Vickers Model 1931
The Vickers Model 1931 was a British anti-aircraft gun used during the Second World War. The design was rejected by the British and Vickers exported the gun worldwide during the 1930s. Romania bought a license for 100 in 1936; the second batch of 100 pieces was started in July 1941, the production rate being of 5 pieces per month as of October 1942. Denmark bought a license. Belgium, the Netherlands, Turkey and China bought numbers of guns directly from Vickers. Finland bought a dozen to help reduce balance of payment problems with the British in 1936; the Finnish guns were chambered in their standard 76.2 mm caliber. Those weapons captured after the German conquest of Europe were taken into Wehrmacht service as the 7.5 cm Flak M 35 or 7.5 cm Flak M 35. The Soviet Union used those guns it captured from Lithuania, it saw limited British service with Home Defense "barrage units" 1940—43. The cruciform carriage had two solid rubber wheels that were removable. Two legs locked together for transport and the barrel was secured to them.
The other two legs folded in half and were elevated vertically into the air. Axworthy, Mark. Third Axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941-1945. London: Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-267-7. Gander, Terry. Weapons of the Third Reich: An Encyclopedic Survey of All Small Arms and Special Weapons of the German Land Forces 1939-1945. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-15090-3; the Vickers in Finnish service the Vickers in Romanian service
Heinkel He 111
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934. Through development it was described as a "wolf in sheep's clothing". Due to restrictions placed on Germany after the First World War prohibiting bombers, it masqueraded as a civil airliner, although from conception the design was intended to provide the nascent Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber; the best-recognised German bomber due to the distinctive, extensively glazed "greenhouse" nose of versions, the Heinkel He 111 was the most numerous Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. The bomber fared well until the Battle of Britain, it proved capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining airborne. As the war progressed, the He 111 was used in a variety of roles on every front in the European theatre, it was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber in the Atlantic and Arctic, a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, North African Front theatres.
The He 111 was upgraded and modified, but became obsolete during the latter part of the war. The German Bomber B project was not realised, which forced the Luftwaffe to continue operating the He 111 in combat roles until the end of the war. Manufacture of the He 111 ceased in September 1944, at which point piston-engine bomber production was halted in favour of fighter aircraft. With the German bomber force defunct, the He 111 was used for logistics. Production of the Heinkel continued after the war as the Spanish-built CASA 2.111. Spain received a batch of He 111H-16s in 1943 along with an agreement to licence-build Spanish versions, its airframe was produced in Spain under licence by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA. The design differed in powerplant only being equipped with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines; the Heinkel's descendant continued in service until 1973. After its defeat in World War I, Germany was banned from operating an air force by the Treaty of Versailles. German re-armament began earnestly in the 1930s and was kept secret because it violated the treaty.
The early development of military bombers was disguised as a development program for civilian transport aircraft. Among the designers seeking to benefit from German re-armament was Ernst Heinkel. Heinkel decided to create the world's fastest passenger aircraft, a goal met with scepticism by Germany's aircraft industry and political leadership. Heinkel entrusted development to Siegfried and Walter Günter, both new to the company and untested. In June 1933 Albert Kesselring visited Heinkel's offices. Kesselring was head of the Luftwaffe Administration Office: at that point Germany did not have a State Aviation Ministry but only an aviation commissariat, the Luftfahrtkommissariat. Kesselring was hoping to build a new air force out of the Flying Corps being constructed in the Reichswehr, required modern aircraft. Kesselring convinced Heinkel to move his factory from Warnemünde to Rostock — with its factory airfield in the coastal "Marienehe" region of Rostock and bring in mass production, with a force of 3,000 employees.
Heinkel began work on the new design, which garnered urgency as the American Lockheed 12, Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2 began to appear. Features of the He 111 were apparent in the Heinkel He 70; the first single-engined He 70 Blitz rolled off the line in 1932 and started breaking records. In the normal four-passenger version its speed reached 380 km/h when powered by a 447 kW BMW VI engine; the He 70 was designed with an elliptical wing, which the Günther brothers had incorporated into the Bäumer Sausewind before they joined Heinkel. This wing design became a feature in this and many subsequent designs they developed; the He 70 drew the interest of the Luftwaffe, looking for an aircraft with both bomber and transport capabilities. The He 111 was a twin-engine version of the Blitz, preserving the elliptical inverted gull wing, small rounded control surfaces and BMW engines, so that the new design was called the Doppel-Blitz; when the Dornier Do 17 displaced the He 70, Heinkel needed a twin-engine design to match its competitors.
