Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining. It is impossible to know the exact date that humans first began to mine gold, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria; the graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 7000 years old. A group of German and Georgian archaeologists claims the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, dating to the 3rd or 4th millennium BC, may be the world's oldest known gold mine. Bronze age gold objects are plentiful in Ireland and Spain, there are several well known possible sources. Romans used hydraulic mining methods, such as hushing and ground sluicing on a large scale to extract gold from extensive alluvial deposits, such as those at Las Medulas. Mining was under the control of the state but the mines may have been leased to civilian contractors some time later; the gold served as the primary medium of exchange within the empire, was an important motive in the Roman invasion of Britain by Claudius in the first century AD, although there is only one known Roman gold mine at Dolaucothi in west Wales.
Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. The legions were led by the emperor Trajan, their exploits are shown on Trajan's Column in Rome and the several reproductions of the column elsewhere. Under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian's rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Armenia and Nubia. In the area of the Kolar Gold Fields in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar District of Karnataka state, gold was first mined prior to the 2nd and 3rd century AD by digging small pits; the Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined to a depth of 50 metres during the Gupta period in the fifth century AD. During the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD, the scale of the operation grew; the metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, by Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore state and the British. It is estimated; the mining of the Hungarian deposit around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe.
During the 19th century, numerous gold rushes in remote regions around the globe caused large migrations of miners, such as the California Gold Rush of 1849, the Victorian Gold Rush, the Klondike Gold Rush. The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and the founding of South Africa; the Carlin Trend of Nevada, U. S. was discovered in 1961. Official estimates indicate that total world gold production since the beginning of civilization has been around 6,109,928,000 troy ounces and total gold production in Nevada is 2.5% of that, ranking Nevada as one of the Earth's primary gold producing regions. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 429.4 tonnes in that year. The second-largest producer, mined 289.0 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 273 tonnes. Despite the decreasing gold content of ores, the production is increasing; this can be achieved with industrial installations, new process, like hydrometallurgy. Placer mining is the technique.
Placer deposits are composed of loose material that makes tunneling difficult, so most means of extracting it involve the use of water or dredging. Gold panning is a manual technique of separating gold from other materials. Wide, shallow pans are filled with gravel that may contain gold; the pan is shaken, sorting the gold from the gravel and other material. As gold is much denser than rock, it settles to the bottom of the pan; the panning material is removed from stream beds at the inside turn in the stream, or from the bedrock shelf of the stream, where the density of gold allows it to concentrate, a type called placer deposits. Gold panning is the easiest and quickest technique for searching for gold, but is not commercially viable for extracting gold from large deposits, except where labor costs are low or gold traces are substantial. Panning is marketed as a tourist attraction on former gold fields. Before large production methods are used, a new source must be identified and panning is useful to identify placer gold deposits to be evaluated for commercial viability.
Using a sluice box to extract gold from placer deposits has long been a common practice in prospecting and small-scale mining. A sluice box is a man made channel with riffles set in the bottom; the riffles are designed to create dead zones in the current to allow gold to drop out of suspension. The box is placed in the stream to channel water flow. Gold-bearing material is placed at the top of the box; the material is carried by the current through the volt where gold and other dense material settles out behind the riffles. Less dense material flows out of the box as tailings. Larger commercial placer mining operations employ screening plants, or trommels, to remove the larger alluvial materials such as boulders and gravel, before concentrating the remainder in a sluice box or jig plant; these operations include diesel powered, earth moving equipment, including excavators, wheel loaders, rock trucks. Although this method has been replaced by modern m
Battle of Telamon
The Battle of Telamon was fought between the Roman Republic and an alliance of Celtic tribes in 225 BC. The Romans, led by the consuls Gaius Atilius Regulus and Lucius Aemilius Papus, defeated the Celts led by the Gaesatae kings Concolitanus and Aneroëstes; this removed the Celtic threat from Rome and allowed the Romans to extend their influence over northern Italy. Rome had been at peace with the tribes of Cisalpine Gaul, the area along the Po valley in northern Italy, since inconclusive skirmishing ceased in 238 BC. Indeed, when a force of Transalpine Celts had crossed the Alps into Italy in 230 BC, it had been the Boii of Cisalpine Gaul who had repelled them; the Romans found that it was not needed. However, when the Romans partitioned the formerly-Celtic territory of Picenum in 234 BC, they created resentment among its neighbours, the Boii and the Insubres; this was deepened in 232 BC when the Romans passed a law allocating large areas of formally Celtic land to poorer citizens. These actions were recognised at the time as being provocative to the Celts and attracted some opposition because of it.
