Peter Mark Roget
Peter Mark Roget was a British physician, natural theologian and lexicographer. He is best known for publishing, in 1852, the Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, a classified collection of related words. Peter Mark Roget was born in London, his obsession with list-making as a coping mechanism was well established by the time he was eight years old. The son of a Swiss clergyman, Roget studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, graduating in 1798, his life was marked by several depressing incidents. His father and his wife died young. Roget struggled with depression for most of his life. Roget retired from professional life in 1840, in about 1848 began preparing for publication the one work, to perpetuate his memory; this was the catalogue of words organized by their meanings, the compilation of, an avocation since 1805. Its first printed edition, in 1852, was called Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition.
During his lifetime the work had twenty-eight printings. Peter Roget was a secretary of the Portico Library in Manchester and it was there that he began to compile his Thesaurus. Roget died while on holiday in West Malvern, aged 90, is buried there in the cemetery of St James's Church. Roget was much concerned with medical education but the School of Medicine at the University of Manchester was only established in 1874, he was one of the founders of the Medical and Chirurgical Society of London, which became the Royal Society of Medicine, he was a secretary of the Royal Society. In 1815, he invented the log-log slide rule, allowing a person to perform exponential and root calculations simply; this was helpful for calculations involving fractional powers and roots. In 1834 he became the first Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution, he was an examiner in physiology at the University of London. On 9 December 1824, Roget presented a paper entitled Explanation of an optical deception in the appearance of the spokes of a wheel when seen through vertical apertures.
This article is incorrectly referenced as either On the Persistence of Vision with Regard to Human Motion or Persistence of Vision with regard to Moving Objects due to erroneous citations by film historians Terry Ramsaye and Arthur Knight. While Roget's explanation of the illusion was wrong, his consideration of the illusion of motion is seen as an important point in the history of film, influenced the development of the thaumatrope, the phenakistiscope and the zoetrope, he wrote numerous papers on physiology and health, among them the fifth Bridgewater Treatise and Vegetable Physiology considered with reference to Natural Theology, a two-volume work on phrenology, articles for several editions of Encyclopædia Britannica. He played an important role in the establishment of the University of London, he showed remarkable ingenuity in inventing and solving chess problems and designed an inexpensive pocket chessboard. Canadian writer Keath Fraser published a story, "Roget's Thesaurus," in 1982, narrated in Roget's voice.
Minimalist in style, Fraser's story manages to capture both the associative power of language and many of the salient facts of Roget's life in a text that occupies less than two full pages. A picture book biography of Roget entitled The Right Word: Roget and His Thesaurus was published by Eerdmans Books in 2014, it was named a Caldecott Honor book for excellence in illustration and won the Sibert Medal for excellence in children's nonfiction. Peter Roget is mentioned in Philip Roth's book Operation Shylock as a fake name that the author made up to introduce himself while speaking by phone with his counterpart; the choice of Roget's name as a pseudonym was motivated by the coincidence between the initials of both names Roget was the focus of Randy Wyatt's "Synonymy", which premiered at Minnesota State University's Department of Theatre and Dance in December 2005. In the play, Gordon, a graduate student, rents Roget's last known residence to inspire himself as he writes his dissertation on the English language and Roget's Thesaurus.
The building, soon to be torn down, creates a gateway through which Gordon finds himself traveling back in time and meeting Roget and his daughter, Kate. Roget appears in Shelagh Stephenson's An Experiment with an Air Pump, which concerns scientific ethics; the play takes place in the household of Joseph Fenwick in 1799, Roget is one of Fenwick's assistants. Roget was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1815. Treatises on Electricity, Galvanism and Electro-magnetism. London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1832. LCCN 08007072. Animal and Vegetable Physiology Considered with Reference to Natural Theology. Bridgewater Treatises. I–II. London: William Pickering. 2009. ISBN 9781108000086. LCCN 06011266. Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. London: Longman, Brown and Longmans. 1856. Anderson, John. "The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited". Journal of Film and Video. 45: 2–12. Anderson, John. "The Myth of Persistence of Vision". Journal of the University Film Association. 30: 3–8. Emblen, Donald Lewis
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is a public research university and one of the largest research and educational institutions in Germany. KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe, founded in 1825 as a public research university and known as the "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Center, established in 1956 as a national nuclear research center. KIT is one of the leading universities for engineering and the natural sciences in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e. V; as part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was awarded an excellence status in 2006. In the 2011 performance ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top ten universities in Europe in engineering and natural sciences. Ranked 26th worldwide in computer science in the internationally recognized "Times Higher Education" ranking, KIT is among the leading universities worldwide in computer science.
