Wilco is an American alternative rock band based in Chicago, Illinois. The band was formed in 1994 by the remaining members of alternative country group Uncle Tupelo following singer Jay Farrar's departure. Wilco's lineup changed during its first decade, with only singer Jeff Tweedy and bassist John Stirratt remaining from the original incarnation. Since early 2004, the lineup has been unchanged, consisting of Tweedy, guitarist Nels Cline, multi-instrumentalist Pat Sansone, keyboard player Mikael Jorgensen, drummer Glenn Kotche. Wilco has released ten studio albums, a live double album, four collaborations: three with Billy Bragg and one with The Minus 5. Wilco's music has been inspired by a wide variety of artists and styles, including Bill Fay, The Beatles and Television, has in turn influenced music by a number of modern alternative rock acts; the band continued in the alternative country style of Uncle Tupelo on its debut album A. M. but has since introduced more experimental aspects to their music, including elements of alternative rock and classic pop.
Wilco's musical style has evolved from a 1990s country rock sound to a current "eclectic indie rock collective that touches on many eras and genres."Wilco garnered media attention for their fourth album, Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, the controversy surrounding it. After the recording sessions were complete, Reprise Records rejected the album and dismissed Wilco from the label; as part of a buy-out deal, Reprise gave Wilco the rights to the album for free. After streaming Foxtrot on its website, Wilco sold the album to Nonesuch Records in 2002. Both record labels are subsidiaries of Warner Music Group, leading one critic to say the album showed "how screwed up the music business is in the early twenty-first century." Yankee Hotel Foxtrot is Wilco's most successful release to date, selling over 670,000 copies. Wilco won two Grammy Awards for their fifth studio album, 2004's A Ghost Is Born, including Best Alternative Music Album. Wilco released their ninth studio album, Star Wars, in July 2015, in September 2016 released their tenth studio album, Schmilco.
Wilco was formed following the breakup of the influential alternative country music group Uncle Tupelo. Singer Jay Farrar quit the band in 1994 because of a soured relationship with co-singer Jeff Tweedy. Both Tweedy and Farrar sought to form bands after the breakup. Tweedy was able to keep the entire Uncle Tupelo lineup sans Farrar, including bassist John Stirratt, drummer Ken Coomer, multi-instrumentalist Max Johnston, he enlisted Uncle Tupelo guest guitarist Brian Henneman of the Bottle Rockets, who performed on many of the tracks for Wilco's debut album, A. M.. The band was tempted to keep the Uncle Tupelo name, but decided to rename the band; the group named itself "Wilco" after the military and commercial aviation radio voice abbreviation for "will comply", a choice which Tweedy has called "fairly ironic for a rock band to name themselves." After collaborating with Syd Straw on a cover version of the Ernest Tubb song "The T. B. is Whipping Me", Wilco began recording tracks for A. M. their first studio album, at Easley studio in June 1994.
A demo tape from these recordings was sent to executives at Reprise Records, a subsidiary of Warner Brothers, the label signed Tweedy to a contract. Although Tweedy stated that he wanted a more collaborative project than Uncle Tupelo, only his name appeared on the Reprise contract. Tweedy requested songwriting submissions from other members, but only one submission—John Stirratt's "It's Just That Simple"—appeared on A. M.. It was the last song Wilco released, lyrically written by a member besides Tweedy. Stylistically similar to Uncle Tupelo, the music on A. M. was considered to be straightforward alternative country rock in what Tweedy described as "trying to tread some water with a perceived audience." A. M. peaked at number twenty-seven on the Billboard Heatseekers chart lower than the debut album of Jay Farrar's new band, Son Volt. The album was met with modest reviews though it would rank thirty-fourth in the Village Voice's 1995 Pazz & Jop critics poll. Critically and commercially paling in comparison to the reception of Son Volt's album, the Wilco members perceived A.
