Mission San Fernando Rey de España
Mission San Fernando Rey de España is a Spanish mission in the Mission Hills the district of Los Angeles, California. The mission was founded on September 8, 1797, was the seventeenth of the twenty-one Spanish missions established in Alta California. Named for Saint Ferdinand, the mission is the namesake of the nearby city of San Fernando and the San Fernando Valley; the mission was secularized in 1834 and returned to the Catholic Church in 1861. Today the mission grounds function as a museum. In 1769, the Spanish Portolá expedition – the first Europeans to see inland areas of California – traveled north through the San Fernando Valley. On August 7 they camped at a watering place near where the mission would be established. Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary travelling with the expedition, noted in his diary that the camp was "at the foot of the mountains"; the Rancho of Francisco Reyes was approved by the padres as a suitable site for the Mission. After brief negotiations with the Alcalde, the land was acquired.
The mission was founded on September 8, 1797 by Father Fermín Lasuén who, with the assistance of Fray Francisco Dumetz and in the presence of troops and natives, performed the ceremonies and dedicated the mission to San Fernando Rey de España, making it the fourth mission site he had established. Fray Francisco Dumetz and his associate Fray Francisco Javier Uría labored in the mission until after 1800. Early in October, 1797, 13 adults were baptized and the first marriage took place on October 8. At the end of the year, there were 55 neophytes. By 1800, there were 310 neophytes, 352 baptisms, 70 deaths. An adobe church with a tile roof was blessed in December 1806. Fray Dumetz left the mission in April 1802 returned in 1804 and left the following year at the same time as Fray Francisco Javier Uría, who left the country. In 1805, Fray Nicolás Lázaro and Fray José María Zalvidea arrived at the mission, the latter was transferred to San Gabriel in 1806 and the former died at San Diego in August 1807.
Padres José Antonio Uría and Pedro Muños arrived in 1807, the former retired in November 1808 and was succeeded by Fray Martín de Landaeta while Fray José Antonio Urresti arrived in 1809 and became the associate of Fray Muñoz, Fray Landaeta died in 1816. During the first decade of the century, the neophyte population increased from 310 to 955, there had been 797 deaths, 1468 baptisms; the largest number of baptisms in any one year was 361 in 1803. In 1804 there was a land controversy where the padres protested against the granting of the Rancho Camulos to Francisco Avila. Fray Urresti died in 1812 and was succeeded by Fray Joaquin Pascual Nuez in 1812 to 1814, Fray Vincente Pascual Oliva was stationed in the mission from 1814 to 1815. Fray Pedro Muñoz left California in 1817, his place was taken by Fray Marcos Antonio de Vitoria from 1818 to 1820. Fray Ramon Ulibarri arrived in January and Fray Francisco Gonzalez de Ibarra in October 1820. On December 21, 1812, an earthquake hit the area which did enough damage to necessitate the introduction of 20 new beams to support the church wall.
Before 1818 a new chapel was completed. During the period of 1810 to 1820 the population gained reaching its highest figure, 1080, in 1819, after which its decline began. After Fray Ulibarri died in 1821, Fray Francisco Gonzalez de Ibarra was stationed alone in the mission. Mission San Fernando was the 17th mission to be found after all 21 After the Mexican Empire gained independence from Spain on September 27, 1821, the Province of Alta California became the Mexican Territory of Alta California; the missions continued under the rule of Mexico. Fray Ibarra began to complain that the soldiers of his guard were causing problems by selling liquor and lending horses to the natives and in 1825, he declared that "the presidio was a curse rather than a help to the mission, that the soldiers should go to work and raise grain, not live on the toil of the Indians, whom they robbed and deceived with talk of liberty while in reality they treated them as slaves." This led to a sharp reply from Captain Guerra.
