Shravanabelagola is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore. The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have died here in 298 BCE after he became a Jain monk and assumed an ascetic life style. Shravanabelagola is located at 11 km to the south-east of Channarayapatna in the Channarayapatna taluk of Hassan district of Karnataka, it is at a distance of 51 km south-east of Hassan, the district centre. It is situated at a distance of 12 km to the south from the Bangalore-Mangalore road, 18 km from Hirisave, 78 km from Halebidu, 89 km from Belur, 83 km from Mysuru, 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka and 222 km from Mangalore; the sacred places are spread over two hills and Vindyagiri among the village at the foothill.
Shravanabelagola "White Pond of the Shravana" is named with reference to the colossal image of Gommaṭa - the prefix Śravaṇa serves to distinguish it from other Belagolas with the prefixes Hale- and Kodi-, while Beḷagoḷa "white pond" is an allusion to the pond in the middle of the town. The Sanskrit equivalents Śvetasarovara and Dhavalasarasa used in the inscriptions that support this meaning; some inscriptions mention the name of the place as Beḷgoḷa, which has given rise to another derivation from the plant Solanum ferox. This derivation is in allusion to a tradition which says that a pious old woman anointed the colossal image with the milk brought by her in a gullakayi or eggplant; the place is designated as Devara Beḷgoḷa "White Pond of the God" and Gommaṭapuram "city of Gommaṭa" in some epigraphs. Shravanabelagola has two hills and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was built there by Ashoka in the third century BC.
Chandragiri has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya; the 58-feet tall monolithic statue of Gommateshwara is located on Vindyagiri Hill. It is considered to be the world's largest monolithic statue; the base of the statue has an inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, who erected the statue for his mother; every twelve years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka or Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the statue is anointed with Water, Rice flour, Sugar cane juice, Sandalwood paste and gold and silver flowers. Mahamastakabhisheka was held in 2018 during feb month; the next Mahamastakabhisheka will be held in 2030. The statue is referred to as Gommateshwara by Kannadigas, but the Jains refer to the same as "Bahubali".
Shravanabelagola, nestled by the Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri Hills, protected by the monolith Bhagwan Bahubali, home to over 2,300 years of Jain heritage, is a veritable picture postcard of our history and heritage spanning the centuries. In the town of Shravanabelagola, stands a colossal rock-cut statue of Lord Gommateshwara Shri Bahubali. About eight hundred odd inscriptions which the Karnataka Archeological Department has collected at the place are Jaina and cover a extended period from 600 to 1830 A. D; some refer to the remote time of Chandragupta Maurya and relate the story of the first settlement of Jains at Shravanabelagola. That this village was an acknowledged seat of learning is proved from the fact that a priest from here named Akalanka was in 788 A. D. summoned to the court of Himasitala at Kanchi where having confuted the Buddhists in public disputation, he was instrumental in gaining their expulsion from the South of India to Ceylon. More than 800 inscriptions have been found at Shravanabelagola, dating to various times from 600 AD to 1830 AD.
A large number of these are found in the Chandragiri and the rest can be seen in the Vindhyagiri Hill and the town. Most of the inscriptions at the Chandragiri date back before the 10th century; these inscriptions include texts in the Kannada. The second volume of Epigraphia Carnatica, written by B. Lewis Rice, is dedicated to the inscriptions found here, it is said to be the oldest Konkani inscription. The inscriptions are written in Halegannada characters; some of these inscriptions mention the rise and growth in power of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysala Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar dynasty. These inscriptions have helped modern scholars to understand the nature and development of the Kannada language and its literature. On August 5, 2007, the statue at Shravanabelagola was voted by the readers of Times of India as the first of the Seven Wonders of India. 49% votes went in favor of the statue. 1. Akkana Basadi: This was built in 1181 A. D. Akkana Basadi has 23rd Tirthankara Parshwanath as main deity of the temple.
2. Chandragupta basadi: This was established in the 9th century; the middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture. 3. Shantinatha Basadi:This temple is dedicated to Shantinatha, it was built around 1200 A. D. 4. Parshwanatha Basadi: This is a beautiful structure with decorated outer walls. The
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe and its constituents according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist; this Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. According to Jains, the Universe is made up of six simple and eternal substances called dravya which are broadly categorized under Jiva and Ajiva as follows: Jīva Jīva i.e. Souls – Jīva exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it, it is characterised by upayoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearing of another state, these being the modes of the soul. Ajīva Pudgala – Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles.
Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter. The Paramāṇu and Pudgala are indestructible. Matter combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma-dravya and Adharma-dravya – Dharmastikāya and Adharmastikāya are distinctly peculiar to Jaina system of thought depicting the principle of Motion and Rest, they are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by itself not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharmastikāya motion is not possible and without Adharmastikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa – Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla – Kāla is an eternal substance according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time. According to the Jain text, Dravyasaṃgraha: Conventional time is perceived by the senses through the transformations and modifications of substances.
Real time, however, is the cause of imperceptible, minute changes that go on incessantly in all substances. The Jain doctrine postulates an eternal and ever-existing world which works on universal natural laws; the existence of a creator deity is overwhelmingly opposed in the Jain doctrine. Mahāpurāṇa, a Jain text authored by Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: According to Jains, the universe has a firm and an unalterable shape, measured in the Jain texts by means of a unit called Rajju, supposed to be large; the Digambara sect of Jainism postulates that the universe is fourteen Rajju high and extends seven Rajjus from north to south. Its breadth is seven Rajjus at the bottom and decreases till the middle where it is one Rajju; the width increases till it is five Rajju and again decreases till it is one Rajju. The apex of the universe is one Rajju wide and eight Rajju high; the total space of the world is thus 343 cubic Rajju. The svetambara view differs and postulates that there is constant increase and decrease in the breadth and the space is 239 cubic Rajju.
Apart from the apex, the abode of liberated beings, the universe is divided into three parts. The world is surrounded by three atmospheres: dense-wind and thin-wind, it is surrounded by infinitely large non-world, empty. The whole world is said to be filled with living beings. In all the three parts, there is the existence of small living beings called nigoda. Nigoda are of two types: Itara-nigoda. Nitya-nigoda are those which will reborn as nigoda throughout eternity where as Itara-nigoda will be reborn as other beings too; the mobile region of universe is one Rajju broad and fourteen Rajju high. Within this, there are animals and plants everywhere where as Human beings are restricted to 2.5 continents of middle world. The beings inhabiting lower world are called Naraki. Deva live in top three realms of lower world. Living beings are divided in fourteen classes: 1. Fine beings with one sense. 2. Crude beings with one sense. 3. Beings with two sense. 4. Beings with three sense. 5. Beings with four sense. 6.
Beings with five sense without mind. 7. Beings with five sense with a mind; these can be developed which makes it a total of fourteen. Human beings are the only ones which can attain salvation; the early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts: Urdhva Loka – the realms of the gods or heavens Madhya Loka – the realms of the humans and plants Adho Loka – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regionsThe following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology and geography in a great detail: Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree.
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha for the Jains, believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.. Its distance to cover is 23 kms by walk and takes to climb up and down the hill. If a short route is taken it takes approx 12 hours to complete.. Shikharji means the "venerable peak"; the site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar "peak of concentration." Because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha through meditation. The word "Parasnath" is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Jain tirthankara, one of those, believed to have attained Moksha at the site. Shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India, it lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a section called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state.
The earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva; the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment. Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act. Use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain; the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 27 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains; the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water and snacks. There is an option for parikrama of a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres; the parikrama path is walking only. The temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century.
However, the idol itself is old. Sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji. On the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill. Temples along the track include: In Jainism, the building of replica temples is seen as auspicious and worthwhile. On August 13, 2012, the world's first to-scale complete replication of Shikharji was opened in Siddhachalam in New Jersey over 120 acres of hilly terrain. Called Shikharji at Siddhachalam, it has become an important place of pilgrimage for the Jain diaspora. There is a small scale replica of Shikharji at Mehrauli; the nearest railway station named "Parasnath Station" is situated in Isri Bazar, Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, at the base of Shikharji. Parasnath station is situated on Grand Chord, part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line. Many long distance trains have halts at Parasnath Station.
Daily connectivities to Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Allahbad, Jammutawi, Kalka etc. are available. 12301-12302 Howrah Rajdhani Express via Gaya Junction has a halt on Parasnath station which run 6 days in a week. By Airway. Durgapur has direct flights from Kolkata and Delhi "Save Shikharji" is a protest movement by Jain sects who are against the state's development plans for Shikharji. Jain community members have opposed the plans of the state government to improve the infrastructure in the hill to boost tourism as alleged attempts to commercialize the Shikharji hill; this movement is headed by Yugbhushan Surishwarji, demands Shikharji Hill to be declared as a place of worship by Government of Jharkhand. List of Jain temples Tirth Pat Nirvana Kanda Tourist Places in Giridih Parasnath Hills travel guide from Wikivoyage
Bhaktamara Stotra is a famous Jain Sanskrit prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga; the name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two Sanskrit names, "Bhakta" and "Amar". The prayer praises the first Tirthankara of Jainism in this time cycle. There are forty-eight verses in total; the last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra, sung as a stavan, somewhat interchangeably. Other Jain prayers have taken after these. Bhaktamar stotra word by word meaning in hindi. Https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=1RdKg9zmOevWA40Z7aXK4boUHN2I9GtF4 According to legends, Manatunga Āchārya was chained and imprisoned by the local King Bhoja. Mantunga Āchārya composed this stotra in the prison. With the completion of each verse, a chain broke. Manatunga was free. Legends associate Manatunga with a ruler named Bhoja; however Manatunga lived a few centuries before Raja Bhoja of Dhara. He is identified by some scholars as Kshapanaka, one of the Navaratnas in the court of legendary Vikramaditya.