M. to be a failure. Shortly after the release of the album, multi-instrumentalist Jay Bennett joined the band, providing the band with a keyboardist and another guitarist. Wilco made its live debut on November 17, 1994 to a capacity crowd at Cicero's Basement Bar in St. Louis, Missouri. During the two hundred-date tour supporting A. M. Tweedy began to write songs for a second album; the lyrical theme of the songs reflected a relationship between a listener. Ken Coomer elaborated: The whole No Depression thing was funny to us because people seemed to forget that Jeff was a bigger punk-rock fan than a country fan, it led to things like us all switching instruments on "Misunderstood,". A number of songs were recorded with this theme, including "Sunken Treasure" and "Hotel Arizona", Wilco recorded a number of songs in the style of A. M. Wilco named the album Being There after a Peter Sellers film of the same name; the band went through some personnel changes during the recording sessions. Max Johnston left the band because he felt that his role in the band had diminished in favor of Bennett.
Bob Egan of Freakwater joined the band
Ian Brennan (music producer)
Ian Brennan is an American music producer and lecturer on violence prevention. He has authored two on anger, Anger Antidotes and Hate-less. Brennan travels in search of countries and languages whose music is under-represented internationally, making field recordings of musicians and producing albums of their work, he started out making nine albums of his own music, hosting gigs, making live recordings and releasing compilation albums of local bands in San Francisco. Of the albums he has produced, Tinariwen's Tassili won a Grammy Award for Best World Music Album and Zomba Prison Project was nominated; the Sunday Times says he is "visionary". Brennan was born in Oakland, California to James Brennan, a railroad engineer, Marilyn Brennan, a nurse from a tiny town in eastern Kansas, he grew up on the Pleasant Hill border in the same suburban home his entire life. He and his older brother and sister have a mere two-and-one-half year span between the three of them; this is due in part to his sister, the middle child, being born more than two months premature with Down syndrome.
At age five, he began playing drums and switched to guitar at age 6, which he taught himself to play. At age 20, he went on to produce eight more, he reflects now that he was his "own worst enemy" and made some of the "most horrible albums possible" due to his obsessive-compulsive, autocratic approach. Beginning in 1996, for five years he hosted a free acoustic music show in a San Francisco laundromat, he would feature a different local band each week. He documented the shows as field recordings and these resulted in three Unscrubbed compilation albums in 1997–1999. Brennan regularly organized benefit shows for social and/or political causes during this period with artists such as Merle Haggard and Kris Kristofferson. Most notably he presented Fugazi, Vic Chesnutt, Sleater-Kinney for free in Mission Dolores Park to honor the 20th anniversary of Food Not Bombs in 2000, as well as staging Green Day and The Blind Boys of Alabama for free in front of the steps of San Francisco's City Hall on the Sunday before George W. Bush's election as President in 2000.
He received two Grammy Award nominations for producing albums in the traditional folk category. The Ramblin' Jack record features Lucinda Williams and members of Wilco, X, Los Lobos, the Red Hot Chili Peppers. In 2009, he and his wife, the Italian-Rwandan filmmaker and author, Marilena Delli, began traveling the world in search of countries and languages that were underrepresented internationally. Amongst others, this has resulted in releases from Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Pakistan, from within Kibera in Nairobi and most notably from inside Zomba Central Prison in Malawi. In 2011, he won a Grammy Award for the Tuareg band, Tinariwen's Tassili album, recorded live in the southeast Algerian desert just months before the Arab Spring erupted and war swept through the area; the album includes members of TV on the Radio, the Dirty Dozen Brass Band, guitarist Nels Cline. In 2015, he gained a nomination for Grammy Award for Best World Music Album for Zomba Prison Project, the story of, covered around the world including on the front-page of The New York Times and by the television program 60 Minutes with Anderson Cooper reporting.
The segment was nominated for two other Emmys. Brennan has produced many of filmmaker, John Waters' live stand-up comedy shows since 2001 at venues such as The Fillmore in San Francisco and the Royal Festival Hall in London, as well as at festivals including Coachella and Bonnaroo. Brennan has created pairings for Waters such as with Jonathan Richman and Wanda Jackson. Brennan has spoken about music at the Smithsonian Museum, the University of London, The New School, the Berklee College of Music, WOMADelaide in Australia. Brennan is known for his fly on the wall style of production and is compared to Alan Lomax, he states. He prefers to work with those who have no previous musical experience and hearing from persecuted populations, he advocates for embracing imperfection as a partner and prefers to record outdoors and 100% live, without any overdubs. At age 20, in need of a way to support himself, he began working in locked psychiatric hospitals as a counselor, he continued to do so for another fifteen years in psychiatric emergency rooms in Oakland and Richmond, California.