The amount of supplies furnished by the mission to the presidio from 1822 to April 1827 amounted to $21,203. Fray Ibarra continued his labors alone until the middle of 1835, his successor was Fray Pedro Cabot from San Antonio, stationed here until his death in October 1836. After Fray Cabot's death, there is no mention of a missionary at San Fernando until August 1838 when Fray Blas Ordaz remained there during the rest of the decade. Down to 1834, the neophyte population decreased by less than 100 and the mission remained productive. In October 1834, Comisionado Antonio del Valle took charge of the mission estates by inventory from Fray Ibarra. From the mission was to be a parish of the second class with a $1000 salary. In 1842, six years before the California Gold Rush, a brother of the mission mayordomo made the first Alta California gold discovery in the foothills near the mission. In memory of that discovery, the place was given the name Placerita Canyon, but only small quantities of gold were found.
In 1845, Governor Pío Pico declared the Mission buildings for sale and, in 1846, made Mission San Fernando Rey de España de velicata his headquarters as Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando. The Mission was utilized in a number of ways during the late 19th century: north of the mission was the site of Lopez Station for the Butterfield Stage Lines.
The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering 4,000 square miles. The Tongva are known as the Gabrieleño and Fernandeño, names derived from the Spanish missions built on their territory: Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission San Fernando Rey de España. Along with the neighboring Chumash, the Tongva were the most powerful indigenous people to inhabit Southern California. At the time of European contact, they may have numbered 5,000 to 10,000. Many lines of evidence suggest that the Tongva are descended of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples from Nevada who moved southwest into coastal Southern California 3,500 years ago; these migrants either pushed out the Hokan-speaking peoples in the region. By 500 AD, the Tongva had come to occupy all the lands now associated with them. A hunter-gatherer society, the Tongva traded with neighboring peoples. Over time, scattered communities came to speak distinct dialects of the Tongva language, part of the Takic subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
There may have been five or more such dialects. The Tongva language became extinct in the twentieth century, but a reconstructed form continues to be spoken today. Initial Spanish exploration of the Los Angeles area occurred in 1542, but sustained contact with the Tongva came only after Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was constructed in 1771; this marked the beginning of an era of forced relocation and exposure to Old World diseases, leading to the rapid collapse of the Tongva population. At times the Tongva violently resisted Spanish rule, such as the 1785 rebellion led by the female chief Toypurina. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and the government sold mission lands to ranchers, forcing the Tongva to culturally assimilate. Three decades California was ceded to the United States following the Mexican–American War; the US government signed treaties with the Tongva, promising 8.5 million acres of land for reservations, but these treaties were never ratified. By the turn of the 20th century, the Island Tongva had disappeared and the mainland communities were nearing extinction.
The endonym Tongva was recorded by American ethnographer C. Hart Merriam in 1903 and has been adopted by scholars and descendants, although some prefer the endonym Kizh. Since 2006, there have been four organizations claiming to represent the Tongva Nation: the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe, known as the "hyphen" group from the hyphen in their name. Two of the groups are the result of a hostile split over the question of building an Indian casino. In 1994, the state of California recognized the Tongva "as the aboriginal tribe of the Los Angeles Basin," but no group representing the Tongva has attained recognition by the federal government. In 2008, more than 1,700 people claimed partial ancestry; the first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh, from 1846. Although subsequent authors equated this with the word for "house", Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called "Kīj", suggesting that the words were distinct; the term Kizh was used at that time to designate the language, the first comprehensive publication on the language used it.
In 1875, Yarrow indicated. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning "settlers", spoke exclusively Spanish. In 1885, Hoffman referred to the natives as Tobikhar; the word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant. Merriam could not pronounce the village name Toviscangna He ( abbreviated or spelled it Tong-vā; the name Tongva has become preferred as a self-designation since the 1990s, although either "Gabrieleño" or "Gabrielino" is part of every official name. The territory which in historical times was occupied by the kizh People of the willow houses had been inhabited for more than 10,000 years. A prehistoric milling area estimated to be 8,000 years old was discovered in 2006 at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains near Azusa, California; the find yielded arrowheads and stone slabs used to grind seeds as well as tools and implements, but no human or animal bones. The Chowigna site in Palos Verdes, excavated in the 1930s, dates back 7,100 years or more.
