Nork is a residential area of the borough of Reigate and Banstead in Surrey and borders Greater London, England. Nork is separated from its post town Banstead only by the A217 dual carriageway, the built-up area is contiguous with similar parts of Tattenham Corner and Burgh Heath. A thin belt of more open land separates it from the communities to the north: Epsom, Ewell and Belmont. There are two parades of shops, one called the Driftbridge and another at the north-eastern end of Nork Way, the street which runs centrally through the residential area. Nork lies on chalk near the top of the gentle north-facing slope of the North Downs, 175 m above sea level at its highest point, it has been suggested that the word "Nork", as well as "Nore" and "Nower", might derive from the Latin "noverca", which means a stepmother, but, applied to a feature which dominates, thus weakens, a fortified camp. Others consider it more to be derived from the Old English word "nook", meaning secluded, tranquil and a corner.
A third proposed derivation is from "northern oak". The first recorded application of the name was to a "Nork close" in 1723, it was applied to Nork House, built in 1740 by Christopher Buckle. The Buckle family were owners of the adjacent Burgh Manor from 1614 to 1847. In the 18th and 19th centuries Nork could be considered an agricultural hamlet of Banstead village, covering the fields and buildings in the extensive grounds of Nork Park; the line of trees planted to mark the park's northern boundary has given its name to Fir Tree Road. John Burton, author of Iter Surriense et Sussexiense, stayed at Nork House in 1752, described at length the ingenious waterworks by which water was raised from a deep well and distributed over the slopes of a dry down. In 1834 a celebrated highway robbery and murder occurred along what is now Yew Tree Bottom road where it joins the Reigate Road. A Mr Richardson, returning from the Epsom cornmarket to Bletchingley, had dismounted on account of the steep climb, was ambushed by two men whom he had considered suspicious on his outward trip that morning.
In that century the railway arrived to serve Epsom Racecourse. In 1880 a large "cottage home" for children opened along the northern edge of Nork, between Fir Tree Road and the railway line, it was called "The Kensington and Chelsea District School" and "Beechholme". At its peak, over 400 children were accommodated; the school closed in 1974 and the area was rebuilt with modern housing. In the 19th century, the Buckle family had sold their estates to the Perceval/Arden family, who in turn sold them to the Colman family, of mustard fame. In 1923, the Nork estate was sold to a development company and Nork House itself was demolished in 1939. Housing development became rapid after 1923, in 1925 the Nork Residents' Association was formed, publishing the Nork Quarterly, a bulletin that still appears today. Nork began to be used as an official place name outside of the park itself from 1965 when Banstead was divided into two wards named "Banstead Village" and "Nork", equal in population and number of councillors.
During World War II, Nork received occasional damage from bombs, V-1 flying bombs and crashed aircraft. Some fortifications were built in preparation for an invasion, Canadian and British soldiers were stationed in Nork Park, occupying some of the buildings remaining from the estate as well as specially constructed Nissen huts. After the war, the Nissen huts were utilised by the Council as temporary accommodation for council tenants demolished as tenants were moved into prefabs. Housing development continued after a break during the war. Amongst the last large-scale developments were the Rose Bushes estate in the 1960s and the High Beeches estate in the 1970s. In-fill development has converted some of the large rear gardens of the original development into small housing schemes. In a front garden along The Drive lies Tumble Beacon, a scheduled ancient monument, it was a prehistoric bowl barrow, a funeral monument situated, as is typical, on one of the highest prominences in the region. At latest in Tudor times, it was built up to serve as a beacon where a fire would be lit to warn of the approach of hostile forces.
In World War II an air-raid shelter was dug inside. A group of Saxon burial mounds, or hlaews, lies in the north part of Nork ward on the part of Banstead Downs west of the main A217 road; when one was excavated in 1972, archaeologists found late 7th, or early 8th, century artefacts, including a spear, shield boss, hanging bowl and textile. The primary burial was of a well built and unusually tall warrior, a regular horse rider in his late 20s. Another five skeletons appeared to be centuries-later victims of the medieval gallows that gave rise to the local place name Gally Hills. In 1912 the Colman family rebuilt the mansion called Great Burgh, over the Reigate Road from Nork House; this neo-Georgian house is now a Grade II listed building. It was used as a research establishment by the Distillers Company by British Petroleum and Beecham Pharmaceuticals, as offices and accommodation by Toyota, who have their UK headquarters here. Since 2016, the original building has been occupied by the Science Group and their subsidiary Leatherhead Food Research.