In 1993 he was asked to develop a curriculum and teach his co-workers in verbal de-escalation at East Bay Hospital in Richmond. This request was based on his having demonstrated skill at de-fusing charged and violent situations. Through word of mouth, he began teaching full-time at hospitals, clinics and schools in the San Francisco Bay Area and greater California; this teaching led him around the country and the world, having now taught in Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe and the Middle East, at such places as University of California, the Betty Ford Center, the National Accademia of Science. Brennan has worked to establish a memorial for those who have died from homelessness in San Francisco; the installatio
The baritone saxophone or "bari sax" is one of the larger members of the saxophone family, only being smaller than the bass and subcontrabass saxophones. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use; the baritone saxophone uses a mouthpiece and ligature in order to produce sound. It is larger than the tenor and soprano saxophones, which are the other found members of the family; the baritone saxophone is used in classical music such as concert band, chamber music, military bands, jazz. It is employed in marching bands, though less than other saxophones due to its size and weight; the baritone saxophone was created in 1846 by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax as one of a family of 14 instruments created to be a tonal link between the woodwinds and brasses, which Sax believed to be lacking. The family was divided into two groups of seven saxophones each from the soprano to the contrabass; the family consisting of saxophones ranged in the keys of B♭ and E♭ were more successful because of their popularity in military bands.
The bari sax, pitched in E♭, is the fifth member of this family. The baritone saxophone, like other saxophones, is a conical tube of thin brass, it has a wider end, flared to form a bell, a smaller end connected to a mouthpiece. The baritone saxophone uses a single reed mouthpiece like that of a clarinet. There is a loop in the neck to reduce it to a practical height. Baritone saxophones come in two sizes with one ranging to low A and the other to low B♭. All baritone saxophones were low B♭ instruments, but over time players began modifying their horns to reach the low A below the staff. In the 1980s, it became common for saxophone manufacturers to produce low A instruments. In modern times, the low A is considered standard and is written in sheet music for the instrument. Despite the ubiquity of the low A horn, some players still prefer to use B♭ horns because of the added weight and less crisp sound of low A horns; as with other saxophones, some are manufactured with a high F ♯ key. The baritone saxophone's large mass has led to the development of harness-style neckstrap that distributes the instrument's weight across the user's shoulders.
Several different kinds exist, produced by brands as well known as Neotech and Vandoren, which each distributes weight differently across the saxophonist's neck and shoulder blades. Many marching saxophonists prefer this style for its ability to decrease fatigue; those who perform seated, on the other hand, may dislike the decreased ability to move one's upper body. It is a transposing instrument in the key of E♭, pitched an octave plus a major sixth lower than written, it is one octave lower than the alto saxophone. Modern baritones with a low A key and high F♯ key have a range from C2 to A4. Adolphe Sax produced a baritone saxophone in F intended for orchestral use, but these fell into disuse as the saxophone never became a standard orchestral instrument; as with all saxophones, its music is written in treble clef. To transpose a baritone sax part to concert pitch, it is only necessary to change the treble to a bass clef and modify the accidentals accordingly; the baritone saxophone is used as a standard member of concert bands and saxophone quartets.
It has been called for in music for orchestra. Examples include Richard Strauss' Sinfonia Domestica, which calls for a baritone saxophone in F. 4, composed in 1910–1916. In his opera The Devils of Loudun, Krzysztof Penderecki calls for two baritone saxes. Karlheinz Stockhausen includes a baritone saxophone in Gruppen, it has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared, one of these being "Concerto for Saxophone Quartet and Orchestra" by American composer Philip Glass. This is a piece that can be played with or without an orchestra that features the baritone sax in the second movement. A number of jazz performers have used the baritone saxophone as their primary instrument, it is part of standard big band instrumentation. As phrased by Alain Cupper from JazzBariSax.com, "Used a few times in contemporary classical music...it is in jazz that this wonderful instrument feels most comfortable." One of the instrument's pioneers was Harry Carney, longtime baritone saxophone player in the Duke Ellington band.
