A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Stop motion is an animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they will appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop-motion animation using plasticine figures is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all stop motion, requires figures or models: stop-motion films can be made using humans, household appliances, other objects for comedic effect. Stop motion using humans is sometimes referred to as pixilate animation; the term "stop motion," relating to the animation technique, is spelled with a hyphen as "stop-motion." Both orthographical variants and without the hyphen, are correct, but the hyphenated one has a second meaning, unrelated to animation or cinema: "a device for automatically stopping a machine or engine when something has gone wrong".
Stop motion should not be confused with the time-lapse technique in which still photographs of a live scene are taken at regular intervals and combined to make a continuous film. Time lapse is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured is much lower than that used to view the sequence; when played at normal speed, time appears to be moving faster. Stop-motion animation has a long history in film, it was used to show objects moving as if by magic, but by animation. The first instance of the stop-motion technique can be credited to Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton for Vitagraph's The Humpty Dumpty Circus, in which a toy circus of acrobats and animals comes to life. In 1902, the film Fun in a Bakery Shop used the stop trick technique in the "lightning sculpting" sequence. French trick film maestro Georges Méliès used stop-motion animation once to produce moving title-card letters in one of his short films, a number of his special effects are based on stop-motion photography.
In 1907, The Haunted Hotel is a new stop-motion film by J. Stuart Blackton, was a resounding success when released. Segundo de Chomón, from Spain, released El Hotel Eléctrico that same year, used similar techniques as the Blackton film. In 1908, A Sculptor's Welsh Rarebit Nightmare was released, as was The Sculptor's Nightmare, a film by Billy Bitzer. Italian animator Roméo Bossetti impressed audiences with his object animation tour-de-force, The Automatic Moving Company in 1912; the great European pioneer of stop motion was Wladyslaw Starewicz, who animated The Beautiful Lukanida, The Battle of the Stag Beetles, The Ant and the Grasshopper. One of the earliest clay animation films was Modelling Extraordinary, which impressed audiences in 1912. December 1916 brought the first of Willie Hopkins' 54 episodes of "Miracles in Mud" to the big screen. In December 1916, the first woman animator, Helena Smith Dayton, began experimenting with clay stop motion, she would release her first film in an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.
In the turn of the century, there was another well known animator known as Willis O' Brien. His work on The Lost World is well known, but he is most admired for his work on King Kong, a milestone of his films made possible by stop-motion animation. O'Brien's protege and eventual successor in Hollywood was Ray Harryhausen. After learning under O'Brien on the film Mighty Joe Young, Harryhausen would go on to create the effects for a string of successful and memorable films over the next three decades; these included The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, It Came from Beneath the Sea and the Argonauts, The Golden Voyage of Sinbad and Clash of the Titans. In a 1940 promotional film, Autolite, an automotive parts supplier, featured stop-motion animation of its products marching past Autolite factories to the tune of Franz Schubert's Military March. An abbreviated version of this sequence was used in television ads for Autolite those on the 1950s CBS program Suspense, which Autolite sponsored. In the 1960s and 1970s, independent clay animator Eliot Noyes Jr. refined the technique of "free-form" clay animation with his Oscar-nominated 1965 film Clay.
Noyes used stop motion to animate sand lying on glass for his musical animated film Sandman. Stop motion was used by Rankin/Bass Productions on some of their television programs and feature films including The New Adventures of Pinocchio, Willy McBean and his Magic Machine and most notably seasonal/holiday favorites like Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, Mad Monster Party?, The Little Drummer Boy, Santa Claus is Comin' to Town and Here Comes Peter Cottontail. Under the name of "Animagic", the stop-motion works of Rankin/Bass were supervised by Tadahito Mochinaga at his MOM Production in Tokyo, Japan. In 1975, filmmaker and clay animation experimenter Will Vinton joined with sculptor Bob Gardiner to create an experimental film called Closed Mondays which became the world's first stop-motion film to win an Oscar. Will Vinton followed with several other successful short film experiments including The Great Cognito and Rip Van Winkle which were each nominated for Academy Awards. In 1977, Vinton made a documentary about this process and his style of animation which he dubbed "claymation".