In 225 BC, the Boii and Insubres paid large sums of money to the Gaesatae, mercenaries from Transalpine Celtic territories led by Aneroëstes and Concolitanus, to fight with them against Rome. The Romans, alarmed by the Celtic mobilisation, made a treaty giving Carthaginian General Hasdrubal the Fair unimpeded control of Hispania so that they could concentrate on the threat closer to home; the Romans called upon their allies in Italy to supply troops. Consul Lucius Aemilius Papus had four legions of Roman citizens, 22,000 men in total, as well as 32,000 allied troops, he stationed the majority of his forces at Ariminum. He placed 54,000 Sabines and Etruscans on the Etruscan border under the command of a praetor, sent 40,000 Umbrians, Sarsinates and Cenomani to attack the home territory of the Boii to distract them from the battle; the other Consul, Gaius Atilius Regulus, had an army the same size as that of Papus but was stationed in Sardinia at the time. There was a reserve of 21,500 citizens and 32,000 allies in Rome itself and one legion in each of Sicily and Tarentum.
The Celts began to march to Rome. The Roman troops who were stationed on the Etrurian border met them at Clusium, three days march from Rome, where both sides made camp; that night, the Celts, leaving their cavalry and their camp fires as a decoy, withdrew to the town of Faesulae and built defensive obstacles. In the morning, the cavalry withdrew in full view of the Romans, thinking that the enemy were retreating, pursued them; the Celts gave battle from behind their defences and, with the advantage of position, were victorious after a hard battle. Six thousand Romans were killed, the rest fell back to a defensible hill; that night Papus made camp nearby. Aneroëstes persuaded the Celts to withdraw along the Etruscan coast with their booty and renew the war when they were unencumbered. Papus did not risk a pitched battle; the other Consul, had crossed from Sardinia, landed at Pisa, was marching towards Rome. His scouts met the Celts' advance guard head in an area called Campo Regio. Regulus put his troops in fighting order and advanced in an attempt to occupy a hill above the road which would block the Celts retreat.
The Celts, unaware of Regulus' arrival, assumed that Papus had sent some of his cavalry ahead and so sent some of their own cavalry and light infantry to contest the hill. As soon as they realised that they faced a second full Roman army they deployed their infantry facing both front and rear, they placed the Gaesatae and Insubres at the rear against Papus and the Boii and Taurisci at the front against Regulus, with their flanks protected by wagons and chariots. A small force guarded the booty on another hill nearby; the battle over the main hill was fierce, although Papus sent cavalry to assist, Regulus was killed and his head brought to the Celtic leaders. However, the Roman cavalry secured possession of the hill; the Romans advanced from both directions, throwing volleys of javelins, which devastated the vulnerable Gaesatae at the rear, who were fighting naked with small shields. Some were slaughtered. Others withdrew into the body of their retreat causing disorder among their allies; the Roman javelin-throwers withdrew into the ranks, the infantry advanced in maniples.
The Insubres and Taurisci held their ground tenaciously, but the Roman shields and short thrusting swords were more effective in close combat than the Celtic smaller shields and long slashing swords, which allowed the Romans to gain the upper hand. The Roman cavalry rode down the hill into the flank of the exhausted Celts, who broke; the Celtic infantry was slaughtered and their cavalry put to flight. Around 40,000 Celts were killed and 10,000, including Concolitanus, taken prisoner. Aneroëstes escaped with a small group of followers. After the battle Papus marched the combined armies into Liguria and the territory of the Boii to conduct punitive actions. Papus was awarded a triumph for his part in the victory, which ended forever the Celtic threat to the Roman capital. In 224 BC two Roman armies forced the Boii to submit. In 223 and 222 BC further major Roman victories followed and the Celts surrendered, giving up large tracts of land. Roman citizens were settled to the frustrated resentment of the Celts.