Since the mid-1950s, baritone saxophone soloists such as Gerry Mulligan, Cecil Payne, Pepper Adams achieved fame, while Serge Chaloff was the first baritone saxophone player to achieve fame as a bebop soloist. In free jazz, Peter Brötzmann is notable. More recent notable performers include Hamiet Bluiett, John Surman, Scott Robinson, James Carter, Stephen "Doc" Kupka of the band Tower of Power, Nick Brignola, Gary Smulyan, Brian Landrus, Ronnie Cuber. In the avant-garde scene, Tim Berne has doubled on bari. Another modern bari sax player is Leo Pellegrino of "Lucky Chops" and "Too Many Zooz" A noted Scottish performer is Joe Temperley, who has appeared with Humphrey Lyttelton as well as with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra; the baritone sax is common in musical theater. The baritone sax plays a notable role in many Motown hits of the 60s, is in the horn sections of funk, Latin, soul bands, is used in rock music although it is not as common. Prominent baritone saxophoni
A trumpet is a brass instrument used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpet-like instruments have been used as signaling devices in battle or hunting, with examples dating back to at least 1500 BC. Trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music, they are played by blowing air through nearly-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have been constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments have three valves in order to change their pitch. There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1-2 combination.
Most trumpets have valves of the piston type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country; each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter; the English word "trumpet" was first used in the late 14th century. The word came from Old French "trompette", a diminutive of trompe; the word "trump", meaning "trumpet," was first used in English in 1300. The word comes from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument", cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all from a Germanic source, of imitative origin." The earliest trumpets date earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, metal trumpets from China date back to this period. Trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, considered a technical wonder.
The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible. They were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago, they were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho. They are still used on certain religious days; the Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bronze. Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games; the Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD 300. The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument; the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series. Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument; the development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet."
During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. Many modern players in Germany and the UK who perform Baroque music use a version of the natural trumpet fitted with three or four vent holes to aid in correcting out-of-tune notes in the harmonic series; the melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer – not excepting Mozart – persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae; the attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound.
Although the impetus for a tubular valve began as early as 1793, it was not until 1818 that Friedrich Bluhmel and Heinrich Stölzel made a joint patent application for the box valve as manufactured by W. Schuster; the symphonies of Mozart, as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets. Crooks and shanks as opposed to keys or valves were standard, notably in France, into the first part of the 20th century; as a consequence of this late development of the instrument's chromatic ability, the repertoire for the instrument is small compared to other instruments. The 20th century saw an explosion in the variety of music written for the trumpet; the trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthp
Angers is a city in western France, about 300 km southwest of Paris. It is chef-lieu of the Maine-et-Loire department and was the capital of the province of Anjou until the French Revolution; the inhabitants of both the city and the province are called Angevins. Not including the metropolitan area, Angers is the third most populous commune in northwestern France after Nantes and Rennes and the 17th in France. For centuries, Angers was an important stronghold in northwestern France, it was the cradle of the Plantagenet dynasty and became one of the intellectual centers of Europe during the reign of René of Anjou. Angers developed at the confluence of three rivers, the Mayenne, the Sarthe, the Loir, all coming from the north and flowing south to the Loire, their confluence, just north of Angers, creates the Maine, a short but wide river that flows into the Loire several kilometres south. The Angers metropolitan area is a major economic centre in western France active in industry and tourism. Angers proper covers 42.70 square kilometers and has a population of 147,305 inhabitants, while around 394,700 live in its metropolitan area.
The Angers Loire Métropole is made up of 30 communes covering 540 square kilometers with 287,000 inhabitants. Angers enjoys a rich cultural life, made possible by its museums; the old medieval center is still dominated by the massive château of the Plantagenêts, home of the Apocalypse Tapestry, the biggest medieval tapestry ensemble in the world. Angers is both at the edge of the Val de Loire, a World Heritage Site, the Loire-Anjou-Touraine regional natural park; the city is first mentioned by Ptolemy around AD 150 in his Geography. It was known as Juliomagus, a name by which it appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the name is a compound of the Latin name Julius and the Celtic magos, "market". Similar town dedications were common in Roman Gaul, toponyms kept a Gallic element; when the location needed to be distinguished from other Juliomagi, it was known as Juliomagus Andecavorum, in reference to the principal Gallic tribe in and around the city. Around AD 400, the city came to be referred to as the civitas Andecavorum.