Heinkel spent 200,000 man hours designing the He 111. The fuselage length was extended to just over 17.4 m/57 ft and wingspan to 22.6 m/74 ft. The first He 111 flew on 24 February 1935, piloted by chief test pilot Gerhard Nitschke, ordered not to land at the company's factory airfield at Rostock-Marienehe, as this was considered too short, but at the central Erprobungstelle Rechlin test facility, he ignored these orders and landed back at Marienehe. He said that the He 111 performed slow manoeuvres well and that there was no danger of overshooting the runway. Nitschke praised its high speed "for the period" and "very good-natured flight and landing characteristics", stable during cruising, gradual descent and single-engined flight and having no nose-drop when the undercarriage was operated. During the second test flight Nitschke revealed there was insufficient longitudinal stability during climb and flight at full power and the aileron controls required an unsatisfactory amount of force. By the end of 1935, prototypes V2 V4 had been produced under civilian registrations D-ALIX, D-ALES and D-AHAO.
D-ALES became the first prototype of the He 111 A-1 on 10 January 1936 and received recognition as the "fastest passenger aircraft in the world", as its speed exceeded 402 km/h. The design would have achieved a greater total speed had the 1,000 hp DB 600 inverted-V12 en
Morozovsk is a town and the administrative center of Morozovsky District in Rostov Oblast, located on the Bystraya River, 265 kilometers northeast of Rostov-on-Don, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 27,642 ; the khutor of Morozov was founded in the 1880s. In 1900, Morozovskaya railway station, named after it, was opened nearby. In 1910, the stanitsa of Taubeyevskaya was established near the railway station, it was renamed Morozovskaya on April 24, 1917. These two rural localities grew and merged, the resulting settlement was granted town status in 1941. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Morozovsk serves as the administrative center of Morozovsky District; as an administrative division, it is incorporated within Morozovsky District as Morozovskoye Urban Settlement. As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Morozovsky Municipal District. There is an airbase located 3.1 miles southwest of the town. There are many monuments and museums In Morozovsk.
Near the train station is a monument to the steam Locomotive. Morozov Museum was opened in 1994; the Museum building was built in the early twentieth century on the outskirts of the former farm Lyubimov. The facade of the Museum there are four bas-relief. On two bas-reliefs shows a smithy with two blacksmiths, harrowing land, two drawn by oxen, on the other — Cossack on horseback with guns. Monument to the fallen soldiers of the Soviet army who died during the great Patriotic war. A monument in honor of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany — the MiG-21; the Church Of The Intercession Of The Blessed Virgin Mary. The Church was built by the project Fomin, Konstantin Ivanovich in 1914; the Church was consecrated on 25 April 1915. The Church operated until the mid 1930-ies. Was built next to a military town and the Church were in its territory. So the temple remained standing until the end of 1940-ies. During the war the temple was destroyed the bell tower. After the war the Church was a military warehouse.
In 2001 began the restoration of the temple. In the temple are the icon of St. Nikolay Popov with relics, the icon of Matrona of Moscow with a particle of the relics, the icon of the Holy virgin. ФГУП «Южное Аэрогеодезическое Предприятие» Атлас Ростовская область Города, 2007.Краснознамённый Киевский. Очерки истории Краснознамённого Киевского военного округа. Издание второе, исправленное и дополненное. Киев, издательство политической литературы Украины, 1979.Военный энциклопедический словарь. М. Военное издательство, 1984.Справочник «Освобождение городов: Справочник по освобождению городов в период Великой Отечественной войны 1941-1945». М. Л. Дударенко, Ю. Г. Перечнев, В. Т. Елисеев и др. М.: Воениздат, 1985. 598 с. Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от 27 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г.. Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №247-ЗС от 27 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования "Морозовский район" и муниципальных образований в его составе». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Наше время", №339, 29 декабря 2004 г
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms; the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control and administration of military organization is undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War; these in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.
The civilian or civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet known as a Minister of Defense. Subordinated to that position are Secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the Armed Services, including their dependants. There are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as Strategy advice, Capability Development assessment, or Defense Science provision of research, design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work. In most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services: army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the standard model of four basic Armed Services.
Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons; some other variations include: Bangladesh: Army, Air Force, Border Guards, Coast Guard Brazil: Army, Air Force, Firefighters Chile: Army, Air Force, National Police Croatia: Army, Air Force and Air Defence Egypt: Army, Air Force, Air Defense France: Army, Air Force, National Guard Greece: Army, Air Force Germany: Army, Air Force, Joint Support Service, Joint Medical Services Hungary: Army, Air Force India: Army, Air Force, Strategic Forces Command, Coast Guard, Paramilitary Forces Indonesia: Army, Air Force, Marines Iran: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Revolutionary Guard Italy: Army, Air Force, Military Police Japan: Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, Japan Air Self Defense Force Latvia: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard Netherlands: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie Norway: Army, Air Force, Home Guard, Cyber Defence Force Pakistan: Army, Air Force, Frontier Corps, Pakistan Coast Guard, Maritime Security Agency, Gilgit Scouts, Pakistan National Guard, Airports Security Force, Frontier Constabulary, National Command Authority Philippines: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard Poland: Land Forces, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defence Force People's Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Strategic Rocket Force, Strategic Support Force, People's Armed Police Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Reserve Force, Military Police Russian Federation: Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces plus three independent arms of service South Africa: Army, Air Force, Military Health Service Spain: Army, Air Force, Civil Guard, Emergencies Unit, Royal Guard Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Civil Security Force Turkey: Land Forces, Air Force, Naval Forces, Coast Guard, War Academies United States: Army, Air Force, Coast Guard United Kingdom: Army, Air Force, Marines Venezuela: Army, Air Force, National Guard, National Militia Vietnam: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Guard, Coast GuardIn larger armed forces the culture between the different Armed Services of the armed forces can be quite different.
Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Third-world armies tend to consist of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units, it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military. Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as Internal Troops, Paramilitary Forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in Anglo-Saxon countries where civil police are employed to enforce the law, there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist, it is common, at least in the European and Nort
Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia. Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it was the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare. After their defeat at Stalingrad, the German High Command had to withdraw vast military forces from the Western Front to replace their losses; the German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing; the fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River. On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.
The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army make no attempt to break out. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food; the remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted one week and three days. By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine and the Baltic republics. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been successful and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because though Army Group Centre had suffered heavy losses west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of its infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped.
Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been hard pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again. With the initial operations being successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union; the initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was the Caspian Sea to central Russia, its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields; the capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult. On 23 July 1942, Hitler rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city, based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union.
Hitler proclaimed that after Stalingrad's capture, its male citizens were to be killed and all women and children were to be deported because its population was "thoroughly communistic" and "especially dangerous". It was assumed that the fall of the city would firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku, with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany; the expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence and an underestimation of Soviet reserves. The Soviets realized, they ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight. If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny I must finish this war. Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there; the planned summer offensive, code-named Fall Blau, was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies.
Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive. Hitler intervened, ordering the Army Group to split in two. Army Group South, under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South, including Friedrich Paulus's 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and by General Maximilian von Weichs; the start of Case Blue had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were to take part in Blau were besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, the city did not fall until early July. Operation Fridericus I by the Germans against the "Isium bulge", pinched off the Soviet
Volgograd International Airport
Volgograd International Airport is an airport located 15 km northwest of the city of Volgograd Stalingrad, in Russia. It comprises a civilian airport built on top of an older military runway, now demolished; the terminal area parks 42 medium/large aircraft and 91 small aircraft. A military training unit was present at Gumrak as late as 1994, the 706 UAP, using Aero L-39 aircraft; however a more recent report puts 706 UAP at Beketovsk until 1997. Volgograd Airport served as base for Air Volga; when the airline went bankrupt in April 2010, its aircraft and most of the routes were taken over by RusLine. In 2012 it was announced that Volgograd airport would have a new terminal and runway built which would bring the airport up to European standards, it is being built and will be complete sometime in 2017; the airport named Gumrak Airport, was used by the German 6th Army as fuel and supply depot during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942-43. After the fall of Pitomnik on 17 January 1943, Gumrak was the only one of seven airfields around Stalingrad still in German hands.
On 22 January, a last He 111 aircraft left the airfield with 19 wounded soldiers, the last flight out of Stalingrad for the 6th Army. Gumrak was recaptured by the 293rd Rifle Division on 23 January, leaving the 6th Army without any means of direct support. In 2016, the new terminal of the airport was opened for international flights. Straight after opening, the first terminal building was demolished to give more space for a new terminal extension, planned to be equipped with air-bridges; the construction is planned to finish before 9 May, where the terminal will open for passenger service and will integrate with terminal C. The current Soviet-built building is planned to convert into a bus terminal. On 8 May 2018, the new terminal B for domestic flights was opened for passengers; the new runway was opened on that day. The last third stage of the airport re-construction, will be integrating terminals B and C with the walking gallery and construction of air-bridges; the works will commence after FIFA-2018 finishes.
The current soviet-built terminal, after terminal B commences its operations in May, will be converted to the bus terminal. It was planned to do before FIFA World Cup 2018, but due to technical reasons, it will commence its services later; the railway station is integrated with Terminal A. The construction of the line was finished in April 2018, tested with the first train on 11 May and commenced the first journey on 17 May 2018; the train goes to Railway Terminal Volgograd-1 and the journey takes 30 minutes. The train to and from Volgograd City Zone travels daily. List of the busiest airports in the former USSR Media related to Gumrak Airport at Wikimedia Commons Volgograd International Airport official website
Salsk is a town and the administrative center of Salsky District in Rostov Oblast, located on the Sredny Yegorlyk River, 180 kilometers southeast of Rostov-on-Don, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 61,316 , it was established as a settlement serving Torgovaya railway station, which opened in 1899. It was granted town status and renamed Salsk in 1926. Salsk was occupied by Nazi Germany from July 1942 as a part of the operation known as Case Blue. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Salsk serves as the administrative center of Salsky District; as an administrative division, it is incorporated within Salsky District as Salskoye Urban Settlement. As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Salsky Municipal District. Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от 27 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г.. Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №233-ЗС от 27 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования "Сальский район" и муниципальных образований в его составе». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №№325–338, 28 декабря 2004 г