records released a collection of the band's first six albums remastered with a large amount of bonus material, unreleased demos and special versions of the songs and some covers; some of the albums were remixed. The fans had been expecting the re-releases for years and the collection was so successful that in May 2006, when Tarot released the new single "You", it made number one on the Finnish charts for the first time in the history of the band. During that time, the band formalized their long-time roadie/backing vocalist Tommi'Tuple' Salmela as a band member after being with the band for more than a decade.
Early 2006, Tarot was signed to KingFoo Entertainment in Finland, with Nuclear Blast covering the rest of Europe. During summer of 2006, the band not only toured various clubs and festivals but composed and recorded new material; the album Crows Fly Black was released in October 2006. On June 11, 2008, Tarot released their first live DVD; the DVD had a live album counterpart. They followed the release with a short tour in support of Undead Indeed, which began January 30, 2009, their new album, entitled Gravity of Light was released in Finland on March 10, 2010, in Europe on April 23, 2010, the UK on April 26, 2010, in the US on June 8, 2010. Re-recorded first album, some updated lyrics and updated sound. Released in conjunction with the 25th Anniversary of their No. 1 single "Wings of Darkness" back in 1986. On September 11, 2016, it was announced on Facebook that drummer Pecu Cinnari had died due to a long-term illness, it is unknown whether the band just split up. Marco Hietala – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Zachary Hietala – guitars Janne Tolsa – keyboards Tommi “Tuple” Salmela – sampler, backing vocals Mako H - guitars Pecu "Spede" Cinnari – drums Spell of Iron Follow Me Into Madness To Live Forever Stigmata For the Glory of Nothing Suffer Our Pleasures Crows Fly Black Gravity of Light The Spell of Iron MMXI To Live Again Undead Indeed Wings of Darkness Love's Not Made for My Kind Rose on the Grave Angels of Pain As One Warhead The Punishment Undead Son You I Walk Forever Shining Black - The Best of Tarot Metallic Emotions Undead Indeed Wings of Darkness Love's Not Made for My Kind I Don't Care Anymore The Punishment Pyre of Gods Ashes to the Stars I Walk Forever Wings of Darkness Official site Tarot discography at MusicBrainz
The tarot is a pack of playing cards, used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play games such as Italian tarocchini, French tarot and Austrian Königrufen. Many of these tarot card games are still played today. In the late 18th century, some Tarot packs began to be used in parallel for divination in the form of tarotology and cartomancy and specialist packs were developed for such occult purposes. Like common playing cards, the tarot has four suits; each suit has ten pip cards numbering from one to ten and four face cards. In addition, the tarot has a single card known as the Fool. Depending on the game, the Fool may be played to avoid following suit; these tarot cards, without occult symbology, are still used throughout much of Europe to play card games. In English-speaking countries, where these games are not played tarot cards are used for divinatory purposes using specially designed packs; the cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.
The word tarot and German Tarock derive from the Italian tarocchi, the origin of, uncertain but taroch was used as a synonym for foolishness in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The decks were known as trionfi during the fifteenth century; the new name first appeared in Brescia around 1502 as tarocho. During the 16th century, a new game played with a standard deck but sharing a similar name was becoming popular; this coincided with the older game being renamed tarocchi. In modern Italian, the singular term is tarocco, which, as a noun, means a type of blood orange, and, as an adjective, means'fake, counterfeit'. Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th century, most from Mamluk Egypt, with suits of Batons or Polo sticks, Coins and Cups; these suits were similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional Italian and Portuguese playing card decks. The first documented tarot packs were recorded between 1440 and 1450 in Milan, Ferrara and Bologna when additional trump cards with allegorical illustrations were added to the common four-suit pack.
These new decks were called carte da trionfi, triumph cards, the additional cards known as trionfi, which became "trumps" in English. The earliest documentation of trionfi is found in a written statement in the court records of Florence, in 1440, regarding the transfer of two decks to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta; the oldest surviving tarot cards are the 15 or so Visconti-Sforza tarot decks painted in the mid-15th century for the rulers of the Duchy of Milan. A lost tarot-like pack was commissioned by Duke Filippo Maria Visconti and described by Martiano da Tortona between 1418 and 1425, since the painter he mentions, Michelino da Besozzo, returned to Milan in 1418, while Martiano himself died in 1425, he described a 60-card deck with 16 cards having images of the Greek gods and suits depicting four kinds of birds. The 16 cards were regarded as "trumps" since in 1449 Jacopo Antonio Marcello recalled that the now deceased duke had invented a novum quoddam et exquisitum triumphorum genus, or "a new and exquisite kind of triumphs".
Other early decks that showcased classical motifs include the Sola-Busca and Boiardo-Viti decks of the 1490s. In Florence, an expanded deck called; this deck of 97 cards includes astrological symbols and the four elements, as well as traditional tarot motifs. Although a Dominican preacher inveighed against the evil inherent in cards in a sermon in the 15th century, no routine condemnations of tarot were found during its early history; because the earliest tarot cards were hand-painted, the number of the decks produced is thought to have been small. It was only after the invention of the printing press; the expansion of tarot outside of Italy, first to France and Switzerland, occurred during the Italian Wars. The most important tarot pattern used in these two countries was the Tarot of Marseilles of Milanese origin; the original purpose of tarot cards was to play games. A cursory explanation of rules for a tarot-like deck is given in a manuscript by Martiano da Tortona before 1425. Vague descriptions of game play or game terminology follow for the next two centuries until the earliest known complete description of rules for a French variant in 1637.
The game of tarot has many regional variations. Tarocchini has survived in Bologna and there are still others played in Piedmont and Sicily, but in Italy the game is less popular than elsewhere; the 18th century saw tarot's greatest revival, during which it became one of the most popular card games in Europe, played everywhere except Ireland and Britain, the Iberian peninsula, the Ottoman Balkans. French tarot experienced a revival beginning in the 1970s and France has the strongest tarot gaming community. Regional tarot games—often known as tarock, tarok, or tarokk are played in central Europe within the borders of the former Austro-Hungarian empire; these were the oldest form of tarot deck to be made, being first devised in the 15th century in northern Italy. The so-called occult tarot decks are based on decks of this type. Three