In 2007 and early 2008, over 174 ancient American Indian remains were unearthed by archaeologists at a development site of Brightwater Hearthside Homes in the Bolsa Chica Mesa area in Huntington Beach, California. This land was once shared by the Acjachemem tribes; the site was in legal limbo for years before Hearthside was given permission to start construction of over 300 homes. The Tongva and Acjachemem Indians are in dispute over the remains; as speakers of a language of the Uto-Aztecan family, the remote ancestors of the Tongva coalesced as a people in the Sonoran Desert, between 3,000 and 5,000 years ago. This was a center of that language family; the diversity within the Takic group is "moderately deep". The division of the Tongva-Serrano group into the separate Tongva and Serrano peoples is more recent, may have been influenced by
The Kucadikadi are a band of Northern Paiute people who live near Mono Lake in Mono County, California. They are the southernmost band of Northern Paiute. Kucadikadi means "eaters of the brine fly pupae", they are known as the Kutsavidökadö, Koza'bittukut'teh, Kotsa'va, Mono Lake Paiute, Mono Basin Paiute, Kuzedika. Lamb gives the Mono language name as "larvae eaters", or Mono Lake Paviotso; the term "Mono Lake Paiute," a holdover from early anthropological literature, has proven problematic. The Kucadikadi's homeland surrounds Mono Lake in eastern California, but they traditionally traveled to Walker Lake, Nevada for seasonal subsistence activities. Mono Lake is a high piedmont area of the Sierra Nevada; the average elevation of the Mono Lake basin is around 6,400 feet above sea level. The surrounding mountains range from 9,000 to 13,000 ft in elevation. Mono Lake is saline and is home to several waterfowl species and the brine fly, or Ephydra hians or Hydropyrus hians, from which the band takes its name.
Pinus monophylla or piñon pine has been an importance source of food, as were jackrabbits, mountain sheep, the coloradia Pandora moth. The extended family was the band's basic social units, they traded with Owens Valley Western Mono. Three late 19th-century winter houses belonging to the tribe have been excavated by archaeologists, they are conical houses constructed with posts of Utah juniper or Juniperus osteosperma. Winter houses of this type, called tomogani, were built by the band up to 1920; the Kucadikadi speak the Northern Paiute language, in the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. The band is well known for its basketry, they wove coiled baskets as well as twined baskets. Bracken fern and redbud provide color for designs on coiled baskets. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, encroachment of non-Natives in their territory disrupted traditional hunting and gathering lifestyles, so members of the tribe relied on the tourist trade. Selling elaborate baskets to non-Indian tourists became viable way of making a living.
Glass beads were introduced by non-Indians, Kucadikadi women began incorporating the seed beads into their baskets by 1908. Many members of the Kucadikadi band are enrolled in federally recognized Paiute, Yokuts and Western Mono tribes. Others are seeking recognition as the Sierra Southern Miwuk and the Mono Lake Indian Community, headquartered in Lee Vining, California. Carrie Bethel, basket weaver Nellie Charlie, basket weaver Tina Charlie, basket weaver Lucy Telles, basket weaver Fowler, Catherine S. and Sven Liljeblad. "Northern Paiute". Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Kelly, Isabel T. and Catherine S. Fowler. "Southern Paiute". Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986: 368-397. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1 "Native American Story of Mono Lake Paiute", Reznet News video
The Luiseño, or Payómkawichum, are a Native American people who at the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the 16th century inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging 50 miles from the present-day southern part of Los Angeles County to the northern part of San Diego County, inland 30 miles. In the Luiseño language, the people call themselves Payómkawichum, meaning "People of the West."The tribe was named Luiseño by the Spanish due to their proximity to the Mission San Luís Rey de Francia Known as the "King of the Missions," it was founded on June 13, 1798 by Father Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, located in what is now Oceanside, California, in northern San Diego County. It was the Spanish First Military District. Today there are six federally recognized tribes of Luiseño bands based in southern California, all with reservations. Another organized band has not received federal recognition; the Luiseño language belongs to the Cupan group of Takic languages, within the major Uto-Aztecan family of languages.
