Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Islamic eschatology is the pillar of Islamic theology concerning the day of judgement, the "Day of Judgement " after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Dīn. It is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will be followed by its resurrection and judgment by God; when al-Qiyamah will happen is not specified, but according to prophecy elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Many verses in the Quran mention the Last Judgment; the main subject of Surat al-Qiyama is the resurrection. The Great Tribulation is described in the hadith and commentaries of the ulama, including al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Ibn Khuzaymah; the Day of Judgment is known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, the Hour. Unlike the Quran, the hadith contain several events, happening before the Day of Judgment, which are described as several minor signs and twelve major signs. During this period, terrible corruption and chaos would rule the earth, caused by the Masih ad-Dajjal Jesus will appear, defeating the Dajjal and establish a period of peace, liberating Islam from cruelty.
These events will be followed by a time of serenity. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches that there will be a resurrection of the dead followed by a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is known as fitna, Al-Malhama Al-Kubra or ghaybah in Shī'a Islam; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah, while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam. Two main sources in Islamic scripture discuss the Last Judgment and the tribulation associated with it: the Quran, viewed in Islam as infallible, the hadith, or sayings of the prophet. Hadith are viewed with more flexibility due to the late compilation of the sayings in written form, two hundred years after the death of Muhammad; the Last Judgment and the tribulation have been discussed in the commentaries of ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Muhammad al-Bukhari. In Islam, a number of major and minor signs foretell the end of days. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time, although Islamic scholars divide them into three major periods.
Sexual immorality appears among people to such an extent that they commit it except that they will be afflicted by plagues and diseases unknown to their forefathers. The coming of fitna and removal of khushoo' The coming of Dajjal, presuming himself as an apostle of God. A person passing by a grave might say to another: I wish it were my abode; the loss of honesty, authority put in the hands of those who do not deserve it. The loss of knowledge and the prevalence of religious ignorance. Frequent and unexpected deaths. Increase in pointless killings. Acceleration of time. Rejection of Hadith; the spread of riba and the drinking of alcohol. Widespread acceptance of music. Pride and competition in the decoration of mosques. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man. Abundance of earthquakes. Frequent occurrences of disgrace and defamation; when people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.
Jews fighting Muslims. When paying charity becomes a burden. Nomads will compete in the construction of tall buildings. Women will appear naked despite their being dressed. People will seek knowledge from straying scholars. Liars will be believed, honest people disbelieved, faithful people called traitors; the death of righteous, knowledgeable people. The emergence of indecency and enmity among relatives and neighbours; the rise of idolatry and polytheists in the community. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold; the land of the Arabs will return to being a land of fields. People will earn money by unlawful ways. There will be little vegetation. Evil people will be expelled from Al-Madinah. Wild animals will communicate with humans, humans will communicate with objects. Lightning and thunder will become more prevalent. There will be a special greeting for people of distinction. Trade will become so widespread. No honest man will remain and no one will be trusted. Only the worst people will be left.
Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by every means. Islamic knowledge will be passed on. Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the tradition of the Sunnah; some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body. Stinginess will become more widespread and honorable people will perish. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, treat his friend
Twelver or Imamiyyah is the largest branch of Shia Islam. The term Twelver refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, their belief that the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised Mahdi. According to Shia tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal. Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the theology of Twelvers, the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of the Quran; the words and deeds of Muhammad and the Imams are a model for the community to follow. Twelver Shiism is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with about 85% of all Shias, or 150 to 200 million Twelver Shias. Twelvers make majorities among Muslims in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain.
They make significant minorities in India, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Oman, UAE, Nigeria and Tanzania. Iran is the only country with state religion as Shia Islam. Twelvers share many tenets of Shia with related sects, such as the belief in Imams, but the Ismaili Shias believe in a different number of Imams and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate, they differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelvers are distinguished from Ismailis by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets", in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of Sharia laws, in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Alevis in Turkey and Albania, Alawites in Syria and Lebanon, share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are markedly different; the term'Twelver' is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with Ali ibn Abi-Talib and ending with Muhammad al-Mahdi, are Imams who have religious and political authority.
The Twelvers are known by other names: The Shi'ah is used as a synonym for "Twelvers" since this branch comprises the majority group in Shia Islam. Shia refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment. Tabataba'ei states. Ja'fari refers to the Twelver Juridical school, followed by the majority of Shias, it refers to the minority Akhbaris who advocate a distinct juridical approach within Ja'fari jurisprudence. The term is derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, considered by the Twelvers to be their Sixth Imām. Ja'far al-Sadiq is respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence. Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver belief in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs share the generic concept of Imams, this term is used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and eleven subsequent successors that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles.