An unidentified Sanskrit poet Matanga, composer of "Brahaddeshi" on music theory, may have been the same person. Bhaktamara stotra was composed sometime in the Gupta or the post-Gupta period, making Manatunga contemporary with other navaratnas like Kalidasa and Varahamihira. Several spots near Bhopal and Dhar are traditionally associated with Manatunga. Bhaktamara Stotra is believed to be at least a thousand years old, though many believe it to be still older. Bhaktamara Stotra has been passed down from generation to generation, it is an ageless panegyric. The importance and effectiveness is believed to have increased with the passage of time. Bhaktamara Stotra is recited by many with religious regularity; the original Stotra is in Sanskrit and written in Devnagiri script. The Bhaktamar Stotra has 48 stanzas; every stanza has four parts. Every part has 14 letters; the complete panegyric is formed by 26 88 letters. It is said that some specific stanzas are miraculously effective for fulfilment of different purposes.
Bhaktamara stotra is illustrated in paintings. At the Sanghiji temple at Sanganer, there is a panel illustrating each verse; the verses of Bhaktamar are thought to possess magical properties. A mystical diagram, yantra, is associated with each verse. "Sadhak Shivaanand Saraswati" has painted a number of yantras associated with Bhaktamar stotra. There is a temple at Bharuch with a section dedicated to its author Manatunga; the Bhaktamara Stotra is composed in the meter "Vasantatilka". All the fourteen syllables of this meter are divided between short and long syllables i.e. seven laghu and seven gurus and this belongs to sakvari group of meters. It is believed that such an equal division into short and long syllables will help an aspirant attain the state of equanimity the meter itself serving as a catalyst. Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya, ISBN 9788190363945 Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X
The Kalpa Sūtra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira. Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE. it was put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana of Mahavira. Within the six sections of the Jain literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras; this Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was illustrated with miniature painting. The oldest surviving copies are written on paper in western India in the 14th century. Kalpasutra is ascribed to Bhadrabahu, traditionally said to have composed it some 150 years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavira, it was compiled during the reign of Dhruvasena, 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana of Mahavira. The book is read and illustrated in an eight-day-long festival of Paryushan by Jain monks for general people. Only Monks can read this scriptures as in Jainism, this book has high spiritual values.
Parshvanatha Neminatha Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 "The Kalpa Sûtra" translated in English by Hermann Jacobi is published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers in Delhi in " The Sacred Books of the East" ISBN 81-208-0123-7 TranslationsKalpa Sutra text The Kalpa sutra, Nava tatva
In Jainism, a tīrtha is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha. A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha. Jain tirthas are located throughout India. A tirtha has a number of temples as well as residences for the pilgrims and wandering monks and scholars. Tirtha sites include: Siddhakshetras or site of moksha liberation of an arihant or Tirthankaras like Ashtapada Hill, Girnar, Palitana, Mangi-Tungi and Champapuri Atishayakshetras where divine events have occurred like Mahavirji, Kundalpur, Aharji etc. Puranakshetras associated with lives of great men like Ayodhya, Vidisha and Rajgir Gyanakshetra: associated with famous acharyas or centers of learning like Mohankheda and Ladnu Geographically, the tirthas are divided into six quarters: North India: Hastinapur and Ashtapada South India: Shravanabelagola, Moodabidri, Anantnath Swami Temple, Gummileru Eastern India: Shikharji, Champapuri, Pundravardhana Western India: Palitana, Mount Abu, Shankheshwar, Mahudi Central India: Vidisha, Sonagiri, Muktagiri Overseas: Siddhachalam, Nava Ashtapada, Siddhayatan Jain temple Vividha Tirtha Kalpa Tirtha jainuniversity.org, Jain Tirtha all over India http://www.jainteerth.com http://tirth.jinvani.com http://www.jainpilgrimages.com http://www.jaintirths.com http://www.siddhayatan.org First Hindu-Jain Tirth in North America http://www.jainheritagecentres.com Shri Nageshwar Parshwanath Jain Tirth Darshan on jainreligion.in