This resentment played a significant role in the Celts going over to Hannibal when he crossed the Alps in 218 BC as part of the Second Punic War. Roman Republican governors of Gaul Goldworthy, Adrian
Carniola was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the region still tend to identify with its traditional parts Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, to a lesser degree with Inner Carniola. In 1991, 47% of the population of Slovenia lived within the borders of the former Duchy of Carniola. A state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Austrian Circle and a duchy in the hereditary possession of the Habsburgs part of the Austrian Empire and of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land from 1849, when it was subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, Inner Carniola, until 1918, its capital was Krainburg, for a short period Stein, from the second half of the 13th century, Laibach or Ljubljana. Nowadays, its territory is entirely located in Slovenia, except for a small part in northwest Italy, around Fusine in Valromana. Carniola in its final form, established in 1815, encompassed 9,904 km2.
In 1914, before the beginning of World War I, it had a population of under 530,000 inhabitants. The Julian and Karavanken Alps traverse the country; the highest mountain peaks are 4,200 feet. The principal rivers are Sava, Tržič Bistrica, Kamnik Bistrica, Ljubljanica, Mirna and Kolpa, which serves as a boundary with Croatia; the principal lakes are Black Lake, spreading into seven lakes, of which the highest is over 6,000 feet above sea level. It was known to the Romans as Lugea palus, is a natural curiosity. Dante Alighieri mentions it in his Divine Comedy; the Ljubljana Marshes cover an area of 76 square miles. Hot and mineral springs are to be found at Sušica, Šmarjetske, Medijske. There is an interesting cave at Postojna. Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Carniola; the Vipava Valley is famous for its wine and vegetables, for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, carvings and honey. In the mineral kingdom the principal products are iron, quicksilver, manganese and zinc.
Upper Carniola has the most industries, among the products being lumber, woollen stuffs, lace, straw hats, wicker-work, tobacco. The railroads are the Juzna, the Prince Rudolf, the Bohinjska, the Kamniska, the Dolenjska, the Vrhniska; the principal cities and towns are: Kamnik, Kranj, Tržič, Vipava, Turjak, Metlika, Novo Mesto, Vače. The mean average temperature in spring is 56 °F. Of the inhabitants 95 per cent were Slovenes, kinsmen to the Croats. In the districts of Gottschee and Črnomelj dwell the people of White Carniola for a connecting link between the Croats and Slovenes. One-half of the Germans live in Gottschee, 5,000 in Ljubljana, 3,500 at Novo Mesto, 1,000 at Radovljica; the Germans at Gottschee were settled there by Otho, Count of Ortenburg, in the fourteenth century, they preserve their Tyrolean German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lombards settled in Carniola, followed by Slavs around the sixth century AD; as a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the area was successively ruled by Bavarian and local nobility, by the Austrian Habsburgs continuously from 1335 to 1918, though beset by many raids from the Ottomans and rebellions by local residents against Habsburg rule from the 15th to the 17th centuries.
From about 900 AD until the 20th century, Carniola's ruling classes and urban areas spoke German, while the peasantry spoke Slovene. The capital of Carniola situated at Kranj, was moved to Kamnik and to the current capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana. Sixth century – Slovene settlements. Eighth century – Carniola a part of the Empire of Charlemagne. 10th century – Carniola a separate country. 1278 – Death of Ottokar II of Bohemia. Carniola absorbed in the Habsburg dominions. 14th century – The province under Albert III. 15th–16th centuries – Ravages of the Ottomans. 1527–1564 – Progress of the Reformation in Carniola. 1564 – Death of Ferdinand I. Carniola under the Archduke Charles. Religious persecutions begin. 1763 – Political administration of "Inner Austria" centralized at Graz. 1790 – Accession of Leopold II. Partial revival of autonomy. 1797 – First French invasion. 1805 – Second French invasion. 1809 – Treaty of Schönbrunn. Carniola under French rule. 1814 – Congress of Vienna. Carniola restored to Austria.