Twelver theology, which consists of five principles, has formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of Quran, hadiths from Muhammad and the Twelve Imams, in response to the intellectual movements in the Muslim world and major events of the Twelver history, such as the Battle of Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It should be noted that mystics and traditional scholars all have diverse opinions about the unity of God, free will, judgment day, as stated by Jafaar Seedaan.". Care has been taken to mention the tradition view first mention other views objectively. According to Hossein Nasr, Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shia Imam is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God's unity. Ali is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like, he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality or imagination. On another occasion, he is quoted saying: The first step of religion is to accept and realize him as the Lord...
The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize that he is so pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from his being. That is, one should realize that there is no difference between his person and his attributes, his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his person. Traditional Twelvers believe that God is different from his creation, that both are separate entities. However, Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent Shia mystic and philosopher defines God as alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies; the totality of being, therefore, is he, through him, comes from him, returns to him. God is not a being next to or above his creatures; the divine unitude does not have the meaning of an arithme
Sufism or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized... values, ritual practices and institutions" which began early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Practitioners of Sufism have been referred to as "Sufis". Sufis have belonged to different ṭuruq or "orders" – congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a wali who traces a direct chain of successive teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; these orders meet for spiritual sessions in meeting places known as khanqahs or tekke. They strive for ihsan, as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him. Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God, see him as their leader and prime spiritual guide. All Sufi orders trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali, with the notable exception of one.
Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during the late medieval period. Although Sufis were opposed to dry legalism, they observed Islamic law and belonged to various schools of Islamic jurisprudence and theology. Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God performed after prayers, they gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate and have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium expressing their beliefs in Arabic and expanding into Persian and Urdu, among others. Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities. According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, intensification of Islamic faith and practice."Despite a relative decline of Sufi orders in the modern era and criticism of some aspects of Sufism by modernist thinkers and conservative Salafists, Sufism has continued to play an important role in the Islamic world, has influenced various forms of spirituality in the West.
The Arabic word tasawwuf translated as Sufism, is defined by Western authors as Islamic mysticism. The Arabic term sufi has been used in Islamic literature with a wide range of meanings, by both proponents and opponents of Sufism. Classical Sufi texts, which stressed certain teachings and practices of the Quran and the sunnah, gave definitions of tasawwuf that described ethical and spiritual goals and functioned as teaching tools for their attainment. Many other terms that described particular spiritual qualities and roles were used instead in more practical contexts; some modern scholars have used other definitions of Sufism such as "intensification of Islamic faith and practice" and "process of realizing ethical and spiritual ideals". The term Sufism was introduced into European languages in the 18th century by Orientalist scholars, who viewed it as an intellectual doctrine and literary tradition at variance with what they saw as sterile monotheism of Islam. In modern scholarly usage the term serves to describe a wide range of social, cultural and religious phenomena associated with Sufis.
The original meaning of sufi seems to have been "one who wears wool", the Encyclopaedia of Islam calls other etymological hypotheses "untenable". Woollen clothes were traditionally associated with mystics. Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds. Another explanation traces the lexical root of the word to ṣafā, which in Arabic means "purity"; these two explanations were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari, who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity". Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah, who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad who held regular gatherings of dhikr; these men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis. According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad his companions. Sufi orders are based on the "bay‘ah", given to Muhammad by his Ṣahabah. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the service of God.
Verily, those who give Bai'âh to you they are giving Bai'âh to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm, whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward. — Sufis believe that by giving bayʿah to a legitimate Sufi shaykh, one is pledging allegiance to Muhammad. It is through Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about and connect with God. Ali is regarded as one of the
The Shahada is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh IPA: There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Audio audio In the English translation—"There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."—the first, lower-case occurrence of "god" is a translation of the Arabic word ilah, while the capitalized second and third occurrences of "God" are translations of the Arabic word Allah. The noun šahāda, from the verbal root šahida meaning "to observe, testify", translates as "testimony" in both the everyday and the legal senses; the Islamic creed is called, in the dual form, šahādatān. The expression al-šahāda is used in Quran as one of the "titles of God". In Sunni Islam, the Shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first Shahada and the second Shahada.
The first statement of the Shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the Shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God". In the Quran, the first statement of the Shahadah takes the form la ilaha illa'llah twice, allahu la ilaha illa hu much more often, it appears in the shorter form la ilaha illa Hu in many places. It appears in these forms about 30 times in the Quran, never attached with the other parts of the Shahadah in Sunni or Shia Islam or "in conjunction with another name". Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first sentence of the Shahada, which declares belief in the oneness of God and that he is the only entity worthy of worship; the second sentence of the Shahada indicates the means by which God has offered guidance to human beings. The verse reminds Muslims that they accept not only the prophecy of Muhammad but the long line of prophets who preceded him.
