Callitris macleayana is a species of conifer in the family Cupressaceae, endemic to Australia. The tree is known as stringybark pine, as well as brush cypress pine and Port Macquarie pine, although it does not belong to the pine genus or family. Stringybark pine is found in two regions of Australia's East coast, one in the centre and one in the North. Callitris macleayana is a large, straight-trunked tree with spreading branches and up to 40 metres in height; the bark is furrowed, its juvenile leaves are around 1 centimetre in length, giving way to mature foliage of 2-3 millimetres. Stringybark pine occurs over much of the central and Northeast coast of Australia with an estimated range of 20,000 km2, although its range is divided in two with a 1500 km gap between the two occurrences. In the North, it is found in open forests upon humid highlands among Eucalyptus and Corymbia species. Within these habitats the stringybark pine prefers exposed locations such as slopes and ridge tops, whilst being found in poorer soils.
The tree's limitation to humid sites is in contrast to many other species in the genus, such as Callitris glaucophylla and Callitris endlicheri. The species has a cold hardiness of -1.1 °C to +4.4 °C, corresponding to hardiness Zone 10
Actinostrobus is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae. Common names include cypress, sandplain-cypress and cypress-pine, the last of these shared by the related genus Callitris. There are three species in the genus, all endemic to southwestern Western Australia: A 2010 study of Actinostrobus and Callitris has placed all three species of Actinostrobus within an expanded Callitris based on analysis of 42 morphological and anatomical characters, they are small trees, reaching 3 -- 8 m tall. The leaves are evergreen, of two forms; the leaves are arranged in alternating whorls of three. The male cones are small, 3–6 mm long, are located at the tips of the twigs; the female cones start out inconspicuous, maturing in eighteen to twenty months to 10–20 mm long and wide, globular to acute-ovoid, with six thick, woody scales, arranged in two whorls of three, a further nine to fifteen thin, sterile basal scales. The cones remain closed on the trees for many years, opening only after being scorched by a bushfire.
The closest relative of Actinostrobus is Callitris, much more widespread, occurring in most of Australia, differs in its cones lacking the basal whorls of small sterile scales. The wood of Actinostrobus is light and aromatic, but the plants are too small for any significant use, they are planted as ornamental shrubs, but their use is restricted by the high risks imposed by their high flammability in bushfires. "Actinostrobus". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. Farjon, A.. Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4. Gymnosperm Database - Actinostrobus Arboretum de Villardebelle - Photos of cones
Glyptostrobus, is a small genus of conifers in the family Cupressaceae. The sole living species, Glyptostrobus pensilis, is native to subtropical southeastern China, from Fujian west to southeast Yunnan, very locally in northern Vietnam and Borikhamxai Province of eastern Lao PDR near the Vietnam border; the genus had a much wider range, covering most of the Northern Hemisphere, including the high Arctic in the Paleocene and Eocene. The oldest known fossils are late Cretaceous in age, found in North America, it contributed to the coal swamps of the Cenozoic era. It was reduced to its current range during the Pleistocene ice ages. G. Pensilis is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching 30 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m more; the leaves are deciduous, spirally arranged but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 5–20 mm long and 1–2 mm broad, but 2–3 mm long and scale-like on shoots in the upper crown. The cones are green maturing yellow-brown, pear-shaped, 2–3 cm long and 1–1.5 cm diameter, broadest near the apex.
