In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, family, class, kingdom, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors; the rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic. Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes, their closest relatives are in the higher rank, the family Canidae, which includes dogs, wolves and all foxes. Carnivorans are one group of the hairy, warm-blooded, nursing members of the class Mammalia, which are classified among animals with backbones in the phylum Chordata, with them among all animals in the kingdom Animalia.
At the highest rank all of these are grouped together with all other organisms possessing cell nuclei in the domain Eukarya. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature defines rank as: "The level, for nomenclatural purposes, of a taxon in a taxonomic hierarchy." In his landmark publications, such as the Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus used a ranking scale limited to: kingdom, order, genus and one rank below species. Today, nomenclature is regulated by the nomenclature codes. There are seven main taxonomic ranks: kingdom, phylum or division, order, genus, species. In addition, domain is now used as a fundamental rank, although it is not mentioned in any of the nomenclature codes, is a synonym for dominion, introduced by Moore in 1974. A taxon is assigned a rank when it is given its formal name; the basic ranks are genus. When an organism is given a species name it is assigned to a genus, the genus name is part of the species name; the species name is called a binomial, that is, a two-term name.
For example, the zoological name for the human species is Homo sapiens. This is italicized in print and underlined when italics are not available. In this case, Homo is the generic name and it is capitalized. There are definitions of the following taxonomic ranks in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: superfamily, subfamily, subtribe, subgenus, subspecies; the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature divides names into "family-group names", "genus-group names" and "species-group names". The Code explicitly mentions the following ranks for these categories: SuperfamilyFamily Subfamily Tribe SubtribeGenus SubgenusSpecies SubspeciesThe rules in the Code apply to the ranks of superfamily to subspecies, only to some extent to those above the rank of superfamily. Among "genus-group names" and "species-group names" no further ranks are allowed. Zoologists sometimes use additional terms such as species group, species subgroup, species complex and superspecies for convenience as extra, but unofficial, ranks between the subgenus and species levels in taxa with many species, e.g. the genus Drosophila.
At higher ranks a lower level may be denoted by adding the prefix "infra", meaning lower, to the rank. For example, infraorder or infrafamily. A taxon above the rank of species has a scientific name in one part. A species has a name composed of two parts: generic name + specific name. A subspecies has a name composed of three parts: generic name + specific name + subspecific name; as there is only one possible rank below that of species, no connecting term to indicate rank is needed or used. According to Art 3.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants the most important ranks of taxa are: kingdom, division or phylum, order, family and species. According to Art 4.1 the secondary ranks of taxa are tribe, series and form. There is an indeterminate number of ranks; the ICN explicitly mentions: primary ranks secondary ranks further rankskingdom subregnumdivision or phylum subdivisio or subphylumclass subclassisorder subordofamily subfamilia tribe subtribusgenus subgenus section subsection series subseriesspecies subspecies variety subvarietas form subformaThere are definitions of the following taxonomic categories in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants: cultivar group, grex.
The rules in the ICN apply to the ranks of family and below, only to some extent to those above the rank of family. See descriptive botanical names. Taxa at the rank of genus and above have a botanical name in one part.
The Wollondilly Press published as The Bowral Free Press, was an English language newspaper published twice weekly, on Wednesday and Saturday, in Bowral, New South Wales, Australia. The newspaper was first published under this title on Wednesday 31 March 1906 by William Beer; the change of the title from The Bowral Free Press to The Wollondilly Press was intended to reflect the decision to extend the scope of the paper's operations "to take in the whole of the district". In the first issue under the new title the editor assured his Bowral readers that "the interests of Bowral residents will be guarded just as sacredly as of yore...". The paper's predecessor, The Bowral Free Press, was first published by William Webb on 7 July 1883, he sold the paper the following year to Daniel Beer. Daniel Beer was the sole publisher of the Bowral Free Press from February 1885 until his death in 1891. Emily A. Beer was proprietor and editor from 1891 to 1895. In September 1895 the paper was sold to William Beer, the still the publisher when the paper changed its name to The Wollondilly Press.
Many issues of the paper have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program, a project of the National Library of Australia in cooperation with the State Library of New South Wales. List of newspapers in Australia List of newspapers in New South Wales The Wollondilly Press at Trove
Meteor Rain is a 2001 Taiwanese drama starring Jerry Yan, Vanness Wu and Ken Chu of F4 and Rainie Yang. It is a supplementary mini-series of the Meteor Garden series, based on Japanese shōjo manga series, Boys Over Flowers, written by Yoko Kamio, it was produced by Comic Ritz International Production with Angie Chai as producer. It consists of three stand alone episodes that happened at different times, before and after Meteor Garden, they are referred to as chapters focusing on each F4 members, except for Hua Ze Lei. The series was broadcast on free-to-air Chinese Television System in 2001 following the main series Meteor Garden, broadcast from 12 April to 16 August 2001, it was followed by the sequel Meteor Garden II, broadcast from 11 November to 25 December 2002. Mei Zuo's ChapterMei Zuo got pick-pocketed by a Japanese girl, Ai Sha, struggling to survive in Taiwan. Ai Sha fools Mei Zuo several times before she reveals the truth. Ai Sha left Japan to find her grandmother. Mei Zuo agrees to help her and, after several events take place, Ai Sha and Mei Zuo start to practice dancing together.
The explanation for this is that Ai Sha believes the best way to find her grandmother is to enter and win a televised dance contest. At the end of this chapter, a romance is hinted at. Xi Men's ChapterXiao, she attempts to rekindle her relationship at first seems to be unsuccessful. After an occurrence at the bar, Xi Men and Xiao You confront each other about their behaviors. Xi Men reveals to Xiao You a bit of his past and tells her about this girl, Xiao Gen, he once loved. Xiao Gen had discovered something special, but he had been somewhat afraid of his feelings and had disappointed her by not showing up. Inspired by the story, Xiao You goes on a time-consuming search for the "special thing" that Xiao Gen had wanted to show Xi Men. Dao Ming Si's ChapterThere are two parts to this chapter, it explains several scenes. Dao Ming Si is charged with flees, he narrowly lies unconscious on a beach. A young girl by the name of Xin Xin finds him and Dao Ming Si is temporarily taken in by Ah Yuan, who appears to be Xin Xin's father.
Ah Yuan and Xin Xin are not wealthy. There are several twists to the main one being that Xin Xin does not talk. Xin Xin is not mute. Thanks to Xin Xin's advances, Dao Ming Si and Xin Xin bond; however problems arise in the second part of this chapter, when Ah Yuan learns that Dao Ming Si is wanted by the police and Dao Ming Si learns the truth about Ah Yuan & Xin Xin's past. Jerry Yan as Dao Ming Si Ken Chu as Xi Men Vanness Wu as Mei Zhuo Rainie Yang as Xiao You Senda Aisa as Ai Sha Pally Chien as Xiao Gen Several of the filming locations in this mini series are identical to those in the Taiwanese drama Mars; the beach where Dao Ming Si stays at and the cafe/coffeeshop where Mei Zhuo and Ai Sha meet at are just some of the locations. In Dao Ming Si's chapter, there were several visible contradictions in the story, he has the same hairstyle. Dao Ming Si develops a mild attitude during his respective time with Xin Xin; these details contradict the fact that Dao Ming Si's chapter takes place before the first season of Meteor Garden.