About 30 to 40 people speak the language. In some of the independent bands, individuals are studying the language, language preservation materials are being compiled, singers sing traditional songs in the luiseno language. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. In the 1920s, A. L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Luiseño at 4,000-5,000; the historian Raymond C. White proposed a historic population of 10,000 in his work of the 1960s; the Luiseño people were successful in exploiting a number of natural resources to provide food and clothing. They had a close relationship with their natural environment, they used many of the native plants, harvesting many kinds of seeds, nuts and vegetables for a varied and nutritious diet. The land was inhabited by many different species of animals which the men hunted for game and skins. Hunters took antelopes, deer, foxes, mountain lions, wood rats, river otters, ground squirrels, a wide variety of insects.
The Luiseño used toxins leached from the California buckeye to stupefy fish in order to harvest them in mountain creeks.'ahúuya, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River.'akíipa, near Kahpa.'áalapi, San Pascual south of the middle course of the San Luis Rey River.'áaway, on a head branch of Santa Margarita River. Hurúmpa, west of Riverside. Húyyulkum, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River.'ikáymay, near San Luis Rey Mission. Qáxpa, on the middle course of San Luis Rey River. Katúktu, between Santa Margarita and San Luis Rey Rivers, north of San Luis Rey. Qée'ish, Qéch, south of San Luis Rey Mission. Qewéw, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kóolu, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kúuki, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kwáa'alam, on the lower course of San Luis Rey River. Maláamay, northeast of Pala. Méexa, on Santa Margarita River northwest of Temecula. Mixéelum pompáwvo, near Escondido. Ngóoriva Pa'áa'aw, near Tái. Palomar mountain Páayaxchi, on Elsinore Lake. Páala, at Pala.
Páalimay, on the coast between Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Creeks. Panakare, north of Escondido. Páașuku, near the headwaters of San Luis Rey River. Páawma, east of Pala. Pauma Pochóorivo, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Sóowmay, south of the middle course of San Luis Rey River. Șakíshmay, on the boundary line between the two peoples. Șíikapa, Palomar. Șuvóowu Șuvóova, east of San Jacinto Soboba. Táaxanashpa, La Jolla. Táa'akwi, at the head of Santa Margarita River. Táakwish poșáppila, east of Palomar Mountain. Tái, close to Palomar Mountain. Tapá'may, north of Katúktu. Teméeku, east of Temecula. Tómqav, west of Pala.'úshmay. at Las Flores Waxáwmay, Guajome on San Luis Rey River above San Luis Rey. Wiyóoya, at the mouth of San Luis Rey River. Wi'áasamay, east of San Luis Rey. Wáșxa,Rincon near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Yamí', near Húyyulkum. Today Luiseño people are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians Pala Band of Luiseño Indians Pauma Band of Luiseño Indians Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians Rincon Band of Luiseño Indians Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians.
Additionally, the San Luis Rey Band of Luiseños is organized and active in northern San Diego County, but is not recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. James Luna, performance artist Fritz Scholder and sculptor Pablo Tac, linguist Freddy Herrera, musician Pete Calac, football player Jamie Okuma, beadwork artist, fashion designer Luiseño language Luiseño traditional narratives Mission Indians Pauma Massacre Temecula Massacre USS Luiseno Kumeyaay people Hinton, Leanne. Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1994. ISBN 0-930588-62-2. Hogan, C. Michael. Aesculus californica, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Kroeber, A. L. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. White, Raymond C. "Luiseño Social Organization", in University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 48:91-194.