As of 2018, six Nobel laureates are affiliated with KIT. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is well known for many inventors and entrepreneurs who studied or taught there, including Heinrich Hertz, Karl Friedrich Benz and the founders of SAP SE; the University of Karlsruhe was founded as a polytechnical school on 7 October 1825. It was modelled on the École polytechnique in Paris. In 1865, Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden raised the school to the status of a Hochschule, an institution of higher education. Since 1902 the university has been known as the Fridericiana in his honour. In 1885, it was declared a Technische Hochschule, or institute of technology, in 1967, it became an Universität, a full university, which gave it the right to award regular doctorate degrees, it had hitherto only been allowed to award doctorates in engineering, identified as Dr.-Ing. A right bestowed on all technical institutes in 1899; the University of Karlsruhe is one of the leading German institutions in computer science.
A central computer laboratory was founded in 1966. The department of informatics was established three years along with the first regular course in informatics. On 2 August 1984, the university received Germany's first email; the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung was founded at the university in 1985. The university cooperated extensively with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, this relationship was formalised on 6 April 2006 when Professor Horst Hippler and Dr. Dieter Ertmann from the University of Karlsruhe, Professor Manfred Popp and Assistant Jur. Sigurd Lettow from Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe signed a contract for the foundation of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; the name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the leading technical university in the United States. In February 2008, the merger of the university and the research centre to form KIT was agreed by the state of Baden-Württemberg and Germany's federal government; the necessary state law was passed on 8 July 2009.
KIT was formally established on 1 October 2009. The main reason for establishing KIT was to strengthen Karlsruhe's position in the German Universities Excellence Initiative, which offered elite universities grants of up to 50 million euros per annum; this aim was not achieved. While the University of Karlsruhe was chosen for the initiative in 2006/2007, KIT failed to secure a place in 2012, it did, attract funds from other sources. In 2008, Hans-Werner Hector, co-founder of SAP, raised 200 million euros to support researchers at the institute; the Campus Nord, the former Forschungszentrum, was founded in 1956 as Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Initial activities focused on the first nuclear reactor built by Germany. With the decline of nuclear energy activities in Germany, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe directed its work towards alternative areas of basic and applied sciences; this change is reflected in the change of name from Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with the subheading Technik und Umwelt added in 1995.
This subheading was replaced by in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft in 2002. Campus Nord is the site of the main German national nuclear engineering research centre and the Institute for Transuranium Elements. At the site is a nanotechnology research centre and the neutrino experiment KATRIN. Campus Nord hosts a 200-metre-tall guyed mast for meteorological measurements; the university has eleven faculties: Mathematics Physics Chemistry and Biology Humanities and Social sciences Architecture Civil engineering and Ecological Sciences Mechanical Engineering Chemical and Process Engineering Electrical engineering and Information Technology Computer Science Economics and Management The university offers a great range of education options with such possibilities as cross studies and work-study programs. A studium generale program was established in 1949, allowing students to attend lectures not directly pertaining their study field. In the first semesters of a course, education tends to be theoretically oriented at KIT, with a high concentration on mathematics for engineering and natural science courses.