The house's architect Ernest Newton designed the formal gardens and parterres. Amongst "locally listed buildings" are two estate cottages near the Driftbridge, both built about 1890, West Lodge, a flint-built gatehouse for Nork House on the Reigate Road
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Banstead is a residential town/village in the borough of Reigate and Banstead in Surrey, England, on the border with London, 2.5 miles south of Sutton, 5 miles west of Croydon and 7.5 miles south-east of Kingston-upon-Thames and 13.3 miles south of Central London. The county town, Guildford is 17 miles west south-west. On the North Downs, Banstead is on three of the four main compass points separated from other settlements by open area buffers with Metropolitan Green Belt status. Echoing its much larger historic area and spread between newer developments, Banstead Downs is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Regarding its "town status", Banstead has never had the right to a regular market. Supporting interpretation as a village, one of its wards used is "Banstead Village"; the ecclesiastical parish was abolished. Both included many outlying parts not only the part still associated with today's village, contiguous Nork which contains Banstead station, is dependent on the amenities of Banstead and is included in county-level population analyses of Banstead, but not the central governmental identified Banstead Built-up Area which takes in Burgh Heath but not many areas in the west associated in such studies with Tadworth and has a total population of 10,653 as at the 2011 census.
Non-commercial in most areas of the economy, the nearest industrial or business areas are in the three more remote, urban towns above, as well as the closer Reigate-Redhill conurbation to the south and Cheam to the north and Epsom and Worcester Park to the west. At the 2011 Census the population of Banstead was 16,666; the population of Banstead Village ward was 8,510 in 2001 and 9,110 in 2011. Banstead Parish now only exists for church purposes, there being no civil parish as it became Banstead Urban District, in turn abolished in 1965. Due to the aridity of the surface of the higher south, the old parish stretched far and wide to take in the width of the widest section of the North Downs and still today Banstead is drawn more than its narrow village or county or borough electoral wards and divisions under three measures: As a post town As Banstead Downs As accounting for the main northern settlement or'Banstead part' of the borough of Reigate and Banstead. Taking the last, broadest definition, in 2001, the upland settlements loosely associated with Banstead such as Tadworth had some 46,280 people across an area of 16 square miles.
The ward of Nork includes areas which were not part of the hamlet of Nork. At the 2011 Census it had 7,556 residents; the area had many other hamlets, which gained their own village or town status. Thus historic demography does not give a fair indicator of population change. Identifying this swathe of land in 21st century figures with the parish, historical population growth is as follows, with parts of Walton-on-the-Hill and Chipstead included in the 2001 and 2011 wards: The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average, apartments was 22.6%. The proportion of households who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings; the earliest recorded mention of Banstead was in an Anglo-Saxon charter of AD 967, in the reign of King Edgar. The settlement appears in the Domesday Book as Benestede; the first element is the Anglo Saxon word bene, meaning bean, the second element stede refers to an inhabited place without town status.
Banstead's non-ecclesiastical land and 50 households were held by Richard as tenant-in-chief, under the Bishop of Bayeux. Its assets were: 1 church, 1 mill worth £ 1, 17 ploughs, woodland worth 20 hogs, it rendered: £8 per year. The Manor had two ploughs, there were 28 villeins and 15 cottars with 15 ploughs; this was a farming area that became well known for its high quality wool. The manor was owned by wealthy gentry by the church, before it fell into the hands of the Crown in the 13th century. Henry VIII made Banstead part of Catherine of Aragon's dowry, but took it away again and gave it to a court favourite, Sir Nicholas Carew. Carew was beheaded for treason, but the manor, once covering most of the village but sold piecemeal, stayed in his family until the 18th century. Banstead Downs, which for many centuries meant all the open land stretching from Epsom to Croydon and Reigate, became well known for horse racing in the 17th century. On 20 November 1683, King Charles II and the Duke of York attended a race meeting near the core of the village.
The town gained a reputation as a health resort during that era, becoming famous for its "wholesome air", London physicians recommended a visit to Banstead to their ailing patients. Banstead's population remained low until the late 19th century when the improved roads and the building of the railways led to gradual growth, which continued with low density social housing and post-Blitz rehousing projects in the mid 20th century. Banstead's housing stock is low density and set in overwhelmingly green surroundings.