While the first part is seen as a cosmic truth, the second is specific to Islam, as it is understood that members of the older Abrahamic religions do not view Muhammad as one of their prophets. The Shahada is a statement of both worship. In a well-known hadith, Muhammad defines Islam as witnessing that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, giving of alms, performing the ritual prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to the Kaaba: the Five Pillars of Islam are inherent in this declaration of faith. Recitation of the Shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Shi'i Twelvers and Isma'ilis have the Shahada as among their pillars of faith, it is whispered by the father into the ear of a newborn child, it is whispered into the ear of a dying person. The five canonical daily prayers each include a recitation of the Shahada. Recitation of the Shahada in front of witnesses is the first and only formal step in conversion to Islam.
This occasion attracts more than the two required witnesses and sometimes includes a celebration to welcome the convert into their new faith. In accordance with the central importance played by the notion of intention in Islamic doctrine, the recitation of the Shahada must reflect understanding of its import and heartfelt sincerity. Intention is what differentiates acts of devotion from mundane acts and a simple reading of the Shahada from invoking it as a ritual activity. Though the two statements of the Shahada are both present in the Quran, they are not found there side by side as in the Shahada formula. Versions of both phrases began to appear in coins and monumental architecture in the late seventh century, which suggests that it had not been established as a ritual statement of faith until then. An inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem reads: "There is no god but God alone. Another variant appears in coins minted after the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad caliph: "Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger".
Although it is not clear when the Shahada first came into common use among Muslims, it is clear that the sentiments it expresses were part of the Quran and Islamic doctrine from the earliest period. The Shahada has been traditionally recited in the Sufi ceremony of dhikr, a ritual that resembles mantras found in many other religious traditions. During the ceremony, the Shahada may be repeated thousands of times, sometimes in the shortened form of the first phrase where the word Allah is replaced by huwa; the chanting of the Shahada sometimes provides a rhythmic background for singing. The Shahada appears as an architectural element in Islamic buildings around the world, such as those in Jerusalem and Istanbul. Late-medieval and Renaissance European art displays a fascination with Middle Eastern motifs in general and the Arabic script in particular, as indicated by its use, without concern f
Iman in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six axioms of faith, known as arkān al-īmān; the term iman has been delineated in both the hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise. In the hadith, iman in addition to Islam and ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion. There exists a debate both within and outside Islam on the link between faith and reason in religion, the relative importance of either. Several scholars contend that faith and reason spring from the same source and hence must be harmonious. In Arabic, pronounced means "faith", it is the verbal noun of آمَنَ "to believe." In a hadith, Muhammad defined iman as "a knowledge in the heart, a voicing with the tongue, an activity with the limbs." Faith is confidence in a truth, real. When people have confidence, they submit themselves to that truth.
It is not sufficient just to know the truth, but the recognition of the heart should be expressed by the tongue, the manifestation of the intelligence and at last to reflect this confidence in their activities. Hamiduddin Farahi, while explaining the meaning of imān in his exegesis, wrote: The root of imān is amn, it is used in various shades of meaning. One of its derivatives is mu'min, among the noble names of Allah because He gives peace to those who seek His refuge; this word is an ancient religious term. Hence the certitude which exists with humility and all the conditions and corollaries of adherence to a view is called imān and he who professes faith in Allah, in His signs and in His directives and submits himself to Him and is pleased with all His decisions is a mu'min. Faith breaks down into six axioms: Belief in the unicity of God. Belief in the existence of Angels. Belief in the existence of the books of which God is the author: The Quran being the last of them revealed to Muhammad, the Gospel is revealed to Jesus and the Torah to Moses.
Belief in the existence of Prophets: Muhammad being the last of them, Jesus the penultimate, Moses sent before them. Belief in the existence of the Day of Judgment Day: in that day, humanity will be divided into two groups: that of paradise and that of hell; these groups are themselves composed of subgroups. Belief in the existence of God's predestination, whether it involves good or bad. Of these, the first five are mentioned together in the Qur'an and by Muhammad, while including a corollary of belief in Allah – the good and evil of fate ordained by God – has referred to all six together in the following manner in the Hadith of Gabriel: "Iman is that you believe in God and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate." Another similar narration ascribed to Muhammad is: Ibn Abbas narrates that the Angel Jibril once asked the Prophet: "Tell me what is Iman?" The Prophet replied: "Iman is to believe in Allah, the Day of Judgment, His Angels and Prophets and to believe in life after death.
