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Taxicab

A taxicab known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice; this differs from other modes of public transport where the pick-up and drop-off locations are decided by the service provider, not by the passenger, although demand responsive transport and share taxis provide a hybrid bus/taxi mode. There are four distinct forms of taxicab, which can be identified by differing terms in different countries: Hackney carriages known as public hire, hailed or street taxis, licensed for hailing throughout communities Private hire vehicles known as minicabs or private hire taxis, licensed for pre-booking only Taxibuses come in many variations throughout the developing countries as jitneys or jeepney, operating on pre-set routes typified by multiple stops and multiple independent passengers Limousines, specialized vehicle licensed for operation by pre-bookingAlthough types of vehicles and methods of regulation, hiring and negotiating payment differ from country to country, many common characteristics exist.

Disputes over whether smartphone-based ride hailing services should be regulated as taxicabs has resulted in some jurisdictions creating a new classification called transportation network company Harry Nathaniel Allen of The New York Taxicab Company, who imported the first 600 gas-powered New York City taxicabs from France in 1907, borrowed the word "taxicab" from London, where the word was in use by early 1907. "Taxicab" is a compound word formed from contractions of "taximeter" and "cabriolet". "Taximeter" is an adaptation of the German word taxameter, itself a variant of the earlier German word "Taxanom". "Taxe" is a German word meaning "tax", "charge", or "scale of charges". The Medieval Latin word "taxa" means tax or charge. "Taxi" may be attributed to τάξις from τάσσω meaning "to place in a certain order" in Ancient Greek, as in commanding an orderly battle line, or in ordaining the payment of taxes, to the extent that ταξίδι now meaning "journey" in Greek denoted an orderly military march or campaign.

Meter is from the Greek μέτρον meaning "measure". A "cabriolet" is a type of horse-drawn carriage, from the French word "cabrioler", from Italian "capriolare", from Latin "capreolus". In most European languages that word has taken on the meaning of a convertible car. An alternative, folk-etymology holds that it was named for Franz von Taxis, a 16th-century postmaster for Philip of Burgundy, his nephew Johann Baptiste von Taxis, General Postmaster for the Holy Roman Empire. Both instituted reliable postal services across Europe; the taxicabs of Paris were equipped with the first meters beginning on 9 March 1898. They were called taxamètres renamed taximètres on 17 October 1904. Horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century; the first documented public hackney coach service for hire was in London in 1605. In 1625 carriages were made available for hire from innkeepers in London and the first taxi rank appeared on the Strand outside the Maypole Inn in 1636.

In 1635 the Hackney Carriage Act was passed by Parliament to legalise horse-drawn carriages for hire. Coaches were hired out by innkeepers to visitors. A further "Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent" was approved by Parliament in 1654 and the first hackney-carriage licences were issued in 1662. A similar service was started by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1637, his vehicles were known as fiacres, as the main vehicle depot was opposite a shrine to Saint Fiacre. The hansom cab was designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York as a substantial improvement on the old hackney carriages; these two-wheel vehicles were fast, light enough to be pulled by a single horse were agile enough to steer around horse-drawn vehicles in the notorious traffic jams of nineteenth-century London and had a low centre of gravity for safe cornering. Hansom's original design was modified by John Chapman and several others to improve its practicability, but retained Hansom's name.

These soon replaced the hackney carriage as a vehicle for hire. They spread to other cities in the United Kingdom, as well as continental European cities Paris, St Petersburg; the cab was introduced to other British Empire cities and to the United States during the late 19th century, being most used in New York City. The first cab service in Toronto, "The City", was established in 1837 by Thornton Blackburn, an ex-slave whose escape when captured in Detroit was the impetus for the Blackburn Riot. Electric battery-powered taxis became available at the end of the 19th century. In London, Walter Bersey designed a fleet of such cabs and introduced them to the streets of London on 19 August 1897, they were soon nicknamed ` Hummingbirds' due to the idiosyncratic humming noise. In the same year in New York City, the Samuel's Electric Carriage and Wagon Company began running 12 electric hansom cabs; the company ran until 1898 with up to 62 cabs operating until it was reformed by its financiers to form the Electric Vehicle Company.

The modern taximeter was perfected by a trio of German inventors.