It is pos
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research and editorials covering all aspects of the biomedical sciences; the journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's current editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011; the journal was established in 1883 by the American Medical Association and was superseded the Transactions of the American Medical Association. Councilor's Bulletin was renamed the Bulletin of the American Medical Association, absorbed by the Journal of the American Medical Association. In 1960, the journal obtained its current title, JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association; the journal is referred to as, JAMA. Continuing Education Opportunities for Physicians was a semiannual journal section providing lists for regional or national levels of continuing medical education.
JAMA has provided this information since 1937. Prior to 1955, the list was produced either quarterly or semiannually. Between 1955 and 1981, the list was available annually, as the number of CME offerings increased from 1,000 to 8,500; the JAMA website states that webinars are available for CME. On 11 July 2016, JAMA published an article by Barack Obama entitled, United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps, the first academic paper published by a sitting U. S. president. The article was not subject to blind peer-review, it argued for specific policies that future presidents could pursue in order to improve national health care reform implementation. After the controversial 1999 firing of an editor-in-chief, George D. Lundberg, a process was put in place to ensure editorial freedom. A seven-member journal oversight committee was created to evaluate the editor-in-chief and to help ensure editorial independence. Since its inception, the committee has met at least once a year. Presently, JAMA policy states that article content should be attributed to authors, not to the publisher.
From 1964 to 2013, the JAMA journal used images of artwork on its cover and it published essays commenting on the artwork. According to former editor George Lundberg, this practice was designed to link the humanities and medicine. In 2013, a format redesign moved the art feature to an inside page, replacing an image of the artwork on the cover with a table of contents; the purpose of the redesign was to standardize the appearance of all journals in the JAMA Network. The following persons have been editor-in-chief of JAMA: The JAMA journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the JAMA journal has a 2017 impact factor of 47.661, ranking it third out of 154 journals in the category "Medicine, General & Internal". List of American Medical Association journals Official website American Medical Association Archives Free copies of volumes 1-80, from the Internet Archive and HathiTrust
A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic representation resembles a tree though the chart is upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom. A tree structure is conceptual, appears in several forms. For a discussion of tree structures in specific fields, see Tree for computer science: insofar as it relates to graph theory, see tree, or tree. Other related pages are listed; the tree elements are called "nodes". The lines connecting elements are called "branches". Nodes without children are called leaf nodes, "end-nodes", or "leaves"; every finite tree structure has a member. This member is called root node; the root is the starting node. But the converse is not true: infinite tree structures may or may not have a root node; the names of relationships between nodes model the kinship terminology of family relations. The gender-neutral names "parent" and "child" have displaced the older "father" and "son" terminology, although the term "uncle" is still used for other nodes at the same level as the parent.
A node's "parent". "Sibling" nodes share the same parent node. A node's "uncles" are siblings of that node's parent. A node, connected to all lower-level nodes is called an "ancestor"; the connected lower-level nodes are "descendants" of the ancestor node. In the example, "encyclopedia" is the parent of its children. "Art" and "craft" are siblings, children of "culture", their parent and thus one of their ancestors. "encyclopedia", as the root of the tree, is the ancestor of "science", "culture", "art" and "craft". "science", "art" and "craft", as leaves, are ancestors of no other node. Tree structures can depict all kinds of taxonomic knowledge, such as family trees, the biological evolutionary tree, the evolutionary tree of a language family, the grammatical structure of a language, the way web pages are logically ordered in a web site, mathematical trees of integer sets, et cetera; the Oxford English Dictionary records use of both the terms "tree structure" and "tree-diagram" from 1965 in Noam Chomsky's Aspects of the Theory of Syntax.
In a tree structure there is one and only one path from any point to any other point. Computer science uses tree structures extensively For a formal definition see set theory, for a generalization in which children are not successors, see prefix order. Internet: usenet hierarchy Vacuum tubes Document Object Model's logical structure, Yahoo! Subject index, Curlie Operating system: directory structure Information management: Dewey Decimal System, PSH, this hierarchical bulleted list Management: hierarchical organizational structures Computer Science: binary search tree Red-Black Tree AVL tree R-tree Biology: evolutionary tree Business: pyramid selling scheme Project management: work breakdown structure Linguistics: Phrase structure trees Tree model of language change Sports: business chess, playoffs brackets Mathematics: Von Neumann universe Group theory: descendant trees There are many ways of visually representing tree structures. Always, these boil down to variations, or combinations, of a few basic styles: Classical node-link diagrams, that connect nodes together with line segments: Nested sets that use enclosure/containment to show parenthood, examples include TreeMaps and fractal maps: Layered "icicle" diagrams that use alignment/adjacency.