Epsom is a market town in Surrey, England, 13.7 miles south-west of London, between Ashtead and Ewell. The town straddles the upper Thanet Formation. Epsom Downs Racecourse holds The Derby, now a generic name for sports competitions in English-speaking countries; the town gives its name to Epsom salts extracted from mineral waters there. Epsom lies within the Copthorne Hundred used for periodic, strategic meetings of the wealthy and powerful in Anglo-Saxon England, having a Hundred Court; the name of Epsom is early recorded as forms of Ebba's ham. Ebba was a Saxon landowner. Many Spring line settlements by springs in Anglo-Saxon England were founded at the foot of dry valleys such as here and Effingham, Cheam, Carshalton and Bromley. A relic from this period is a 7th-century brooch now in the British Museum. Chertsey Abbey, whose ownership of the main manor of Ebbisham was confirmed by King Æthelstan in 933, asserted during its Middle Ages existence that Frithwald and Bishop Erkenwald granted it 20 mansas of land in Epsom in 727.
Epsom appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Evesham, held by Chertsey Abbey. Its domesday assets were: 11 hides; the town at the time of Domesday Book had 38 households, some of them in a nucleated village near the parish church of which there were two. At various dates in the Middle Ages, manors were founded by subinfeudation at Epsom Court, Woodcote and Langley Vale. Under Henry VIII and Queen Mary the manor passed to the Carew related Darcy families, it passed via the Mynne and Parkhurst families to Sir Charles Kemys Tynte and after his death to Sir Joseph Mawbey. By the end of the Georgian period, Epsom was known as a spa town. Remnants of this are multiple exhibits in the town's museum. There were entertainments at the Assembly Rooms. A green-buffered housing estate has now been built upon the wells in the south-west of the town. Epsom salts are named after the town. Epsom salt was prepared by boiling down mineral waters which sprung at Epsom; the town's market is built on the pond. Within the centuries-old boundaries is Epsom Downs Racecourse which features two of the five English Classic horse races.
On 4 June 1913, Emily Davison, a militant women's suffrage activist, stepped in front of King George V's horse running in the Derby, sustaining fatal injuries. The British Prime Minister and first chairman of the London County Council, Lord Rosebery, was sent down from the University of Oxford in 1869 for buying a racehorse and entering it in the Derby − it finished last. Lord Rosebery remained associated with the town throughout his life, leaving land to the borough, commemorated in the names of several roads, Rosebery Park and Rosebery School. A house was named after him at Epsom College, one of Britain's public schools in Epsom; the New Student's Reference Work of 1914 describes Epsom: Epsom Clock Tower was built in 1847, replacing the watchhouse which stood from the 17th century, was built to 70 feet of red and suffolk brick, with heraldic lions of Caen Stone at the four corners of the tower base. A bell was added in 1867. By 1902 the lions had been replaced by lanterns, the toilet buildings added either side of the tower.
Owing to its position and transport infrastructure in the London commuter belt allowing easy access to the Greater London conurbation to the north and the rolling Surrey countryside to the south, the borough of Epsom and Ewell was named in August 2005 by Channel 4's Location, Location as the "Best Place to Live" in the United Kingdom, ranked at numbers 8 and 3 in subsequent years. The Epsom Playhouse is run by Epsom and Ewell Borough council; the Ashley Centre, a shopping mall, was built in the early 1980s and subsequently parts of the high street were pedestrianised as part of the construction of the town's one-way system. In the 1990s, a large multiplex Odeon cinema was built in Upper High Street; the late 1990s saw the development of the Ebbisham Centre, a community service based development, including a doctors' surgery, Epsom Library, a café and a health and fitness centre. The Derby Square includes a number of franchise chain pubs/bars; the University for the Creative Arts has one of its five campuses in Epsom.
