Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
The territory was bordered by the Djab wurrung and Wada wurrung in the north, the Dhauwurd wurrung in the west, and the Djargurd Wurrung and Gadubanud in the east. The Framlingham Aboriginal Reserve was established in Girai wurrung territory bordering the Gunditjmara people, the Girai wurrung people had 21 clans with a patriarchal hierarchy and a matrilineally based descent system based on the Gabadj and Guragidj moieties. The clans gathered with the Djab wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung peoples to harvest eels at Lake Bolac and they met at Mirraewuae swamp near Hexham to hunt emus and other game and to conduct business. European settlement of the began in 1838 and in the early 1840s the Girai wurrung engaged in a sustained guerilla war with the encroaching pastoralists. Dispossession from their land led to starvation and the theft of sheep resulted in murderous reprisals, assistant Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright was successful in bringing charges against G. S. This decision was made despite the nature of the squatters licence by the Government to allow for Aboriginal access for hunting.
Gunditjmara from Portland and Lake Condah refused to settle at Framlingham, historian Ian Clark asserts that from 1868 the history of the Girai wurrung becomes the history of Framlingham
Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures usually produced by regional metamorphism, typically 300–450 °C and 2–10 kilobars. The name comes from commonly having an abundance of minerals such as chlorite and epidote. The platiness causes the tendency to split, or have schistosity, other common minerals include quartz, talc, carbonate minerals and amphibole. It is a general field petrologic term applied to metamorphic or altered mafic volcanic rock, the term greenstone is sometimes used to refer to greenschist but can refer to other rock types without any schistosity too, especially metabasalt. The green is due to abundant green chlorite and epidote minerals that dominate the rock, basalts may remain quite black if primary pyroxene does not revert to chlorite or actinolite. To qualify for the name a rock must exhibit schistosity or some foliation or layering, the rock is derived from basalt, gabbro or similar rocks containing sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar, chlorite and quartz.
Greenschist, as a type, is defined by the presence of the minerals chlorite and actinolite. Greenschist often has a lepidoblastic, nematoblastic or schistose texture defined primarily by chlorite and actinolite, greenschists often have some foliation resulting in mineral alignment, especially of chlorite and actinolite. Grain size is rarely coarse, due primarily to the mineral assemblage, chlorite and to a lesser extent actinolite typically exhibit small, flat or acicular crystal habits. Greenschist facies results from low temperature, moderate pressure metamorphism, Metamorphic conditions which create typical greenschist facies assemblages are called the Barrovian Facies Sequence, and the lower-pressure Abukuma Facies Series. Temperatures of approximately 400 to 500 °C and depths of about 8 to 50 kilometres are the typical envelope of greenschist facies rocks, the equilibrium mineral assemblage of rocks subjected to greenschist facies conditions depends on primary rock composition. In greater detail the greenschist facies is subdivided into subgreenschist and upper greenschist, lower temperatures are transitional with and overlap the prehnite-pumpellyite facies and higher temperatures overlap with and include sub-amphibolite facies.
If burial continues along Barrovian Sequence metamorphic trajectories, greenschist facies gives rise to amphibolite facies assemblages, dominated by amphibole, lower pressure, normally contact metamorphism produces albite-epidote hornfels while higher pressures at great depth produces eclogite. Oceanic basalts in the vicinity of mid-ocean ridges typically exhibit sub-greenschist alteration, the greenstone belts of the various archean cratons are commonly altered to the greenschist facies. These ancient rocks are noted as host rocks for a variety of ore deposits in Australia, greenschist rocks have been used to make axes across Europe. Several sites including Langdale axe industry have been identified, a form of chlorite schist was popular in prehistoric Native American communities for the production of axes and celts, as well as ornamental items. In the Middle Woodland period, greenschist was one of the trade items that were part of the Hopewell culture exchange network. During the time of the Mississippian culture, the polity of Moundville apparently had some control over the production and distribution of greenschist, the Moundville source has been shown to be from two localities in the Hillabee Formation of central and eastern Alabama
The Howqua River, a minor inland perennial river of the Goulburn Broken catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the alpine region of the Australian state of Victoria. The headwaters of the Howqua River rise below Mount Howitt in the slopes of the Victorian Alps. The river rises below Mount Howitt on the slopes of the Victorian Alps. The river flow generally west, joined by five minor tributaries, before reaching its confluence with the Goulburn River within Lake Eildon, the river descends 1,410 metres over its 66-kilometre course. The Howqua valley was occupied by the Taungurong people with the valley being a major route for trade or war between tribes in the area. The Howqua River was one of just thirteen locations worldwide featured on the fly fishing documentary television series A River Somewhere, in the Aboriginal Woiwurrung and Daungwurrung languages, the river is named Pyerlite, with no clearly defined meaning. List of rivers of Victoria Tunnel Bend diversion tunnel, Howqua River
The river is impounded by the Eildon Dam to create Lake Eildon, the Eildon Pondage, the Goulburn Weir and Waranga Basin. The river rises below Corn Hill on the slopes of the Victorian Alps. The Goulburn has 41 tributaries including the Black, Howqua, Big, Acheron and Broken rivers, the river descends 1,100 metres over its 654-kilometre course. In addition to being the longest river in Victoria, the Goulburn has the highest discharge, the area surrounding the river is very productive as a result of irrigated agriculture. The Goulburn accounts for 45% of the Murray-Darling Basins total runoff, by contrast, the Darling basin contributes just 31. 7% of the basins total runoff. Much of the flow is extracted, and the river is heavily regulated. With recent years being some of the driest on record in the basin, because of all this there has been much controversy over the construction of the North–South Pipeline, which will pipe 70 gigalitres of water annually to Melbournes water supply. The Goulburn Heritage River was declared in 1992 in recognition of its natural, scenic.