Before the coming of the Romans, the Taurisci dwelt in the north of Carniola, the Pannonians in the southeast, the Iapodes or Carni, a Celtic tribe, in the southwest. Carniola formed part of the Roman province of Pannonia. In the time of Augustus all the region from Aemona to the Kolpa river belonged to the province of Savia. After the fall of the Western Roman Emp
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Italia was the homeland of the Romans and metropole of Rome's empire in classical antiquity. According to Roman mythology, Italy was the new home promised by Jupiter to Aeneas of Troy and his descendants, ancestors of the founders of Rome. Aside from the legendary accounts, Rome was an Italian city-state that changed its form of government from Kingdom to Republic and grew within the context of a peninsula dominated by the Etruscans in the centre, the Greeks in the south, the Celts in the North; the consolidation of Italy into a single entity occurred during the Roman expansion in the peninsula, when Rome formed a permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities. The strength of the Italian alliance was a crucial factor in the rise of Rome, starting with the Punic and Macedonian wars between the 3rd and 2nd century BC; as provinces were being established throughout the Mediterranean, Italy maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina of the provinces".
Such a status meant that Roman magistrates exercised the Imperium domi within Italy, rather than the Imperium militiae used abroad. Italy's inhabitants had Latin Rights as well as financial privileges; the period between the end of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC was turbulent, beginning with the Servile Wars, continuing with the opposition of aristocratic élite to reformers and leading to a Social War in the middle of Italy. However, Roman citizenship was recognized to the rest of the Italics by the end of the conflict and extended to Cisalpine Gaul when Julius Caesar became Roman Dictator. In the context of the transition from Republic to Principate, Italy swore allegiance to Octavian Augustus and was organized in eleven regions from the Alps to the Ionian Sea. More than two centuries of stability followed, during which Italy was referred to as the rectrix mundi and omnium terrarum parens. Several emperors made notable accomplishments in this period: Claudius incorporated Britain into the Roman Empire, Vespasian subjugated the Great Revolt of Judea and reformed the financial system, Trajan conquered Dacia and defeated Parthia, Marcus Aurelius epitomized the ideal of the philosopher king.
The crisis of the third century hit Italy hard and left the eastern half of the Empire more prosperous. In 286 AD the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum; the islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD, Italian cities such as Mediolanum and Ravenna continued to serve as capitals for the West. The Bishop of Rome gained importance during Constantine's reign and was given religious primacy with the Edict of Thessalonica under Theodosius I. Italy was invaded several times by the barbarians and fell under the control of Odoacer, when Romulus Augustus was deposed in 476 AD. In the sixth century, Italy's territory was divided between the Byzantine Empire and the Germanic peoples. After that, Italy remained divided until 1861, when it was reunited in the Kingdom of Italy, which became the present-day Italian Republic in 1946. Following the end of the Social War in 88 BC, Rome had allowed its Italian allies full rights in Roman society and granted Roman citizenship to all the Italic peoples.
After having been for centuries the heart of the Roman Empire, from the 3rd century the government and the cultural center began to move eastward: first the Edict of Caracalla in 212 AD extended Roman citizenship to all free men within the imperial boundaries. Christianity became the dominant religion during Constantine's reign, raising the power of other Eastern political centres. Although not founded as a capital city in 330, Constantinople grew in importance, it gained the rank of eastern capital when given an urban prefect in 359 and the senators who were clari became senators of the lowest rank as clarissimi. As a result, Italy began to decline in favour of the provinces, which resulted in the division of the Empire into two administrative units in 395: the Western Roman Empire, with its capital at Mediolanum, the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople. In 402, the capital was moved to Ravenna from Milan; the name Italia covered an area. According to Strabo's Geographica, before the expansion of the Roman Republic, the name was used by Greeks to indicate the land between the strait of Messina and the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto.
In 49 BC, with the Lex Roscia, Julius Caesar gave Roman citizenship to the people of the Cisalpine Gaul. Under Augustus, the peoples of today's Aosta Valley and of the western and northern Alps were subjugated, the Italian eastern border was brought to the Arsia in Istria. In the late 3rd century, Italy came to include the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and Sicily, as well as Raetia and part of Pannonia to the north; the city of Emona was the easternmost town of Italy. At the beginning of the Roman imperial era, Italy was a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called munic
The word Tauern is German and meant "high mountain pass" in the Austrian Central Alps, referring to the many bridleways and passes of the parallel side valleys of the River Salzach that cut into the mountain ranges. From the Middle Ages, when mining reached its heyday, the word "Tauern" was used to name the corresponding ranges; the name has survived in many local placenames today. The derivation of the name "Tauern" has been variously ascribed: One view is that the name "Tauern" is an old substrate word, which passed directly or via the Slavic language into German.. Another postulation is that the "Tauern" is the only mountain range that has kept its pre-Slavic name in Carinthia as it passed down the generations, it is derived from the Indo-Germanic *teur- for "bull, great hill". The Tauern are so-to-speak the "bulls", the old Taurisci of Upper Carinthia, the mountain dwellers, with the old Upper Carinthian town of Teurnia being the corresponding mountain town. If the name Tauern is pre-Slavic, it could be Celtic, thus linked to the Taurisci, or it could be Illyrian, a collective term for the pre- and early Celtic population in the Alpine region.