This was a common change in Gaul seen in the names of Paris, Tours and Évreux around this time. During the Middle Ages, the late Latin name developed into the modern one, it is successively mentioned as Andecava civitas, Andegavis and Angeus. The form Angiers appeared during the 12th century and was corrupted to "Angers"; the Latin Andecavum gave Anjou its name. This double formation is quite common in France and is seen in Poitiers & Poitou and Bourges & Berry. Angers was traditionally known as the "Black City" because many roofs were built of slate, due to the quarry in neighbouring Trélazé; these have become less common since the development of the city in the 19th century. The city has been known as: "The Athens of the West", a name borne since the 19th century from the development of its university "The City of Flowers", a name from the Second Empire "Green City", in reference to its numerous parks and important horticultural industry "Angers the White", from its modern tufa façades and with ironic reference to its former name The coat of arms of Angers bears the French royal fleur de lys of the dukes of Anjou.
An acrostic from the Middle Ages calls it Antique clef de France, which means "Ancient key to France": Antique clef de France, Neteté de souffrance, Garant contre ennemis, Etappe d'assurance, Recours de secourance, Securité d'amis. Under Napoleon I's rule, Angers was one of the "Bonnes villes" and was therefore allowed to ask for a new coat of arms; the bees, symbol of the First French Empire replaced the royal fleurs de lys. In 1949, Angers received the 1939–1945 War Cross and since the decoration is sometimes placed between the two fleurs de lys. Angers had several mottos through its history: During Antiquity: Assiuis conciliis. Angers in located at the geographical center of the Maine-et-Loire department, on the road which connects Paris to the Atlantic ocean; the city is situated just south of the confluence of the Loir and Sarthe which form together the river Maine. The Maine crosses heads south towards the Loire; the confluence of the three rivers and the proximity of the Loire make up a natural crossroads which favoured the foundation of the antique Juliomagus.
Angers is located 124 km from Rennes, 132 km from Poitiers and 297 km from Paris. It is 118 km far from Pornic, the closest sea resort, situated on the Atlantic ocean. Elevation varies 12 to 64 meters above sea level. Angers is a hilly town marked by a rocky promontory dominating the lower valley of Anjou; this was the site of the ancient city and still houses the town's castle and medieval quarters. At the north and south, where the river Maine arrives in and leaves Angers, the landscape is formed by islands and floodplains which a
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Djanet is an oasis city, capital of Djanet District, in Illizi Province, southeast Algeria. It is located 412 km south of Illizi. According to the 2008 census it has a population of 14,655, up from 9,699 in 1998, an annual population growth rate of 4.3%. It is inhabited by the Kel Ajjer Tuareg people; the region of Djanet has been inhabited since Neolithic times. There were periods of ten thousand years at a time; the flora and fauna were luxuriant as is seen in the numerous rock paintings of Tassili n'Ajjer around Djanet. Populations of hunter-gatherers lived there. Djanet was founded in the Middle Ages by the Tuareg; the Ottoman Empire, which had a nominal authority over the Fezzan region, reinforced their presence in the area at the beginning of the 20th century in reaction to the colonization of Africa by the Europeans. Djanet, the nearby towns of Azelouaz, El Mihan and Eferi, lie in a valley carved by the intermittent river Oued Idjeriou through the southwest edge of the Tassili n'Ajjer mountain range and east of the Erg Admer sand dunes.
The Tadrart Rouge is located to the southeast and is a southern prolongation of the Libyan Tadrart Acacus. Due to the somewhat cooler air, higher humidity and somewhat higher rainfall in these areas, the nearby mountains support a greater amount and variety of wildlife than lower-lying areas in the Sahara, forms part of the West Saharan montane xeric woodlands ecosystem. Djanet itself lies at an altitude of 1,035 metres, but the mountains to the east and north reach as high as 1,905 metres. Djanet has a hot desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters; the city is dry throughout the year, with an annual average rainfall of just 14.6 millimetres and no month with an average of more than 3 millimetres. Djanet Inedbirene Airport is located about 50 kilometers south of the city center. 4.1% of the population has a tertiary education, another 19.8% has completed secondary education. The overall literacy rate is 85.6%, is 92.1% among males and 78.0% among females, all three rates being the highest for any commune in the province.
The commune is composed of 12 localities