Soon after this documentary, the term was trademarked by Vinton to differentiate his team's work from others who had been, or were beginning to do, "clay ani
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
New York University Tisch School of the Arts
The New York University Tisch School of the Arts is the performing and media arts school of New York University. Founded on August 17, 1965, Tisch is a training ground for artists, scholars of the arts, filmmakers; the school is divided into three Institutes: Performing Arts, Emerging Media, the Kanbar Institute of Film & Television. Many undergraduate and graduate disciplines are available for students, including: acting, drama, performance studies, design for stage and film, musical theatre writing, game design and development, film and television studies; the school offers an inter-disciplinary "collaborative arts" program, high school programs, continuing education in the arts for the general public, as well as the Clive Davis School Institute of Recorded Music, which teaches entrepreneurial strategies in the music recording industry. A dual MFA/MBA graduate program is offered, allowing students to take coursework at both Tisch and NYU's Stern School of Business, it is located at 721 Broadway, adjacent to the University's Department of Philosophy building and the Gallatin School of Individualized Study, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City.
As of 2017, the school had more than 25,000 alumni working in the arts and related professions, has more alumni in Broadway theatre than any other school for theater in the United States. In 2017 alone, six members of the Tisch alumni community were nominated for an Oscar. Over the past 10 Student Academy Award ceremonies, it is one of only two US schools to have double-digit wins; the school is among the most competitive American film schools to enroll in. The Tisch School of the Arts was founded in order to provide conservatory training in theater and film in the context of a research university; the school created additional departments such as dance, theatre design, cinema studies within a few years. Following the creation of the undergraduate Department of Drama in 1974, the school expanded into other artistic forms, including the Interactive Telecommunications Program, Department of Dramatic Writing, Department of Performance Studies, Graduate Musical Theatre Writing Program, Department of Photography and Imaging, The Department of Art and Public Policy.
In 1985, the school's first dean, David Oppenheim, solicited a donation from Laurence A. and Preston Robert Tisch that made possible the acquisition and renovation of the location at 721 Broadway where most of the school’s programs are housed. In recognition of the generosity of the Tisch family, the school was renamed Tisch School of the Arts. Tisch School of the Arts has three institutes and 16 programs and offers the Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Arts, Master of Fine Arts, Master of Arts, Master of Professional Studies, Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Tisch offers a selection of classes to NYU students not enrolled in any of its programs through the Open Arts curriculum; the three institutes are: The Institute of Performing Arts, including the Art & Public Policy, Design for Stage & Film, Graduate Acting, Graduate Musical Theatre Writing, Open Arts, Performance StudiesThe Maurice Kanbar Institute of Film & Television, including Cinema Studies, the Goldberg Department of Dramatic Writing, Graduate Film, Undergraduate Film & TelevisionThe Institute of Emerging Media, including the Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music, ITP/IMA, Photography & Imaging, NYU Game CenterThe school offers an inter-disciplinary "collaborative arts" program, as well as the Clive Davis School Institute of Recorded Music, one of the few programs in the US to combine musical arts and business strategies in the recording industry.
A dual MFA/MBA graduate program is offered, allowing students to take coursework at both Tisch and NYU's Stern School of Business. It offers high school programs as an outgrowth of the undergraduate classes, professional courses for the general public as part of a commitment to continuing education in the arts. NYU's first branch campus abroad was the result of a partnership with Singapore Government agencies under Singapore's Global Schoolhouse program. Tisch Asia was Singapore’s first graduate arts school and offered Master of Fine Arts degrees in animation and digital arts, dramatic writing and international media producing. Summer programs included non-credit certificate courses; the campus opened in fall 2007 on the former Ministry of Education & Republic Polytechnic grounds at 3 Kay Siang Road, with the intention to enroll 250 students. The anticipated enrollment figures were not achieved, financial irregularities were alleged and Tisch Asia President Pari Sara Shirazi was dismissed from her post by NYU in November 2011.