Lists or diagrams that use indentation, sometimes called "outlines" or "tree views". An outline: A tree view: A correspondence to nested parentheses was first noticed by Sir Arthur Cayley: Trees can be represented radially: Kinds of trees B-tree Dancing tree Decision tree Left-child right-sibling binary tree Tree Tree Tree Related articles Data drilling Hierarchical model: clustering and query Tree testing Identification of some of the basic styles of tree structures can be found in: Jacques Bertin, Semiology of Graphics, 1983, University of Wisconsin Press (2nd edition 1973, ISBN 978-0299090609. Manuel Lima, The Book of Trees: Visualizing Branches of Knowledge, Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 978-1-616-89218-0 Visualization of phylogenetic trees on the T-REX server Using a tree structure to design a business process - from the Society for Technical Communication
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a prominent German polymath and philosopher in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. His most notable accomplishment was conceiving the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments. Mathematical works have always favored Leibniz's notation as the conventional expression of calculus, while Newton's notation became unused, it was only in the 20th century that Leibniz's law of continuity and transcendental law of homogeneity found mathematical implementation. He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator, he refined the binary number system, the foundation of all digital computers. In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, i.e. his conclusion that our universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created, an idea, lampooned by others such as Voltaire.
Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th-century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or prior definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, anticipated notions that surfaced much in philosophy, probability theory, medicine, psychology and computer science, he wrote works on philosophy, law, theology and philology. Leibniz contributed to the field of library science. While serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloging system that would serve as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, in unpublished manuscripts, he wrote in several languages, but in Latin and German.
There is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz translated into English. Gottfried Leibniz was born on 1 July 1646, toward the end of the Thirty Years' War, in Leipzig, Saxony, to Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina Schmuck. Friedrich noted in his family journal: 21. Juny am Sontag 1646 Ist mein Sohn Gottfried Wilhelm, post sextam vespertinam 1/4 uff 7 uhr abents zur welt gebohren, im Wassermann. In English: On Sunday 21 June 1646, my son Gottfried Wilhelm is born into the world a quarter before seven in the evening, in Aquarius. Leibniz was baptized on 3 July of that year at Leipzig, his father died when he was six years old, from that point on he was raised by his mother. Leibniz's father had been a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Leipzig, the boy inherited his father's personal library, he was given free access to it from the age of seven. While Leibniz's schoolwork was confined to the study of a small canon of authorities, his father's library enabled him to study a wide variety of advanced philosophical and theological works—ones that he would not have otherwise been able to read until his college years.
Access to his father's library written in Latin led to his proficiency in the Latin language, which he achieved by the age of 12. He composed 300 hexameters of Latin verse, in a single morning, for a special event at school at the age of 13. In April 1661 he enrolled in his father's former university at age 14, completed his bachelor's degree in Philosophy in December 1662, he defended his Disputatio Metaphysica de Principio Individui, which addressed the principle of individuation, on 9 June 1663. Leibniz earned his master's degree in Philosophy on 7 February 1664, he published and defended a dissertation Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex Jure collectarum, arguing for both a theoretical and a pedagogical relationship between philosophy and law, in December 1664. After one year of legal studies, he was awarded his bachelor's degree in Law on 28 September 1665, his dissertation was titled De conditionibus. In early 1666, at age 19, Leibniz wrote his first book, De Arte Combinatoria, the first part of, his habilitation thesis in Philosophy, which he defended in March 1666.