Bean, Lowell John and Shipek, Florence C. "Luiseño," in California, ed. Robert F. Heizer, vol. 8, Handbook of North American Indians (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 550–563. Du Bois, Constance Goddard. 1904-1906. "Mythology of the Mission Indians: The Mythology of the Luiseño and Diegueño India
The Kumeyaay known as Tipai-Ipai Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is spelled Kumiai; the Kumeyaay consist of the Ipai and Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were separated by the San Diego River: the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not agreed upon; the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two: Tipai. However, this notion is not supported by speakers of the language who contend that within their territory, all Kumeyaay can understand and speak to each other, at least after a brief acclimatization period. All three languages belong to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman language family, to which several other linguistically distinct but related groups belong, including the Cocopa, Quechan and Kiliwa.
The term Kumeyaay means "those who face the water from a cliff". It may come from the Kiliwa word kumeey meaning "man" or "people." Both Ipai/Iipay and Tipai mean "man" or "people." Some Kumeyaay in the southern areas refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means "people of the earth."Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the early work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory may go back 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land along the Pacific Ocean from present Oceanside, California in the north to south of Ensenada and extending east to the Colorado River; the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe used to inhabit what is now a popular state park, known as Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, though a "proto-Tipai-Ipai culture" had been established by about 5000 BCE.
Katherine Luomola suggests that the "nucleus of Tipai-Ipai groups" came together around AD 1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe. At the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, domestic animals, which brought about degradation to local ecology. Under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. After Mexico took over the lands from Spain, they secularized the missions in 1834, Ipai and Tipais lost their lands. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including native gathering lands. In 1875, President Ulysses S. Grant created reservations in the area, additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians; the reservations lacked adequate water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural wage labor.
For their common welfare, several reservations formed Inc.. The Kumeyaay Community College was created by the Sycuan Band to serve the Kumeyaay-Diegueño Nation, describes its mission as "to support cultural identity and self-determination while meeting the needs of native and non-Native students." The college's focus is on "Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts." It "serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego county." In the fall of 2016, Cuyamaca College began offering an associate degree in Kumeyaay Studies with courses at its Rancho San Diego campus, as well as at Kumeyaay Community College on the Sycuan reservation. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. In 1925, Alfred L. Kroeber proposed that the population of the Kumeyaay in the San Diego region in 1770 had been about 3,000. More Katharine Luomala points out that this estimate depended on calculations of rates of baptisms at the Mission, as such "ignores the unbaptized."
She suggests. Florence C. Shipek goes further. In the late eighteenth century, it is estimated that the Kumeyaay population was between 3,000 and 9,000. In 1828, 1,711 Kumeyaay were recorded by the missions; the 1860 federal census recorded 1,571 Kumeyaay living in 24 villages. The Bureau of Indian Affairs recorded 1,322 Kumeyaay in 1968, with 435 living on reservations. By 1990, an estimated 1,200 lived on reservation lands; the Kumeyaay live on 13 reservations in San Diego County, California in the United States and are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Missi
The Esselen are a Native American people belonging to a linguistic group in the hypothetical Hokan language family, who are indigenous to the Santa Lucia Mountains of the region now known as Big Sur in Monterey County, California. Prior to Spanish colonization, they lived seasonally on the coast and inland, surviving off the plentiful seafood during the summer and acorns and wildlife during the rest of the year. Experts estimate there were from 500 to 1200 individuals living in the steep, rocky region at the time of the arrival of the Spanish. During the mission period of California history, Esselen children were baptized by the priests and at a certain age forcibly removed from their village and parents. Adult members of the Esselen tribe were forcibly conscripted and made to labor at the three nearby missions, Mission San Carlos, Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Mission San Antonio de Padua. Like many Native American populations, their members were decimated by disease, over work, torture.
They were one of the smallest Native American populations in California and due to their proximity to three Spanish missions, they were one of the first whose culture was repressed as a result of European contact and domination. They were assumed to have been exterminated but some tribal members avoided the mission life and emerged from the forest to work in nearby ranches in the early and late 1800s. Descendants of the Esselen are scattered, but many still live in the Monterey Peninsula area and nearby regions. Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the original people's territory once extended much farther north, into the San Francisco Bay Area, until they were displaced by the entrance of Ohlone people. Based on linguistic evidence, Richard Levy places the displacement at around AD 500. Breschini and Haversat place the entry of Ohlone speakers into the Monterey area prior to 200 B. C. based on multiple lines of evidence. Carbon dating of excavated sites places the Esselen in the Big Sur since circa 2630 BCE.
