Prior to European settlement, they lived as all people of the Kulin nation lived, on the land, predominantly as hunters and gatherers, for tens of thousands of years. Seasonal changes in the weather, availability of foods and other factors would determine where campsites were located, many near the Birrarung, Wurundjeri people spoke the Woiwurrung language. Wurundjeri refers to the people who occupy one tribal territory, while Woiwurrung refers to the group shared by the other tribal territory groups. Some tribes in this territory are Gunung william Balluk, Kurung Jang Balluk, Marin Balluk, the Woi Wurrung peoples territory extended from north of the Great Dividing Range, east to Mount Baw Baw, south to Mordialloc Creek and west to Werribee River. Their lands bordered the Gunai/Kurnai people to the east in Gippsland, the Bunurong people to the south on the Mornington Peninsula, Wurundjeri people take their name from the word wurun meaning Manna Gum which is common along Birrarung, and djeri, a grub found in the tree.
The Wurundjeri Tribe Land and Compensation Cultural Heritage Council was established in 1985 by descendants of the Wurundjeri people, the Wurundjeri have lived in the Woi Wurrung area for up to 40,000 years, according to Gary Presland. At the Keilor Archaeological Site a human hearth excavated in 1971 was radiocarbon-dated to about 31,000 years BP, a cranium found at the site has been dated at between 12,000 and 14,700 years BP. Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands became separated from mainland Australia around 12,000 BP, port Phillip was flooded by post-glacial rising sea levels between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago. Oral history and creation stories from the Wada wurrung, hobsons Bay was once a kangaroo hunting ground. Creation stories describe how Bunjil was responsible for the formation of the bay, the mine provided a complex network of trading for economic and social exchange among the different Aboriginal nations in Victoria. The Quarry had been in use for more than 1,500 years, in February 2008 the site was placed on the Australian National Heritage List for its cultural importance and archeological value.
William Buckley, a convict, escaped from this abortive settlement and this would have impacted the economic and social ties binding the Woi Wurrung and Bunwurrung peoples. Broome puts forward that two epidemics of smallpox decimated the population of the Kulin tribes by perhaps killing half each time in the 1790s, any plague is supposed to be brought on by the Mindye or some of its little ones. On 6 June 1835 John Batman met with eight elders of the Woi Wurrung people including Bebejan and Billibellary, the meeting took place on the bank of a small stream, likely to be the Merri Creek and treaty documents were signed along with exchanges of goods by both sides. The total value of the goods has been estimated at about GBP100 in the value of the day, in return the Woiwurrung offered woven baskets of examples of their weaponry and two Possum-skin cloaks, a highly treasured item. After the treaty signing, a celebration took place with the Parramatta Aborigines with Batmans party dancing a corroboree, the treaty was significant as it was the first and only documented time when European settlers negotiated their presence and occupation of Aboriginal lands.
The Treaty was immediately repudiated by the government in Sydney. Derrimut, an arweet of the Bunurong informed the early European settlers in October 1835 of an attack by up-country people
A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In arid areas, wind erosion can be an important factor in rockhouse formation, erosion from moving water is seldom a significant factor. Many rock shelters are found under waterfalls, Rock shelter formation types Rock shelters are often important archaeologically. Because rock shelters form natural shelters from the weather, prehistoric humans often used them as living-places, and left behind debris, tools, in mountainous areas the shelters can be important for mountaineers. In western Connecticut and eastern New York, many shelters are known by the colloquialism leatherman caves. Sandstone can be used as shingles for roof tops when possible, the Cumberland stitchwort is an endangered species of plant which is found only in rock shelters in Kentucky and Tennessee. Gatecliff Rockshelter Kinlock Shelter Mesa Verde Overhang Roc-aux-Sorciers Shelter Rock Walnut Canyon
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
They were part of the Kulin alliance of tribes. There were 16 clans, which adhered to a patrilineal system, like the other Kulin peoples there were two moieties, Bunjil the eagle and Waa the crow. The Dja Dja Wurrung were bound to their land by their belief system deriving from the Dreaming, when mythic beings had created the world. They were part of established trade networks which allowed goods and information to flow over substantial distances, the Tachylite deposits near Spring Hill and the Coliban River may have been important trade goods as stone artefacts from this material have been found around Victoria. There is evidence that smallpox swept through the Dja Dja Wurrung in 1789 and 1825, the epidemics were incorporated into aboriginal mythology as a giant snake, the Mindye, sent by Bunjil, to blow magic dust over people to punish them for being bad. The trade networks would have carried news of the white men settling on the Eora land in the early 1790s. Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja Wurrung country when he explored and surveyed central Victoria in 1836, the settlement of the Goulburn and Loddon Districts began the following year by squatters eager to carve out a station and run.