Jibril asked him: "If I do all this will I be with Iman?" The Prophet said: "When you have done all of this, you will be having Iman." It is assumed that the essential iman consists of the first 3 items. In the Quran, iman is one of the 10 qualities which cause one to be the recipient of God's mercy and reward; the Quran states. The Qur'an states that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer than faith. Muhammad is reported to have said that he gained sweetness of faith, pleased to accept God as Lord, Islam as religion and Muhammad as prophet, he said that no one can be a true believer unless he loves the Prophet more than his children and relatives. At another instance, he has remarked that it is this love with God and Muhammad after which a person can be aware of the real taste of faith. Amin Ahsan Islahi, a notable exegete of the Qur'an has clarified the nature of this love:... it does not imply the passionate love one has for one's wife and other relatives, but it refers to the love on the basis of intellect and principles for some viewpoint and stance.
It is because of this love that a person, in every sphere of life, gives priority to this viewpoint and principle... So much so, if the demands of his wife and relatives clash with the demands of this viewpoint, he adheres to it and without any hesitation turns down the desires of his wife and children and the demands of his family and clan. Islahi and Maududi both have inferred that the Quranic comparison of a good word and a bad word in Chapter 14 is a comparison of faith and disbelief. Thus, the Qur'an is comparing faith to a tree whose roots are deep in the soil and branches spread in the vastness of the sky. Iman is the subject of a supplication uttered by Muhammad to God: O God! I have resigned myself to You and I have consigned my matter to you and have taken support from You fearing Your grandeur and moving towards You in anticipation. There is no refuge and shelter after running away from You, if there is, it is with You. Lord! I have professed faith in your Book which You have revealed and have professed faith in the Prophet you have sent as a Messenger.
The 77 Branches of Faith is a collection compiled by Imam Al-Bayhaqi in his work Shu`ab al-Iman. In it, he explains t
Fasting during Ramadan
This is a sub-article to Fasting in Islam and RamadanDuring the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims are expectedto fast, every day from dawn to sunset. Fasting requires the abstinence from drink. Fasting the month of Ramadān was made obligatory during the month of Sha‘bān, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madīnah. Fasting the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Fasting during the month of Ramadan is mentioned in three consecutive verses of the Qur'an: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you. —Surah Baqarah 2:183 for a fixed number of days. For those who can do it, is a ransom, the feeding of one, indigent, but he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast. —Surah Baqarah 2:184 Eating and sexual relations are not allowed between dawn, sunset. Fasting is considered an act of personal worship in which Muslims seek a raised level of closeness to God. During Ramadan, Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, envy, lust, angry/sarcastic retorts and are meant to try to get along with each other better than normal.
All obscene and irreligious stimuli are to be avoided as purity of both thought and action is important. Fasting during Ramadan is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would be excessively problematic, among them people with a medical condition and the elderly. Pre-pubescent children are not required to fast, though some choose to do so, some small children fast for half a day to train themselves. If puberty is delayed, fasting becomes obligatory for females after a certain age. Diabetics and nursing or pregnant women are not expected to fast. According to a hadith, observing the Ramadan fast is forbidden for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those in battle, travellers who intend to spend fewer than five days away from home. If the circumstance preventing fasting is temporary, a person is required to make up for the missed days after the month of Ramadan is over and before the next Ramadan arrives. Should the circumstance be permanent or present for an extended amount of time, one may recompense by feeding a needy person for every day missed.
If one does not fit into any category of exemption and breaks the fast out of forgetfulness, the fast is still valid. Intentionally breaking the fast voids it, the person must make up for the entire day later. If one breaks the fast intentionally or through consensual sexual intercourse, the transgressor must make up for the day by fasting for sixty consecutive days, freeing a slave or feeding sixty people in need. During a 2013 poliomyelitis outbreak in Somalia, some groups of aid workers were granted an exemption for the oral polio vaccine. Many mosques will provide iftar meals after sundown for the community to come and end their day's fasting as a whole, it is common for such meals to take place at Muslim soup kitchens. The fast is broken with water. Linguistically, the word fasting in the Arabic language means unconditional'restraint' from any action or speech during any time. According to the Sacred Law, fasting is the act of: refraining from engaging in sexual activity, and. Entering any of these substances inside the body cavity means that the substance enters into the throat, the intestines, the stomach, or the brain by way of the nose, the throat, the private parts, or open wounds.'Whether deliberately or accidentally' excludes forgetful acts of eating, drinking, or sexual activity.'From the time the sun begins to rise to the time the sun sets' refers to the true entering of the Fajr time to the entering of the Maghrib time.'Accompanied with the intention of fasting' means that one must intend to fast in order to distinguish if one is performing an act of worship or not when one refrains from eating, drinking, or having sexual intercourse.
For example, if one were to stay away from food, drink, or sexual activity without an intention to fast this fast is not valid and does not count.'From individuals who are permitted to fast' means that one must be free from a situation that would prevent the validity of one's fast, such as menstruation or lochia. The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr marks the end of the Islamic fasting of the month of Ramadan. Fasting & Ramadhan: Complete Interactive online book