They open when mature to release the small, 5–20 mm long, winged seeds. It grows in river banks and swamps, growing in water up to 60 cm deep. Like the related genus Taxodium, it produces'cypress knees' when growing in water, thought to help transport oxygen to the roots; the species is nearly extinct in the wild due to overcutting for its valuable decay-resistant, scented wood, but it is fairly planted along the banks of rice paddies where its roots help to stabilise the banks by reducing soil erosion. Gymnosperm Database: Glyptostrobus Arboretum de Villardebelle: photo of cone
Libocedrus plumosa, with the common name kawaka, is a species of Libocedrus, endemic to New Zealand. The tree is native to the North Island, it grows from sea level up to 600 metres in temperate rainforests. It is an IUCN Red List Near threatened species, endangered by habitat loss. Libocedrus plumosa is an evergreen coniferous tree growing to 30–35 metres tall, with a trunk up to 3 metres diameter; the foliage is arranged in flattened sprays. The seed cones are cylindrical, 12–18 mm long, with four scales each with a prominent curved spine-like bract, they are mature about six to eight months after pollination. The pollen cones are 3–5 mm long; the kawaka has been planted as an ornamental tree in several parts of the British Isles, including as far north as Castlewellan, Northern Ireland
Taxodium ascendens known as pond cypress, is a deciduous conifer of the genus Taxodium, native to North America. Many botanists treat it as a variety of bald cypress, Taxodium distichum rather than as a distinct species, but it differs in ecology, occurring in still blackwater rivers and swamps without silt-rich flood deposits, it predominates in cypress dome habitats. Taxodium ascendens reaches on average 15–18 metres in height. Compared to T. distichum, the leaves are shorter and are on shoots that tend to be erect rather than spreading. The trunk is expanded at the base on young trees, assisting the tree in anchoring in the soft, muddy soil; the cones tend to be smaller, not over 2.5 cm diameter. The bark is a paler gray color. Like Bald Cypresses, Pond Cypresses growing in water have a characteristic growth trait called cypress knees. Maximum longevity of this plant is estimated at 1000 years; this figure may be an underestimate, as The Senator, until growing in Longwood, Florida's Big Tree Park, was estimated to be over 3,400 years old.
This species is native to the southeastern United States, from southeastern Virginia to southeastern Louisiana and south into Florida except for the Florida Keys. Stunted individuals of pond cypress are notable in the dwarf cypress savanna of the Everglades National Park. Taxodium ascendens occurs in shallow ponds, lake margins and wetlands, it prefers acidic soils, at an altitude of 0 -- 30 metres above sea level. Flora of North America Floridata File:The Senator Tree Longwood Florida. JPG
Cupressaceae is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27–30 genera, which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130–140 species in total, they are monoecious, subdioecious or dioecious shrubs up to 116 m tall. The bark of mature trees is orange- to red- brown and of stringy texture flaking or peeling in vertical strips, but smooth, scaly or hard and square-cracked in some species; the leaves are arranged either spirally, in decussate pairs or in decussate whorls of three or four, depending on the genus. On young plants, the leaves are needle-like, becoming small and scale-like on mature plants of many genera. Old leaves are not shed individually, but in small sprays of foliage; these leaves fall off individually when the bark starts to flake. Most are evergreen with the leaves persisting 2–10 years, but three genera are deciduous or include deciduous species; the seed cones are either woody, leathery, or berry-like and fleshy, with one to several ovules per scale.
The bract scale and ovuliferous scale are fused together except at the apex, where the bract scale is visible as a short spine on the ovuliferous scale. As with the foliage, the cone scales are arranged spirally, decussate or whorled, depending on the genus; the seeds are small and somewhat flattened, with two narrow wings, one down each side of the seed. The seedlings have two cotyledons, but in some species up to six; the pollen cones are more uniform in structure across the family, 1–20 mm long, with the scales again arranged spirally, decussate or whorled, depending on the genus. Cupressaceae is a distributed conifer family, with a near-global range in all continents except for Antarctica, stretching from 71°N in arctic Norway south to 55°S in southernmost Chile, while Juniperus indica reaches 5200 m altitude in Tibet, the highest altitude reported for any woody plant. Most habitats on land are occupied, with the exceptions of polar tundra and tropical lowland rainforest. Despite the wide overall distribution, many genera and species show restricted relictual distributions, many are endangered species.
The family Cupressaceae is now regarded as including the Taxodiaceae treated as a distinct family, but now shown not to differ from the Cupressaceae in any consistent characteristics. The one exception in the former Taxodiaceae is the genus Sciadopitys, genetically distinct from the rest of the Cupressaceae, is now treated in its own family, Sciadopityaceae; the family is divided into seven subfamilies, based on genetic and morphological analysis as follows: A 2010 study of Actinostrobus and Callitris places the three species of Actinostrobus within an expanded Callitris based on analysis of 42 morphological and anatomical characters. The family is notable for including the largest and stoutest individual trees in the world, the second longest lived species in the world: Largest - General Sherman, a giant sequoia with 1486.9 m³ trunk volume Tallest - Hyperion, a coast redwood, 115.55 m tall Stoutest - Árbol del Tule, a Montezuma cypress or ahuehuete, 14.05 m diameter Second oldest - Sarv-e Abarkuh, a Mediterranean cypress estimated to be 4000 years old In addition to the above, many other members of the family list among the tallest, most massive and most long-lived tree species in the world, including Taiwania, western redcedar, incense cedar, Tibetan cypress, Formosan cypress among others.
