Tartary or Great Tartary was a historical region in Asia located between the Caspian Sea-Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Tartary was a blanket term used by Europeans for the areas of Central Asia, North Asia, East Asia unknown to European geography, it encompassed the vast region of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the Volga-Urals, the Caucasus, Inner Asia and Manchuria. Knowledge of Manchuria and Central Asia in Europe prior to the 18th century was limited; the entire area was known as "Tartary" and its inhabitants "Tartars". In the Early modern period, as understanding of the geography increased, Europeans began to subdivide Tartary into sections with prefixes denoting the name of the ruling power or the geographical location. Thus, Siberia was Great Tartary or Russian Tartary, the Crimean Khanate was Little Tartary, Manchuria was Chinese Tartary, western Central Asia was known as Independent Tartary. European opinions of the area were negative, reflected the legacy of the Mongol invasions that originated from this region.

The term originated in the wake of the widespread devastation spread by the Mongol Empire. The adding of an extra "r" to "Tatar" was suggestive of Tartarus, a Hell-like realm in Greek mythology. In the 18th century, conceptions of Siberia or Tartary and its inhabitants as "barbarous" by Enlightenment-era writers tied into contemporary ideas of civilization and racism; the usage of "Tartary" declined. Ethnographical data collected by Jesuit missionaries in China contributed to the replacement of "Chinese Tartary" with Manchuria in European geography by the early 18th century; the voyages of Egor Meyendorff and Alexander von Humboldt into this region gave rise to the term Central Asia in the early 19th century as well as supplementary terms such as Inner Asia, Russian expansionism led to the term "Siberia" being coined for the Asian half of the Russian Empire. By the 20th century, Tartary as a term for Siberia and Central Asia was obsolete. However, it lent the title to Peter Fleming's book News from Tartary, which detailed his travels in Central Asia.

In the novel Ada by Vladimir Nabokov, Tartary is the name of a large country on the fictional planet of Antiterra. Russia is Tartary's approximate geographic counterpart on Terra, Antiterra's twin world identical to "our" Earth, but doubly fictional in the context of the novel. "The Squire's Tale" from Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales is set in the royal court of Tartary. In Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, the eponymous hero refers to his travels in Tartary on two occasions, suggests that the modern geographers of Europe were "in a great error, by supposing nothing but sea between Japan and California. L. Frank Baum's origin story of Santa Claus, The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, features mythical antagonists from Tartary who oppose Santa's compassionate gift giving practices, they are described as the Three-Eyed Giants of Tartary. In Walter de la Mare's poem ``, Tartary is an land full of happiness. Priest Évariste Régis Huc wrote several books chronicling his journeys the region, collectively known as Remembrances of a Journey in Tartary and China during the Years 1844, 1845, 1846.

Cossack Golden Horde Khanate of Crimea Mongol Empire Tatars Media related to Tartary at Wikimedia Commons 1704 map of Tartary 1736 map of Tartary showing Muscovite and Chinese Tartary NATIONALITY OR RELIGION? Views of Central Asian Islam

London Metal Exchange

The London Metal Exchange is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals. As the LME offers contracts with daily expiry dates of up to three months from trade date, weekly contracts to six months, monthly contracts up to 123 months, it allows for cash trading, it offers hedging, worldwide reference pricing, the option of physical delivery to settle contracts. Since 2012 it has been owned by Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing after LME's shareholders voted in July 2012 to approve the sale of the exchange for a price of £1.4 billion. The London Metal Market and Exchange Company was founded in 1877, but the market traces its origins back to 1571 and the opening of the Royal Exchange, London. Before the exchange was created, business was conducted by traders in London coffee houses using a makeshift ring drawn in chalk on the floor. At first only copper was traded. Lead and zinc were soon added but only gained official trading status in 1920.

The exchange was closed upon the outbreak of World War II and did not re-open for copper trading until 1953. The range of metals traded was extended to include aluminium, tin, aluminium alloy and minor metals cobalt and molybdenum; the exchange ceased trading plastics in 2011. The total value of the trade is around $US 11.6 trillion annually. Many deals are made for commodities to be delivered in three months' time; the custom stems from the time that copper cargoes took in 1877 on their voyage from the ports of Chile. The LME was owned by its members until 2012, when it was sold to Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing for £1.4 billion. The LME offers futures and options contracts for aluminium, aluminium alloy, NASAAC, copper, molybdenum, steel billet, steel rebar, steel scrap and zinc. To trade contracts in copper, tin, or any other metal listed on the LME, one has to trade through an LME member. Purchasers of contracts, which are left to reach maturity, will receive a warrant for a specific LME approved warehouse to take delivery of the metal if required.

The LME issues, each day, detailed figures on how many tonnes of each metal is in its warehouses, which helps producers and consumers make correct business decisions. Trading Times are 11:40 to 17:00 GMT. Open-outcry is the oldest way of trading on the exchange, though nowadays the majority of trades are placed electronically, it is central to the process of price discovery, the way LME. Prices are derived from the most liquid periods of trading; the official settlement price, on which contracts are settled, is determined by the last offer price before the bell is sounded to mark the end of the official ring. There is constant inter-office trading. A small yet important portion of trading is still done by open-outcry in the Ring. There are a morning and an afternoon trade, where each of the nine metal contracts are traded in two blocks with a five-minute session for each contract; the second trading block in the morning is key to setting the Daily Official Exchange rates. After the official trades of sessions one and two, there are 85 and 45 minutes of "kerb" trading respectively.

Trades are in options and TAPOs. Whilst the price discovery mechanism used by the exchange is post-trade transparent it is not pre-trade transparent. Pre-trade transparency is required for many securities under the Market in Financial Instruments Directive to achieve fair markets by reducing such illegal abuse as market manipulation; the LME is the last exchange in Europe. Ring Dealing Members are entitled to trade in the Ring during the ring-trading sessions, they may operate a 24-hour market by trading inter-office. All Ring Dealing Members, as members of the LME Clear, are authorised under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, are regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. Ring Dealing Members are Clearing Members, who hold the exclusive right to trade in the ring. Contrary to popular belief, the precious metals and silver, are not traded on the London Metal Exchange, but on the over-the-counter market referred to as the London Bullion Market, by the members of the London Bullion Market Association.

Platinum and palladium are traded on Palladium Market. Both members of the LBMA and LPPM trade the precious metals spot market on EBS —acquired by ICAP in June 2006. Many companies involved in minor metals are members of the Minor Metal Trade Association; the LME used, however, to provide trade matching and clearing services to the London bullion market and distributes gold and gold IRS forward rates on behalf of the LBMA. The LME launched an electronic platform called LME Select launched in February 2001; this was developed by a Swedish software house Cinnober. The platform is a FIX-based trading platform, now handles a majority of the total LME business; as a market of “last resort”, industry can use the LME’s delivery option to sell excess stock in times of ov

Justin Layne

Justin Layne is an American football cornerback for the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. He played college football at Michigan State. Layne attended Benedictine High School in Ohio, he played cornerback and wide receiver in high school. He committed to the Michigan State University to play college football. Layne entered his freshman season at Michigan State in 2016 as a wide receiver but was converted into a cornerback prior to the fifth game of the season. During his career, he played in 34 games and had 130 tackles, three interceptions, 0.5 sacks and one touchdown. After his junior season, Layne entered the 2019 NFL Draft. Layne was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the third round of the 2019 NFL Draft. Michigan State Spartans bio Justin Layne on Twitter