However, researchers have obtained a radiocarbon date from coastal Esselen territory in the Big Sur River drainage dated prior to 6,500 years ago. The name Esselen derived from the name of a major native village from the village known as Exse'ein, or the place called Eslenes; the village name is derived from a tribal location known as Ex'selen, "the rock,", in turn derived from the phrase Xue elo xonia eune, "I come from the rock." "The Rock" may refer to the 361 feet tall promontory, visible for miles both up and down the coast, on which the Point Sur Lighthouse is situated. It may have referred to Pico Blanco, the mountain they believed that all life came from; the Spanish extended the term to mean the entire linguistic group. Variant spellings exist in old records, including Aschatliens, Eslen, Eslenes and Escelen. "Aschatliens" may refer in and around the village of Achasta. Achasta was a Rumsen Ohlone village, unrelated to the Esselen. Achasta was founded only after the establishment of Mission San Carlos.
It was the closest village to Mission San Carlos, was 10+ miles from Esselen territory. "Eslenes" was nowhere near Mission San Carlos. The Esselen language is a language, it is hypothetically part of the Hokan family. The language was spoken in the northern Santa Lucia Range. Prior to contact with European culture, there were between 1000 speakers. La Pérouse, a French explorer, recorded 22 words in 1786, he wrote in his journal during the expedition: The country of the Ecclemachs extends above 20 leagues to the eastward of Monterey. Their language is different from all those of their neighbors, has more resemblance to the languages of Europe than to those of the Americas; this grammatical phenomenon, the most curious in this respect observed on the continent, will be interesting to those of the learned, who seek, in the analogy of languages, the history and genealogy of transplanted nations. In 1792, Galiano, a Spanish ship's captain recorded 107 phrases. In 1832, Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta recorded 14 phrases at Soledad.
The speakers were the Arroyo Seco area 15 miles to the east. The neighboring Rumsen people were fluent in Esselen and they provided de la Cuesta some language. A total of about 300 words along with some short phrases have been identified. Examples include mamamanej; the last known fluent speaker was Isabel Meadows who died in 1939. The Esselen resided along the upper Carmel and Arroyo Seco Rivers, along the Big Sur coast from near present-day Hurricane Point to the vicinity of Vicente Creek in the south; the Central California coast in this region is marked by high, steep cliffs and rocky shores, interrupted by small coastal creeks with occasional, small beaches. The mountains are rugged with narrow canyons; the terrain makes the area inaccessible, long-term habitation a challenge, limited the size of the native population. The Esselen's territory extended inland through the Santa Lucia Mountains as far as the Salinas Valley. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish, they were hunter-gatherers who resided in small groups with no centralized political authority.
Modern researchers believe there were five distinct Esselen districts: Excelen, Imunahan and Aspasniahan. Each are believed to have had a stable resident population. Within each district the people occupied several villages depending on the season and availability of food and shelter. Carbon dating tes
The Cahuilla known as ʔívil̃uqaletem or Ivilyuqaletem, are a Native American people of the inland areas of southern California. Their original territory included an area of about 2,400 square miles; the traditional Cahuilla territory was near the geographic center of Southern California. It was bounded to the north by the San Bernardino Mountains, to the south by Borrego Springs and the Chocolate Mountains, to the east by the Colorado Desert, to the west by the San Jacinto Plain and the eastern slopes of the Palomar Mountains; the Cahuilla language is in the Uto-Aztecan family. A 1990 census revealed 35 speakers in an ethnic population of 800, it is critically endangered. In their own language, their autonym is ʔívil̃uqaletem, the name of their language is ʔívil̃uʔat, however they call themselves táxliswet meaning'person'. Cahuilla is an exonym applied to the group after mission secularization in the Ranchos of California; the word "Cahuilla" is from the Ivilyuat word kawi'a, meaning "master." Oral legends suggest that when the Cahuilla first moved into the Coachella Valley, a large body of water which geographers call Lake Cahuilla was in existence.