Many of the species are important timber sources in the genera Calocedrus, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Sequoia and Thuja. These and several other genera are important in horticulture. Junipers are among the most important evergreen shrubs and small evergreen trees, with hundreds of cultivars selected, including plants with blue, grey, or yellow foliage. Chamaecyparis and Thuja provide hundreds of dwarf cultivars as well as trees, including Lawson's cypress and the infamous hybrid Leyland cypress. Dawn redwood is planted as an ornamental tree because of its excellent horticultural qualities, rapid growth and status as a living fossil. Giant sequoia is a popular ornamental tree and is grown for timber. Giant sequoia, Leyland cypress, Arizona cypress are grown to a small extent as Christmas trees. Sugi is the national tree of Japan, ahuehuete the national tree of Mexico. Coast redwood and giant sequoia were jointly designated the state tree of California and are famous California tourist att
Taxodium mucronatum known as Montezuma bald cypress, Montezuma cypress, sabino, or ahuehuete is a species of Taxodium, native to Mexico, Guatemala. Ahuehuete is derived from the Nahuatl name for the tree, āhuēhuētl, which means "upright drum in water" or "old man of the water." It is a large evergreen or semi-evergreen tree growing to 40 m tall and with a trunk of 1–3 m diameter. The leaves are spirally arranged but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 1–2 cm long and 1–2 mm broad; the cones are ovoid, 1.5 -- 1 -- 2 cm broad. Unlike bald cypress and pond cypress, Montezuma cypress produces cypress knees from the roots. Trees from the Mexican highlands achieve a notable stoutness. One specimen, the Árbol del Tule in Santa María del Tule, Mexico, is the stoutest tree in the world with a diameter of 11.42 m. Several other specimens from 3–6 m diameter are known; the second stoutest tree in the world is an African Baobab. Montezuma cypress is a riparian tree, growing along upland riversides, but can be found next to springs and marshes.
It occurs from 300 to 2,500 m, in Mexico in highlands at 1,600–2,300 m in altitude. T. mucronatum is drought-tolerant and fast-growing and favors climates that are rainy throughout the year or at least with high summer rainfall. Taxodium mucronatum is native to much of Mexico as far south as the highlands of southern Mexico. Two disjunct populations exist in the United States. One is in the Rio Grande Valley of southernmost Texas, while the other is in southern New Mexico, near Las Cruces. Within Guatemala, the tree is restricted to Huehuetenango Department; the sabino became the national tree of Mexico in 1910. The tree is sacred to the native peoples of Mexico, is featured in the Zapotec creation myth. To the Aztecs, the combined shade of an āhuēhuētl and a pōchōtl metaphorically represented a ruler's authority. According to legend, Hernán Cortés wept under an ahuehuete in Popotla after suffering defeat during the Battle of La Noche Triste; this plant is mentioned in the 2015 short story "Rivers" by John Keene, which reimagines the story of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Montezuma cypresses have been used as ornamental trees since Pre-Columbian times. The Aztecs planted āhuēhuētl along processional paths in the gardens of Chapultepec because of its association with government. Artificial islands called chinampas were formed in the shallow lakes of the Valley of Mexico by adding soil to rectangular areas enclosed by trees such as āhuēhuētl. Ahuehuetes are cultivated in Mexican parks and gardens; the wood is used to make house furniture. The Aztecs used its resin to treat gout, skin diseases and toothaches. A decoction made from the bark was used as an emmenagogue. Pitch derived from the wood was used as a cure for bronchitis The leaves acted as a relaxant and could help reduce itching. John Naka, a world-renowned bonsai master, donated his first bonsai, a Montezuma Cypress, to the National Bonsai and Penjing Museum of the United States. A linear grove is located in the main courtyard of the Getty Center Art Museum, thriving since 1995. Taxodium × ‘LaNana’ Taxodium'Zhongshansa' Eguiluz T. 1982.
Clima y Distribución del género pinus en México. Distrito Federal. Mexico. Rzedowski J. 1983. Vegetación de México. Distrito Federal, Mexico. Martínez, Maximinio. 1978. Catálogo de nombres vulgares y científicos de plantas mexicanas. "Taxodium mucronatum". Digital Representations of Tree Species Range Maps from "Atlas of United States Trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr.. United States Geological Survey