Arabella Churchill (royal mistress)

Arabella Churchill was the mistress of King James II, the mother of four of his children. She was a daughter of Sir Winston Churchill, an ancestor of the Prime Minister of the same name, Elizabeth Drake, she was the sister of the first Duke of Marlborough. The Churchills' loyalty to the royal household was ardent. Churchill became the duchess's lady-in-waiting in that year, gave birth to two children during Anne's lifetime. Churchill was described as a "tall creature, pale-faced, nothing but skin and bone." Charles II, baffled by his brother's predilection for plain women, joked that his confessor must impose them as a penance. She displayed the quick wit and lively intelligence which bound James to her through ten years and four children. On 1 June 1680 at Holy Trinity Minories, she married Charles Godfrey and had three more children, they lived together for 40 years. Godfrey died in 1714, at the age of 67, she survived him by 16 years, dying in 1730 aged 80. Henrietta FitzJames James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick Henry FitzJames, 1st Duke of Albemarle Arabella FitzJames.

Francis Godfrey Charlotte Godfrey, born before 1685, married Hugh Boscawen, 1st Viscount Falmouth Elizabeth Godfrey, married Edmund Dunch, son of Hungerford Dunch WorldRoots Royalty Pages

Fish trap

A fish trap is a trap used for fishing. Fish traps can have the form of a lobster trap; some fishing nets are called fish traps, for example fyke nets. A typical contemporary trap consists of a frame of thick steel wire in the shape of a heart, with chicken wire stretched around it; the mesh wraps around the frame and tapers into the inside of the trap. When a fish swims inside through this opening, it cannot get out, as the chicken wire opening bends back into its original narrowness. Contemporary eel traps are constructed of many materials. In earlier times, traps were constructed of fibre. Traps are culturally universal and seem to have been independently invented many times. There are two types of trap, a permanent or semi-permanent structure placed in a river or tidal area and bottle or pot trap that are but not always baited to attract prey, are periodically lifted out of the water; the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of about of 2.5 million km2, is shaped according to the principle of a bottle trap.

It is easy for fish from the Atlantic Ocean to swim into the Mediterranean through the narrow neck at Gibraltar, difficult for them to find their way out. It has been described as "the largest fish trap in the world". In southern Italy, during the 17th century, a new fishing technique began to be used; the trabucco is an old fishing machine typical of the coast of Gargano protected as historical monuments by the homonym National Park. This giant trap, built in structural wood, is spread along the coast of southern Adriatic in the province of Foggia, in some areas of the Abruzzese coastlines and in some parts of the coast of southern Tyrrhenian Sea; the prehistoric Yaghan people who inhabited the Tierra Del Fuego area constructed stonework in shallow inlets that would confine fish at low tide levels. Some of this extant stonework survives at Bahia Wulaia at the Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens archaeological site. In Chile in Chiloé, fish weirs and basket fish traps were used. Indigenous Australians were, prior to European colonisation, most populous in Australia's better-watered areas such as the Murray-Darling river system of the south-east.

Here, where water levels fluctuate seasonally, Aboriginal people constructed ingenious stone fish traps. Most have been or destroyed; the largest and best-known are those on the Barwon River at Brewarrina, New South Wales, which are at least preserved. The Brewarrina fish traps, which are now heritage-listed, caught huge numbers of migratory native fish as the Barwon River rose in flood and fell. In what is now southern Victoria, near Mount Eccles indigenous people created an elaborate system of canals, some more than 2 kilometres long; the purpose of these canals was to catch eels, a fish of short coastal rivers. The eels were caught by a variety of traps including stone walls constructed across canals with a net placed across an opening in the wall. Traps at different levels in the marsh came into operation as the water level fell; these are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site as the Budj Bim Cultural Landscape. Somewhat similar stone-wall traps to the Australian ones were constructed by Native American Pit River people in north-eastern California.

A technique called. This involves the construction of a temporary dam resulting in a drop in the water levels downstream— allowing fish to be collected; the manner in which fish traps are used depends on local conditions and the behaviour of the local fish. For example, a fish trap might be placed in shallow water near rocks. If placed traps can be effective, it is not necessary to check the trap daily, since the fish remain alive inside the trap unhurt. Because of this, the trap allows for the release of undersized fish as per fishing regulations. Animal trapping Fishing net Slack-Smith RJ Fishing with Traps and Pots Volume 26 of FAO training series, FAO, Rome. ISBN 9789251043073. Alvarez, R. Munita, M. Fredes, J. y Mera, R. Corrales de pesca en Chiloé. Imprenta América. Media related to Fish traps at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Bottle traps at Wikimedia Commons Corral de pesca Fish traps