There is no clear link with the name of the municipality of Thaur near Innsbruck, which could be analogous to the Illyrian for "rock", but could be derived from the Rhaeto-Romance word Tgaura. There are several mountain ranges. In German, the first part of these names is the adjectival version of a placename, it is common in English sources, just to use the original name without the adjectival inflexion: High Tauern just called the Tauern. Low Tauern with its subdivisions: Radstadt Tauern, Schladming Tauern, Rottenmann and Wölz Tauern Seckau Tauern, Ossiach Tauern, a ridge in the Gurktal AlpsThe High and Low Tauern together were called the Tauern Alps and are still described as such in many sources today, they extend to the Brenner Pass–Liesing/Palten valley, i.e. including the Zillertal Alps. The following transport links facilitate the crossing of the Tauern from north to south: The Felbertauern Road which passes under the range through the Felbertauern Tunnel in the area of the Felber Tauern.
The Tauern Railway passes under the mountains through the Tauern Tunnel between the Mallnitz Tauern and the High Tauern. This is the only north-south railway link between the Brenner Pass in the west and the Schober Pass in the east; the Großglockner High Alpine Road crosses over the Tauern in the area of the Hochtor mountain. The Tauern Autobahn passes under the Radstadt Tauern; the Katschberg Road crosses the Radstadt Tauern over the Radstadt Tauern Pass. The Sölk Pass crosses the Low Tauern and delineates the boundary between the Schladming and the Wölz Tauern; the Trieben Road crosses the Low Tauern at the village of Hohentauern and delineates the boundary between the Rottenmann and the Triebener Tauern. The following passes bear the name Tauern: in the High Tauern they are all non-drivable bridleways: The Krimmler Tauern links the Krimmler Achental with the South Tyrolean Ahrntal; the Felber Tauern or Windisch-Matrei Tauern links the Pinzgau valley of Felbertal with the East Tyrolean Tauerntal, in the immediate vicinity of the Alten Tauern.
The Kalser Tauern links the Pinzgau valley of Stubachtal with the East Tyrolean Kalser Dorfer valley. The Heiligenbluter or Rauris Tauern called the Hochtor, links the Pinzgau valley of the Fuscher Ache with the Carinthian Möll valley; the Goldberg or Fragant Tauern links the Pinzgau Rauriser Tal with the Carinthian Fragant valley. The Low Tauern Mallnitz Tauern and the High Tauern called the Korntauern, link the Pinzgau valley of Gasteinertal with the Carinthian village of Mallnitz and the Möll valley. In the Low Tauern: * the Radstadt Tauern links Radstadt in the Pongau with Mauterndorf in the Lungau via the two Taurach valleys. * the Triebener Tauern called the Rottenmann Tauern, links the Palten valley near Trieben with the Pöls valley. In the Kitzbühel Alps: Thurntauern, today the Thurn PassCorresponding to the passes there are several places called Tauerntal and Taurach, the latter sometimes descending from a Tauern pass in both directions; the following places take their names from the term Tauern: the Pongau municipality of Untertauern below the Radstadt Tauern Pass, the winter sports village of Obertauern on the Radstadt Tauern Pass, the cadastral municipality of Untertauern from Ossiach by the Ossiach Tauern the hamlet of Tauern in Ossiach the village of Tauer in Matrei in Osttirol Several mountains near the passes, bear names derived from the term Tauern: Felber Tauernkogel, west of the Felber Tauern pass in the Venediger Group.
Tauernkopf, an insignificant subpeak on the eastern arête of the Felber Tauernkogel. Krimmler Tauernkogel, near the Krimmler Tauern pass in the eastern Zillertal Alps, Salzburg–South Tyrolean border Tauernklammhöhe, an insignificant summit between the Hollersbachtal and the Felbertal in the Venediger Group; the ravine of Tauernklamm bisects its eastern flank. Kalser Tauernkogel, northwest of the Kals Tauern in the Granat
James Cowles Prichard
James Cowles Prichard, MD FRS was a British physician and ethnologist with broad interests in physical anthropology and psychiatry. His influential Researches into the Physical History of Mankind touched upon the subject of evolution. From 1845, Prichard served as a Medical Commissioner in Lunacy, he introduced the term "senile dementia". Prichard was born in Herefordshire, his parents Thomas and Mary Prichard were Quakers: his mother was Welsh, his father of a family who had emigrated to Pennsylvania. Within a few years of his birth in Ross, Prichard's parents moved to Bristol, where his father now worked in the Quaker ironworks of Harford and Cowles. Upon his father's retirement in 1800 he returned to Ross; as a child Prichard was educated at home by tutors and his father, in a range of subjects, including modern languages and general literature. Rejecting his father's wish that he should join the ironworks, Prichard decided upon a medical career. Here he faced the difficulty that as a Quaker he could not become a member of the Royal College of Physicians.
Therefore, he started on apprenticeships that led to the ranks of apothecaries and surgeons, first studying under the Quaker obstetrician Dr Thomas Pole of Bristol. Apprenticeships followed to other Quaker physicians, to St Thomas' Hospital in London. In 1805, he entered medical school at Edinburgh University, where his religious affiliation was no bar; the Scottish medical schools were held in esteem, having contributed to the Enlightenment of the previous century. He took his M. D. at Edinburgh, his doctoral thesis of 1808 being his first attempt at the great question of his life: the origin of human varieties and races. He read for a year at Trinity College, after which came a significant personal event: he left the Society of Friends to join the established Church of England, he next moved to St John's College, afterwards entering as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, but taking no degree in either university. In 1810 Prichard settled at Bristol as a physician attaining an established position at the Bristol Infirmary in 1816.
Whilst working at the BRI, Prichard lived in the Red Lodge. This was where he wrote Researches into the Physical History of Man. In 1845 he was made one of the three medical Commissioners in Lunacy, having been one of the Metropolitan Commissioners, moved to London, he died there three years of rheumatic fever. At the time of his death he was president of the Ethnological Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1813 he published his Researches into the Physical History of Man, in two volumes, on the same themes as his dissertation in 1808; the book grew. The second to the fourth editions were published under the title Researches into the Physical History of Mankind; the fourth edition was in five volumes. The central conclusion of the work is the unity of the human species, acted upon by causes which have since divided it into permanent varieties or races; the work is dedicated to Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Prichard differed from Blumenbach and other predecessors by the principle that people should be studied by combining all available characters.
Three British men, all medically qualified and publishing between 1813 and 1819, William Lawrence, William Charles Wells and Prichard, addressed issues relevant to human evolution. All tackled the question of race in humans. Science historian Conway Zirkle has described Prichard as an evolutionary thinker who came close "to explaining the origin of new forms through the operation of natural selection although he never stated the proposition in so many words."Prichard indicated Africa as the place of human origin, in this summary passage: "On the whole there are many reasons which lead us to the conclusion that the primitive stock of men were Negroes, I know of no argument to be set on the other side."This opinion was omitted in editions. The second edition includes more developed evolutionary ideas. Prichard was influential in the early days of anthropology, he stated that the Celtic languages are allied by language with the Slavonian and Pelasgian, thus forming a fourth European branch of Indo-European languages.
His treatise containing Celtic compared with Sanskrit words appeared in 1831 under the title Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations. An essay by Adolphe Pictet, which made its author's reputation, was published independently of the earlier investigations of Prichard. In 1843 Prichard published his Natural History of Man, in which he reiterated his belief in the specific unity of man, pointing out that the same inward and mental nature can be recognized in all the races. Prichard was an early member of the Aborigines' Protection Society. In medicine, he specialised in. In 1822 he published A Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System, in 1835 a Treatise on Insanity and Other Disorders Affecting the Mind, in which he advanced the theory of the existence of a distinct mental illness called moral insanity. Prichard's work was the first definition of senile dementia in the English language. Augstein has suggested that these works were aimed at the prevalent materialist theories of mind and craniology.
She has suggested that Prichard was influenced by the somatic school of German Romantic psychiatric thought, in particular Christian Friedrich Nasse, Johann Christian A