On 7 February 1841 Munangabum was shot and wounded by settlers while his companion Gondiurmin died at Far Creek Station, three settlers were apprehended and tried on 18 May 1841 but were acquitted for want of evidence as aborigines could not give evidence in courts of law. He was murdered in 1846 by a rival clan-head from the south, an important source of frontier conflict was sexual relations between European settlers and aboriginal women. Abduction and rape of women was relatively common, often leading to violent interactions. Parker expressed in 1842 the firm conviction and that nine out of ten outrages committed by the blacks derived either directly or indirectly from sexual relations. The Dja Dja wurrung peoples experienced two waves of settlement and dispossession, from the south from 1837 and from the north from 1845, very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court. On the few occasions when this did happen, the cases were dismissed as aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law.
The incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported and he arrived in Melbourne in January 1839 with Robinson appointing Parker to the northwest or Loddon District in March. He did not start his protectorate until September 1839, the Protectors duties included to safeguard aborigines from encroachments on their property, and from acts of cruelty, of oppression or injustice and a longer term goal of civilising the natives. Parker initially established his base at Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, which was not close enough to the nations of his protectorate. The Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps and stations or reserves for each protector were approved in 1840. Parkers original choice for a reserve in September 1840 was a site, known as Neereman by the Dja Dja Wurrung, on Bet Bet Creek a tributary of the Loddon River
Jarijari were a historically significant Indigenous Australian people whose traditional territory was located in the Mallee region of Victoria. The tribe were one of two tribes speaking the now extinct Keramin language, though there is confusion over names. Jarijari was the word for no. It was used to name the tribe because of the frequency of its use in the language. Tindale notes that the Jari Jari traditional lands were from Western bank of Murray River from above Chalka Creek to Annuello, south to Lake Korong and Pine Plains, northwest to near Redcliffs. Neighbouring tribes were the Wergaia language group tribes to the south, the Latjilatji to the west, accounts of the life of the Jari Jari people were some of the most early documented by explorers and early settlers of the Murray Darling basin. The Jarijari appear to have been in the Murray River valley for at least 40000years, major Thomas Mitchell passed through the tribes territory between June 2 and June 10,1836, during his Third Expedition.
He encountered the remains of a camp of up to 400 natives with temporary structures. In his journals he writes of having heard and being pursued by local natives, the Blandowski Expedition was one of the first documented European encounters with the people. Blandowski engaged the people to document local species and included in his journals the used by the people for two local species of fish - the Murray cod and Trout cod, “Yaturr” and “Barnta”. Blandowski described the Yarree as his good friends, notably one of William Blandowskis 1857 illustrations depicted traditional Jari Jari recreation. Blandowski and Peter Beveridge, in his 1889 account The Aborigines of Victoria, a local Mildura newspaper reports that the last of the tribe, John Mack, died in June,1918
The Jardwadjali people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The towns of Horsham, Coleraine, Minyip, there were 37 Jardwadjali clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Djab wurrung people through intermarriage, shared culture and moiety system. The Jardwadjali language shares 90 percent common vocabulary with Djab wurrung, sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. The Jardwadjali people have lived in the area for up to 30,000 to 40,000 years, one site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago. In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, a further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd with Gar meaning ‘pointed mountain’, i meaning ‘the’, Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour.
The team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, after the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre. The depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law, the incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported, it is likely other incidents occurred that were never reported and not documented officially. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants, the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area, Gariwerd/Grampians. The indigenous peoples of the Wimmera won native title recognition on 13 December 2005 after a legal process.
It was the first successful native title claim in south-eastern Australia and in Victoria, determined by Justice Ron Merkel involving Wotjobaluk, Jardwadjali, unamurriman, better known in cricket circles as Johnny Mullagh was born around 1843
The area was settled in the 1860s by the Henty family who had settled nearby Portland, and a post office opened in 1863 though known as Bridgewater Lower for some years. Both Cape Bridgewater and Bridgewater Bay were named by named after the Duke of Bridgewater, Cape Bridgewater includes the following protected areas within its boundaries - the Discovery Bay Coastal Park and the Mount Richmond National Park. Cape Bridgewater is home to a colony of up to 650 fur seals and has the highest coastal cliff in Victoria and these cliffs are suitable spot to observe southern right whales in winter and spring. Bridgewater Bay and the adjacent Cape form a partially submerged volcanic caldera, to the west is a large area with huge sand dunes. This is part of the Portland Wind Project Great South West Walk Media related to Cape Bridgewater at Wikimedia Commons Cape Bridgewater
The territory was bordered by the Djab wurrung and Wada wurrung in the north, the Dhauwurd wurrung in the west, and the Djargurd Wurrung and Gadubanud in the east. The Framlingham Aboriginal Reserve was established in Girai wurrung territory bordering the Gunditjmara people, the Girai wurrung people had 21 clans with a patriarchal hierarchy and a matrilineally based descent system based on the Gabadj and Guragidj moieties. The clans gathered with the Djab wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung peoples to harvest eels at Lake Bolac and they met at Mirraewuae swamp near Hexham to hunt emus and other game and to conduct business. European settlement of the began in 1838 and in the early 1840s the Girai wurrung engaged in a sustained guerilla war with the encroaching pastoralists. Dispossession from their land led to starvation and the theft of sheep resulted in murderous reprisals, assistant Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright was successful in bringing charges against G. S. This decision was made despite the nature of the squatters licence by the Government to allow for Aboriginal access for hunting.