In June 2010, the Victorian Government created the Lower Goulburn National Park to protect, Red River Gum forests line the Goulburn River for most of its length, reaching up to 45 metres in height and live more than 500 years. The trees need periods of flooding and can survive inundation for months and their seeds are washed onto higher ground during a flood and germinate and grow before the next flood reaches them. Hollows and broken branches provide nesting for galahs, cockatoos and various parrots, in the upper reaches, there are extensive forests of very tall mountain ash and mixed species and may be described as typical trout streams. In the Ngurai-illamwurrung language, the river is called Omio, hamilton Hume and William Hovell explored the area in 1824, naming the Goulburn River in honour of Major Frederick Goulburn, the first Colonial Secretary of New South Wales. Goulburn–Murray Water List of rivers of Victoria Murray Darling Basin Authority Goulburn River Valley tourism site, upper Goulburn River Catchment Local Management Rules.
Archived from the original on 20 October 2014
Broken River (Victoria)
The headwaters of the Broken River rise in the western slopes of the Victorian Alps, near Bald Hill and descend to flow into the Goulburn River near Shepparton. The river is impounded by the Nillahcootie Dam to create Lake Nillahcootie, the river rises below Bald Hill on the western slopes of the Victorian Alps, within the Mount Buffalo National Park in the Shire of Mansfield. The river descends 1,070 metres over its 225-kilometre course, when at maximum capacity, the Broken River is the fastest flowing river in Australia. The town of Benalla, located adjacent to the river, was known as Broken River into the 1850s and it was the location of the Battle of Broken River. In an Aboriginal language, the river at its junction with the Goulburn River is named Ngurai-illam-wurrung, meaning deep pond, lagoon. The origin of the current name is originally thought to be derived from the fact that in dry seasons the river bed is broken into a series of water holes
Healesville is a town in Victoria, Australia,52 km north-east from Melbournes central business district. Its local government area is the Shire of Yarra Ranges, at the 2011 Census, Healesville had a population of 6,839. Healesville is situated on the Watts River, a tributary of the Yarra River, the creation of a railway to the more distant Gippsland and Yarra Valley goldfields in the 1860s resulted in a settlement forming on the Watts River and its survey as a town in 1864. It was named after Richard Heales, the Premier of Victoria from 1860–1861, the post office opened on 1 May 1865. The town became a setting off point for the Woods Point Goldfield with the construction of the Yarra Track in the 1870s. Healesville is well known for the Healesville Sanctuary, a park with hundreds of native Australian animals displayed in a semi-open natural setting. The Yarra Valley Railway operates from Healesville Station on every Sunday, most public holidays, much of what is now Healesville lies on the ancestral land of the Wurundjeri people.
The Coranderrk mission station, set up in 1863, is located just south of the main township, industries in and around Healesville include sawmilling, tourism and, more recently, viticulture. The Salvation Army has been part of the community since the late 19th century, Healesville has an active CFA volunteer fire brigade established in 1894 which has been active in the community and still is to this day. The Healesville Rural Fire Brigade was formed in 1941 and disbanded, the amalgamation of the Chum Creek Rural Fire Brigade with the Healesville brigade occurred in 1996. The Healesville Fire Brigade now operates a main and a station with members from both the Healesville and Chum Creek areas. The town has an Australian Rules football team, The Bloods, Healesville has a tennis club, the Healesville Tennis Club, which competes in the Eastern Region Tennis junior and senior competitions. Healesville has a horse racing club, Healesville Amateur Racing. The Healesville Greyhound Racing Club holds regular meetings, golfers play at the course of the RACV Country Club on Yarra Glen Road.
Healesville has a football team known as Healesville Soccer Club that plays in the Football Federation Victoria league. Noted Aboriginal artist and Wurundjeri elder William Barak spent much of his life at Coranderrk Station, Wurundjeri elder Joy Murphy Wandin lives in Healesville. Kelvin Moore, Australian rules footballer for the Richmond Football Club, gordon Collis Australian Rules Football player for Carlton Football Club, Brownlow Medal 1964 James Wandin, Wurundjeri ngurungaeta and Australian Rules footballer with St Kilda Football Club. David Wirrpanda, Australian Rules Football player for the West Coast, from the late 1890s elaborate country retreat residences were built alongside hotels and guest houses
Jarijari were a historically significant Indigenous Australian people whose traditional territory was located in the Mallee region of Victoria. The tribe were one of two tribes speaking the now extinct Keramin language, though there is confusion over names. Jarijari was the word for no. It was used to name the tribe because of the frequency of its use in the language. Tindale notes that the Jari Jari traditional lands were from Western bank of Murray River from above Chalka Creek to Annuello, south to Lake Korong and Pine Plains, northwest to near Redcliffs. Neighbouring tribes were the Wergaia language group tribes to the south, the Latjilatji to the west, accounts of the life of the Jari Jari people were some of the most early documented by explorers and early settlers of the Murray Darling basin. The Jarijari appear to have been in the Murray River valley for at least 40000years, major Thomas Mitchell passed through the tribes territory between June 2 and June 10,1836, during his Third Expedition.
He encountered the remains of a camp of up to 400 natives with temporary structures. In his journals he writes of having heard and being pursued by local natives, the Blandowski Expedition was one of the first documented European encounters with the people. Blandowski engaged the people to document local species and included in his journals the used by the people for two local species of fish - the Murray cod and Trout cod, “Yaturr” and “Barnta”. Blandowski described the Yarree as his good friends, notably one of William Blandowskis 1857 illustrations depicted traditional Jari Jari recreation. Blandowski and Peter Beveridge, in his 1889 account The Aborigines of Victoria, a local Mildura newspaper reports that the last of the tribe, John Mack, died in June,1918
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971