In a letter to the Tisch Asia community dated 8 November 2012, Dean Mary Schmidt Campbell announced that the campus would close after 2014 with recruitment and admission of new students suspended with immediate effect. While celebrating the c
Etgar Keret is an Israeli writer known for his short stories, graphic novels, scriptwriting for film and television. Keret was born in Ramat Gan, Israel in 1967, he is a third child to parents. Both of his parents are from Poland, he studied at Ohel Shem highschool, lives in Tel Aviv with his wife, Shira Geffen, their son, Lev. He is a lecturer at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer Sheva, at Tel Aviv University, he holds dual Polish citizenship. Keret's first published work was Pipelines, a collection of short stories, ignored when it came out, his second book, Missing Kissinger, a collection of fifty short stories, caught the attention of the general public. The short story "Siren", which deals with the paradoxes of modern Israeli society, is included in the curriculum for the Israeli matriculation exam in literature. Keret has co-authored several comic books, among them Nobody Said It Was Going to Be Fun with Rutu Modan and Streets of Fury with Asaf Hanuka. In 1999, five of his stories were translated into English, adapted into "graphic novellas" under the joint title Jetlag.
The illustrators were the five members of the Actus Tragicus collective. In 1998, Keret published a collection of short stories; the title story, the longest in the collection, follows a young man who commits suicide and goes on a quest for love in the afterlife. It appears in the English language collection of Keret's stories The Bus Driver Who Wanted To Be God & Other Stories and was adapted into the graphic novel Pizzeria Kamikaze, with illustrations by Asaf Hanuka. Keret's latest short story collections are Pitom Defikah Ba-delet. Keret wrote a children's book Dad Runs Away with the Circus, illustrated by Rutu Modan. Keret publishes some of his works on the Hebrew-language web site "Bimah Hadashah". Keret has worked in Israeli television and film, including three seasons as a writer for the popular sketch show The Cameri Quintet, he wrote the story for the 2001 TV movie Aball'e starring Shmil Ben Ari. In 2006, Wristcutters: A Love Story, a dark comedy/love story based on Keret's novella Kneller's Happy Campers, premiered at the Sundance Film Festival.
The story was adapted by director Goran Dukić into a film starring Patrick Fugit, Shannyn Sossamon, Tom Waits and Will Arnett. Etgar and his wife Shira directed the 2007 film Jellyfish, based on a story written by Shira. $9.99, a stop motion animated feature film, was released in 2009. Written by Keret and directed by Tatia Rosenthal, it is an Israeli/Australian co-production featuring the voices of Geoffrey Rush, Anthony LaPaglia and other leading Australian actors. In 2010 a short feature film based on Keret's story was released. An Exclusive novella was directed by the young Polish director Krzysztof Szot; the film known as Wyłączność, was presented at the Cannes Film Festival 2010 in the Short Film Corner section. Keret's work is featured on the National Public Radio program This American Life, which has presented readings of eight of his stories. In October 2011 the public radio show Selected Shorts devoted an entire show to live readings of Keret's stories, including “Suddenly a Knock at the Door,” “Halibut," “Lieland”, “Fatso.”
Keret himself introduced several of the stories. In August 2012, the short film Glue based on Etgar Keret's short story "Crazy Glue", participated in the Rhode Island International Film Festival. In May 2013, the short film LieLand and directed by Silvia Grossmann, a Brazilian/American filmmaker, premiered at the Cannes Film Festival. Keret's writing style is lean, using everyday language and dialect, his stories are surreal, but believably so, leaving you in a curious world much like yours, where the boundaries of possibility are changing. His work has influenced many writers of his generation, as well as bringing a renewed surge in popularity for the short story form in Israel in the second half of the 1990s. Keret has received the Prime Minister's award for literature, as well as the Ministry of Culture's Cinema Prize. In 2006 he was chosen as an outstanding artist of the prestigious Israel Cultural Excellence Foundation. In 1993 he won the first prize in the Alternative Theater Festival in Akko for Entebbe: A Musical, which he wrote with Jonathan Bar Giora.
The short film Malka Lev Adom, which Keret wrote and directed with Ran Tal, won an Israel Film Academy award and first place in the Munich International Festival of Film Schools. The film Jellyfish, a joint venture for Keret and his wife received the Camera d'Or prize at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. Missing Kissinger won the 2008 JQ Wingate Prize. Keret was on the jury for the 2010 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. In 2010, Keret received the Chevalier Medallion of France's Ordre des des Lettres, he has received the Charles Bronfman Prize for 2016. Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner Miller's Crossing by the Coen brothers Twelve Monkeys by Terry Gilliam A review of Missing Kissinger by Todd McEwen describes Etgar Keret's locale as that of "male confusion, blundering, bellowing and, above all, stasis, his narrator is trapped in an angry masculine wistfulness, awful t