Gunditjmara from Portland and Lake Condah refused to settle at Framlingham, historian Ian Clark asserts that from 1868 the history of the Girai wurrung becomes the history of Framlingham
The Yorta Yorta comprises a number of separate family groups, which include the Bangerang, Wollithiga, Ulupna, Kwat Kwat, Yalaba Yalaba, and Ngurai-illiam-wurrung. Their language is the Yorta Yorta language, the Appeal was dismissed in a majority 2 to 1 decision. The case was taken on appeal to the High Court of Australia, ultimate decision making responsibility was retained by the Environment Minister Adam Briggs, hip-hop artist. William Cooper, helped establish the Australian Aborigines League in 1935 and he led the first Aboriginal deputation to a Commonwealth minister, and another to protest the treatment of German Jews in 1938. His daughter, Amy Charles, was the matron of the first Aboriginal hostel established in Melbourne, in August 2010, the Yad VaShem Holocaust museum in Israel announced they would honor William for his protests on behalf of Jews after Kristallnacht. Yad Vashem plans to endow a small garden at its entrance in Coopers honor, Jimmy Little was a musician whose career has spanned over six decades.
His was the first song written and recorded by indigenous Australians in 1958 and he was the first indigenous Australian entertainer to appear on television, Jimmy Little in 1999, ARIA inducted Little into its Hall of Fame. In 1935, he became the first indigenous Australian to be selected in the Victorian interstate Australian rules team, Burnum Burnum was an activist and author. Eric Onus played a role both politically and socially among Victorian aboriginal people. He was a member of the Australian Aboriginal League established by William Cooper in the mid-1930s. William Townsend Onus, known as Bill Onus, was an Aboriginal Australian political activist, William McLintock Onus Jr was born Lin Burralung McLintock Onus, his father was a political activist and businessman, Bill Onus. Onus was a largely self-taught urban artist who began as a mechanic before making artifacts for the tourist market with his fathers business. John Thomas Patten, known as Jack Patten, was a boxer, civil rights activist, war veteran.
John Trevor Patten, Australian bantamweight boxing champion between 1958 and 1962, wes Patten, television host, and former NRL player with the South Sydney Rabbitohs, St. George Dragons, Balmain Tigers and Gold Coast Chargers. Roles in television and film include playing opposite Cate Blanchett in Heartland, other roles include stints on A Country Practice, Wills & Burke, and G. P. She was a musician who sung at social occasions raising funds for war efforts, David Wirrpanda, former AFL player with the West Coast Eagles, known for his community work in helping to improve the lives of young indigenous Australians. The David Wirrpanda Foundation was launched in 2005 and he was named the 9th most influential Aboriginal Australian by The Bulletin magazine on 30 November 2007. Margaret Wirrpanda, an activist, niece of Margaret Tucker, mother to David Wirrpanda, andrew Walker, a current AFL player with the Carlton Football Club
Discovery Bay Coastal Park
The Discovery Bay Coastal Park is a linear protected area of coastal land in western Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The 10, 460-hectare park extends along the coast of Discovery Bay from Cape Nelson north-westwards for 50 kilometres to the border with South Australia, the park was listed on Australia’s now-defunct Register of the National Estate, and lies within the traditional lands of the Gunditjmara people. Part of the course of the Great South West Walk is located within the park.5 square kilometres, additional parcels of land were acquired in 1981,1987 and 1997. The limestone contains mammalian fossil deposits of Pleistocene age, some 320 native vascular plant species have been recorded in the park. An important wetland is Long Swamp, fed by a groundwater aquifer, as water levels continue to decline, Woolly Tea-tree is beginning to colonise formerly sedge-dominated areas. The swamp’s sedge habitat is an important site for an endangered damselfly, the park forms much of the Discovery Bay to Piccaninnie Ponds Important Bird Area, identified by BirdLife International as being of global significance for several bird species.
Two threatened birds, the hooded plover and little tern, nest on the beaches, threatened fish species, include the Yarra pygmy perch and dwarf galaxias. Mammals found in the include the long-nosed potoroo, heath mouse. There are Australian fur seal colonies on platforms at Capes Nelson. Protected areas of Victoria Parks Victoria, Discovery Bay Coastal Park