His next goal was to earn his license and Doctorate in Law, which required three years of study. In 1666, the University of Leipzig turned down Leibniz's doctoral application and refused to grant him a Doctorate in Law, most due to his relative youth. Leibniz subsequently left Leipzig. Leibniz enrolled in the University of Altdorf and submitted a thesis, which he had been working on earlier in Leipzig; the title of his thesis was Disputatio Inauguralis de Casibus Perplexis in Jure. Leibniz earned his license to practice law and his Doctorate in Law in November 1666, he next declined the offer of an academic appointment at Altdorf, saying that "my thoughts were turned in an different direction". As an adult, Leibniz often
David Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and—with W. E. B. Du Bois, Karl Marx and Max Weber—is cited as the principal architect of modern social science. Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity, an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, in which new social institutions have come into being, his first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society. In 1895, he published The Rules of Sociological Method and set up the first European department of sociology, becoming France's first professor of sociology. In 1898, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide, a study of suicide rates in Catholic and Protestant populations, pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology and political philosophy; the Elementary Forms of the Religious Life presented a theory of religion, comparing the social and cultural lives of aboriginal and modern societies.
Durkheim was deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism set forth by Auguste Comte, promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism, as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science. For him, sociology was the science of institutions, if this term is understood in its broader meaning as "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity" and its aim being to discover structural social facts. Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism, a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology. In his view, social science should be purely holistic, he remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in 1917, presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including the sociology of knowledge, social stratification, law and deviance. Durkheimian terms such as "collective consciousness" have since entered the popular lexicon.
Emile Durkheim was born in Épinal in the son of Mélanie and Moïse Durkheim. He came from a long line of devout French Jews, he began his education in a rabbinical school, but at an early age, he decided not to follow in his family's footsteps and switched schools. Durkheim led a secular life. Much of his work was dedicated to demonstrating that religious phenomena stemmed from social rather than divine factors. While Durkheim chose not to follow in the family tradition, he did not sever ties with his family or with the Jewish community. Many of his most prominent collaborators and students were Jewish, some were blood relations. Marcel Mauss, a notable social anthropologist of the pre-war era, was his nephew. One of his nieces was Claudette Bloch, a marine biologist and mother of Maurice Bloch, who became a noted anthropologist. A precocious student, Durkheim entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1879, at his third attempt; the entering class that year was one of the most brilliant of the nineteenth century and many of his classmates, such as Jean Jaurès and Henri Bergson, would go on to become major figures in France's intellectual history.
At the ENS, Durkheim studied under the direction of Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, a classicist with a social scientific outlook, wrote his Latin dissertation on Montesquieu. At the same time, he read Herbert Spencer, thus Durkheim became interested in a scientific approach to society early on in his career. This meant the first of many conflicts with the French academic system, which had no social science curriculum at the time. Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting, turning his attention from psychology and philosophy to ethics and sociology, he obtained his agrégation in philosophy in 1882, though finishing next to last in his graduating class owing to serious illness the year before. The opportunity for Durkheim to receive a major academic appointment in Paris was inhibited by his approach to society. From 1882 to 1887 he taught philosophy at several provincial schools. In 1885 he decided to leave for Germany, where for two years he studied sociology at the universities of Marburg and Leipzig.
As Durkheim indicated in several essays, it was in Leipzig that he learned to appreciate the value of empiricism and its language of concrete, complex things, in sharp contrast to the more abstract and simple ideas of the Cartesian method. By 1886, as part of his doctoral dissertation, he had completed the draft of his The Division of Labour in Society, was working towards establishing the new science of sociology. Durkheim's period in Germany resulted in the publication of numerous articles on German social science and philosophy. Durkheim's articles gained recognition in France, he received a teaching appointment in the University of Bordeaux in 1887, where he was to teach the university's first social science course, his official title was Chargé d'un Cours de Science Sociale et de Pédagogie and thus he taught both pedagogy and sociology. The appointment of the social scientist to the humanistic faculty was an important sign of the change of times, the growing importance and recognition of the social sciences.
From this position Durkheim helped reform th
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy