SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Taurus (constellation)

Taurus is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic. Taurus is a prominent constellation in the northern hemisphere's winter sky, it is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to at least the Early Bronze Age when it marked the location of the Sun during the spring equinox. Its importance to the agricultural calendar influenced various bull figures in the mythologies of Ancient Sumer, Assyria, Egypt and Rome. A number of features exist. Taurus hosts two of the nearest open clusters to Earth, the Pleiades and the Hyades, both of which are visible to the naked eye. At first magnitude, the red giant Aldebaran is the brightest star in the constellation. In the northwest part of Taurus is the supernova remnant Messier 1, more known as the Crab Nebula. One of the closest regions of active star formation, the Taurus-Auriga complex, crosses into the northern part of the constellation; the variable star T Tauri is the prototype of a class of pre-main-sequence stars.

Taurus is a large and prominent constellation in the northern hemisphere's winter sky, between Aries to the west and Gemini to the east. In late November-early December, Taurus is visible the entire night. By late March, it is setting at sunset and disappears behind the Sun's glare from May to July; this constellation forms part of the zodiac and hence is intersected by the ecliptic. This circle across the celestial sphere forms the apparent path of the Sun as the Earth completes its annual orbit; as the orbital plane of the Moon and the planets lie near the ecliptic, they can be found in the constellation Taurus during some part of each year. The galactic plane of the Milky Way intersects the northeast corner of the constellation and the galactic anticenter is located near the border between Taurus and Auriga. Taurus is the only constellation crossed by all three of the galactic equator, celestial equator, ecliptic. A ring-like galactic structure known as Gould's Belt passes through the constellation.

The recommended three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is "Tau". The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 26 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 03h 23.4m and 05h 53.3m, while the declination coordinates are between 31.10° and −1.35°. Because a small part of the constellation lies to the south of the celestial equator, this can not be a circumpolar constellation at any latitude. During November, the Taurid meteor shower appears to radiate from the general direction of this constellation; the Beta Taurid meteor shower occurs during the months of June and July in the daytime, is observed using radio techniques. Between 18 and 29 October, the Southern Taurids are active. However, between November 1 and 10, the two streams equalize; the brightest member of this constellation is Aldebaran, an orange-hued, spectral class K5 III giant star.

Its name derives from الدبران al-dabarān, Arabic for "the follower" from the fact that it follows the Pleiades during the nightly motion of the celestial sphere across the sky. Forming the profile of a Bull's face is a V or K-shaped asterism of stars; this outline is created by prominent members of the Hyades, the nearest distinct open star cluster after the Ursa Major Moving Group. In this profile, Aldebaran forms the bull's bloodshot eye, described as "glaring menacingly at the hunter Orion", a constellation that lies just to the southwest; the Hyades span about 5° of the sky, so that they can only be viewed in their entirety with binoculars or the unaided eye. It includes Theta Tauri, with a separation of 5.6 arcminutes. In the northeastern quadrant of the Taurus constellation lie the Pleiades, one of the best known open clusters visible to the naked eye; the seven most prominent stars in this cluster are at least visual magnitude six, so the cluster is named the "Seven Sisters". However, many more stars are visible with a modest telescope.

Astronomers estimate that the cluster has 500-1,000 stars, all of which are around 100 million years old. However, they vary in type; the Pleiades themselves are represented by bright stars. The cluster is estimated to dissipate in another 250 million years; the Pleiades cluster is classified as a Shapley class c and Trumpler class I 3 r n cluster, indicating that it is irregularly shaped and loose, though concentrated at its center and detached from the star-field. In the northern part of the constellation to the northwest of the Pleiades lies the Crystal Ball Nebula, known by its catalogue designation of NGC 1514; this planetary nebula is of historical interest following its discovery by German-born English astronomer William Herschel in 1790. Prior to that time, astronomers had assumed that nebulae were unresolved groups of stars. However, Herschel could resolve a star at the center of the nebula, surrounded by a nebulous cloud of some type. In 1864, English astronomer William Huggins used the spectrum of this nebula to deduce that the nebula is a luminous gas, rather than stars.

To the west, the two horns of the bull are formed by Zeta Tauri.

Nils HĂžnsvald

Nils Hønsvald was a Norwegian newspaper editor and politician for the Labour Party. He was one of the leading figures in Norwegian politics from 1945 to 1969, he served as President of the Nordic Council in 1958 and 1963. Hønsvald was born in Vestfold County, Norway, he was editor of Østfold Arbeiderblad in Sarpsborg, regional newspaper for the Norwegian Labour Party, discontinued in 1929 and editor of Sarpsborg Arbeiderblad, a local newspaper published in Sarpsborg. He participated in the Left Communist Youth League's military strike action of 1924, he was sentenced to 120 days of prison. He was present at the congress of 24 April 1927 when the Left Communist Youth League was merged with the Socialist Youth League to found the Workers' Youth League. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, he was arrested in March 1941, he was incarcerated at Møllergata 19 before being transferred to Åneby concentration camp and Grini concentration camp in May. He was released on 12 June 1941. In December 1944 he was arrested again, was transferred from Fredrikstad to Grini, where he remained until the war's end.

Hønsvald was Minister of Supplies and Reconstruction, minister without ministry in 1950. Hønsvald was President of the President of the Odelsting. Nils Hønsvalds gate in Sarpsborg was named in his honor. Photograph of Nils Hønsvald

Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones that support the appendages. The appendicular skeleton includes the skeletal elements within the limbs, as well as supporting shoulder girdle pectoral and pelvic girdle; the word appendicular is the adjective of the noun appendage, which itself means a part, joined to something larger. Of the 206 bones in the human skeleton, the appendicular skeleton comprises 126. Functionally it is involved in locomotion of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment; the appendicular skeleton forms during development from cartilage, by the process of endochondral ossification. The appendicular skeleton is divided into six major regions: Shoulder girdles - Left and right clavicle and scapula. Arms and forearms - Left and right humerus and radius. Hands - Left and right carpals, proximal phalanges, intermediate phalanges and distal phalanges. Pelvis - Left and right hip bone. Thighs and legs - Left and right femur, patella and fibula.

Feet and ankles - Left and right tarsals, proximal phalanges, intermediate phalanges and distal phalanges. It is important to realize that through anatomical variation it is common for the skeleton to have many accessory bones; the appendicular skeleton of 126 bones and the axial skeleton of 80 bones together form the complete skeleton of 206 bones in the human body. Unlike the axial skeleton, the appendicular skeleton is unfused; this allows for a much greater range of motion. Axial skeleton pectoral girdle pelvic girdle Legs Bones