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas; the discourse is recorded by Ganadharas, is composed of twelve angas. It is represented by a tree with twelve branches; this canons. These are believed to have originated from the first tirthankara; the earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. Agama is a Sanskrit word which signifies the'coming' of a body of doctrine by means of transmission through a lineage of authoritative teachers. Gautamasvami is said to have compiled the most sacred canonical scriptures comprising twelve parts referred to as eleven Angas and fourteen Pūrvas, since the twelfth Anga comprises the fourteen Pūrvas; these scriptures are said to have contained the most comprehensive and accurate description of every branch of learning that one needs to know. The knowledge contained in these scriptures was transmitted orally by the teachers to their disciple saints While some authors date the composition of Jain Agamas starting from the 6th century BCE, noted Indologist Hermann Jacobi holds that the composition of the Jaina siddhanta would fall somewhere about the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
The general consensus amongst western scholars, such as Ian Whicher and David Carpenter, is that the earliest portions of Jain siddhanta were composed around the 4th or 3rd century BCE. This may not be in agreement with Jain tradition according to which the agamic literature and the Purvas were passed from one heads of the order to his disciples for around 170 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. However, with time, it became difficult to keep the entire Jain literature committed to memory. In the 3rd century BCE, Chandragupta Maurya was the ruler of Magadha and Bhadrabahu, was the head of Jain community. Predicting a 12 year long famine, Bhadrabahu went south to Karnataka with his adherents and Sthulabhadra, another Jain monk remained behind. During this time the knowledge of the doctrine was getting lost. A council was formed at Pataliputra where eleven scriptures called Angas were compiled and the remnant of fourteen purvas were written down in 12th Anga, Ditthivaya by the adherents of Sthulbhadra.
Due to the twelve years of famine it was difficult for the Jain ascetics to preserve the entire canonical literature. The Purvas or the ancient texts were forgotten and lost after the famine. According to Svetambara tradition, the agamas were collected on the basis of collective memory of the ascetics in the first council of Pataliputra under the stewardship of Sthulibhadra in around to 463–367 BC. In 453 or 466 CE that the Vallabhi council of the Svetambara Jain monks recompiled the Agamas and recorded them as written manuscripts under the leadership of Acharya Shraman Devardhigani along with other 500 Jain scholars; the existing Svetambara texts are based on the Vallabhi council texts. Digambaras reject the authority of the Agamas compiled at Valabhi; the knowledge of Shruta-Jnana, may be of things which are contained in the Angas or of things outside the Angas. The Agamas were composed of the following forty-six texts: Twelve Angās Ācāranga sūtra Sūtrakrtanga Sthānānga Samavāyānga Vyākhyāprajñapti or Bhagavati sūtra Jnātrdhārmakathāh Upāsakadaśāh Antakrddaaśāh Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Praśnavyākaranani Vipākaśruta Drstivāda Six Chedasūtras Ācāradaśāh Brhatkalpa Vyavahāra Niśītha Mahāniśītha Jītakalpa Four Mūlasūtras Daśavaikālika Uttarādhyayana Āvaśyaka Pindaniryukyti Ten Prakīrnaka sūtras Catuhśarana Āturapratyākhyanā Bhaktaparijñā Samstāraka Tandulavaicarika Candravedhyāka Devendrastava Ganividyā Mahāpratyākhyanā Vīrastava Two Cūlikasūtras Nandī-sūtra Anuyogadvāra-sūtra The Jain literature includes both religious texts and books on secular topics such as sciences and grammar.
The Jains have used several languages in different regions of India. The earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were written in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit language. PrakritPrakrit literature includes the Aagams, Aagam-tulya texts, Siddhanta texts; the dialect used to compose many of these texts is referred to as Jain Prakrit. Composition in Prakrits ceased around the 10th century AD. For Jains, their scriptures represent the literal words of Mahāvīra and the other fordmakers only to the extent that the Agama is a series of beginning-less and fixed truths, a tradition without any origin, human or divine, which in this world age has been channelled through Sudharma, the last of Mahavira's disciples to survive. Jain Agamas Puruşārthasiddhyupāya List of Jain texts Silappatikaram Cort, John E. ed. Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X Cort, John E. Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1 Dundas, The Jains and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Jain, Champat Rai, Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain.
Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra, Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This articl