Fed by the Colorado River, it dried up sometime before 1700, following one of the repeated shifts in the river's course. In 1905 a break in a levee created the much smaller Salton Sea in the same location; the Cahuilla lived from the land by using native plants. A notable tree whose fruits they harvested is the California fan palm; the Cahuilla used palm leaves for basketry of many shapes and purposes. The Cahuilla lived in smaller groups than some other tribes; the first encounter with Europeans was in 1774, when Juan Bautista de Anza was looking for a trade route between Sonora and Monterey in Alta California. Living far inland, the Cahuilla priests, or missionaries. Many of the Europeans viewed the desert as having no value, but rather a place to avoid; the Cahuilla learned of Spanish missions and their culture from Indians living close to missions in San Gabriel and San Diego. The Cahuilla provided the vaqueros that worked for the owners of the Rancho San Bernardino, provided security against the raids of the tribes from the desert and mountains on its herds.
The Cahuilla did not encounter Anglo-Americans until the 1840s. Chief Juan Antonio, leader of the Cahuilla Mountain Band, gave traveler Daniel Sexton access to areas near the San Gorgonio Pass in 1842; the Mountain Band lent support to a U. S. Army expedition led by Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale, defending the party against attacks by Wakara and his band of Ute warriors. During the Mexican–American War, Chief Juan Antonio led his warriors to join Californios led by José del Carmen Lugo in attacking their traditional enemy, the Luiseño. Lugo led this action in retaliation for the Pauma Massacre, in which the Luiseno had killed 11 Californios; the combined forces staged an ambush and killed 33–40 of the Luiseno warriors, an event that became known as the Temecula Massacre of 1847. In the treaty ending the war with Mexico, the US promised to honor Mexican land policies; these included recognition of Native American rights to inhabit certain lands, but European-American encroachment on Indian lands became an increasing problem after the US annexed California.
During the 1850s, the Cahuilla came under increasing pressure from waves of European-American migrants because of the California Gold Rush. In 1851, Juan Antonio led his warriors in the destruction of the Irving Gang, a group of bandits, looting the San Bernardino Valley. Following the outcome of the Irving Gang incident, in late 1851, Juan Antonio, his warriors and their families, moved eastward from Politana, toward the San Gorgonio Pass and settled in a valley which branched off to the northeast from San Timoteo Canyon, at a village named Saahatpa. In addition to the influx of Anglo-American miners and outlaws, groups of Mormon colonists, the Cahuilla came into conflict with the neighboring Cupeño tribe to the west. In November 1851, the Garra Revolt occurred, wherein the Cupeno leader Antonio Garra attempted to bring Juan Antonio into his revolt. Juan Antonio, friendly to the Americans, was instrumental in capturing Antonio Garra, ending that revolt; when the California Senate refused to ratify an 1852 treaty granting the Cahuilla control of their lands, some tribal leaders resorted to attacks on approaching settlers and soldiers.
Juan Antonio did not participate in this as long. To encourage the railroad, the U. S. government subdivided the lands into one-mile-square sections, giving the Indians every other section. In 1877 the government established reservation boundaries, which left the Cahuilla with only a small portion of their traditional territories; the Cahuilla have intermarried with non-Cahuilla for the past century. A high percentage of today's Cahuilla tribal members have some degree of mixed ancestry Spanish and African American. Individuals who have grown up in the tribe's ways and identify culturally with the Cahuilla may qualify for official tribal membership by the tribe's internal rules; each federally recognized tribe sets its own rules for membership. Today Palm Springs and the surrounding areas are experiencing rapid development; the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla is an important player in the local economy, operating an array of business enterprises, including land leasing and casino operations, banking.
The Agua Caliente Indian Reservation occupies 126.706 km2 (48