Laine Theatre Arts, an independent performing arts college, is based in the town. Students have included Victoria Beckham. Leisure facilities in and around the town include a leisure centre on East Street. Major employers in the town include Ewell Borough Council and WS Atkins; as part of Epsom and Ewell, the town is twinned with Chantilly in northern France. Epsom and Ewell was ranked in the top ten of the Halifax Quality of Life Survey 2011. Epsom has a Non-League football club Epsom & Ewell F. C. who share a ground with Merstham F. C. as they sold their original ground off West Street. They are looking to move back into the Epsom area; the town has a running club called the Epsom and Ewell Harriers. The town is bisected in two in terms of soil: the north of the town is on gravel and sand deposited around the Lon
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
A royal train is a set of railway carriages dedicated for the use of the monarch or other members of a royal family. Most monarchies with a railway system employ a set of royal carriages; the various government railway operators of Australia have operated a number of royal trains for members of the Royal Family on their numerous tours of the country. Belgium no longer has a royal train. There are still historic royal coaches preserved, two of which are on display at the Train World museum at Schaarbeek. From the royal coaches that served for King Leopold II and King Albert I are preserved the three most important royal coaches. From the royal coaches that served for King Leopold III and King Baudouin are preserved: the drawing room coach, the dining coach and the sleeping coach for the king and queen. For rail transport during visits of heads of state to Belgium, there is a possibility of using a first-class SNCB I11 coach with seats removed and a set of armchairs put in the middle of the coach.
This arrangement was used for the first time on 30 May 2002 during the state visit of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, for a trip from Bruges to Brussels-South, a second time during the state visit of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands on 22 June 2006 for a trip from Schaarbeek to Liège-Guillemins. Royal trains have been employed to transport members of the Canadian Royal Family on numerous tours prior to the 1960s, after which the Canadian Royal Flight was predominantly used. 1860 – Grand Trunk Railway: Prince of Wales 1901 – Canadian Pacific Railway: Duke of York 1906 – Canadian Pacific Railway: Duke of Connaught 1939 – Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Denmarks oldest royal coach dates back to 1854 and known as JFJ S the S stands for Salonvogn, the Danish classification for all the royal cars up to the modern day. It was gifted to King Frederik VII by Peto, Brassey & bretts to the inauguration of the railway between Flensborg-Tønning. and as a result of the Second Schleswig War better known as the war of 1864, it was stranded on the Prussian side but returned to Denmark in 1865 in a barge.
It was rebuilt several times first in 1883 where it was fitted with a vacuum brake and Mays heating system. It was rebuilt again in 1898 from a 3-axle to 2-axle car and classified Danish State Railways DSB SB 2, 1903 reclassified for the last time as DSB S 2 and used as an inspection car until 1934 when it was withdrawn from service. In 1935 its wooden coach body was sold to greengrocer Møller and used as a summer house in Hurup Thy until 1983 when it donated to the DJK Danish railway club. In 1985 it was given to the Aalholm collection at Aalholm Castle, in 2011 it came to the Danish Railway Museum in Odense where it sits on display as an unrestored coach body to show what several other coaches looked like before restoration. For her 60th birthday in 2000, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark received a new royal coach with a drawing room, sleeping compartments and kitchen, she used this coach for her state visit to Belgium, travelling the night of 27–28 May 2002 from Denmark to Brussels-South and returning from there to Denmark on the evening of 30 May 2002.
The coach and the accompanying sleeping car for the staff were hooked to normal trains, except for the part from Aachen to Brussels, where it ran as a special train to allow for the arrival on a reserved platform where the press were waiting. Germany consisted of more than 30 states – most of them monarchies – when railways came into existence. In the beginning the royalty used first class coaches or first class compartments within public coaches and trains. So prince Frederick of Prussia travelled in a first class compartment in 1851 when the train derailed in the vicinity of Gütersloh, but soon most of these kings, great dukes and princes trains. In other cases the railway companies rented them to royalty. Complementary to those private coaches and trains were private reception rooms in the station buildings and in some cases private railway stations for the exclusive use of these privileged few. A well-preserved example is Potsdam Park Sanssouci railway station, a railway station for the use of Emperor Wilhelm II.
Near his summer palace, the New Palace in Potsdam. King Frederick William IV of Prussia purchased a set of royal coaches in 1857, they were painted in a chestnut brown. None of these survived until today. After 30 years of use they became technically outdated. So in 1889 the new emperor, Wilhelm II. Who was always interested in engineering and technological developments started to order new coaches; until the end of his reign in 1918 it would be about 30. These run on boogies with either two or three axles and were painted in flashy blue and ecru which contrasted much against ordinary coaches of the day which showed green, grey or brown. Only during World War I the imperial coaches were painted green; the private car of the emperor is on display in the German Museum of Technology, the private car of the empress in the museum of former Linke-Hofmann-Busch GmbH who built the coach. The kings of Saxony and Bavaria possessed their own trains. Two royal coaches of a most splendid design used by king Ludwig II of Bavaria are preserve