A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Arkansas Highway 160
Highway 160 is a designation for four state highways in South Arkansas. The northernmost segment of 51.55 miles runs from Farm to Market Road 249 at the Texas state line near Bloomburg, Texas east to Highway 19 at Macedonia. A second segment of 14.73 miles runs east from Highway 57 east to Highway 7 Business in Smackover. In southern Calhoun County, Highway 160 begins at US Route 278 and runs east to US 425 in Fountain Hill. A fourth segment runs 22.73 miles east to US 65 at Chicot Junction. Highway 160 begins at State Line Avenue as Farm to Market Road 249 near Bloomburg and heads east to a junction with Highway 237 before a junction with US 71 near Doddridge; the route runs underneath Interstate 49. The route continues east, passing Gin City where it meets Highway 360, Conway Cemetery on the National Register of Historic Places, Highway 29 in Bradley. Highway 160 heads southeast around Lake Erling before forming a concurrency north with Highway 53 to Walker Creek; the route enters Columbia County near Taylor where it forms a 0.13 miles designated exception over US 371 before continuing northeast to Macedonia where it terminates at Highway 19.
Highway 160 begins at Highway 57 in Mount Holly in the northwest corner of Union County. The route runs northeast to a junction with Highway 7 outside Smackover before entering the city limits. Highway 160 terminates at Highway 7 Business near Smackover High School. Arkansas Highway 160 travels south until meeting AR 172, after which it begins to arrow east to join with US 63/AR 15; the merge continues until Hermitage, when AR 160 continues south past Vick. The route angles north towards Highway 8 in Johnsville. Beyond Johnsville, AR 160 becomes concurrent with AR 133 until Fountain Hill. Mile markers reset at some concurrencies. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 160 at Wikimedia Commons
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Waldo is a town in Columbia County, United States. The population was 1,372 at the 2010 census. Waldo celebrated its 120th year as a city in 2007; the small community was once a booming rail city on the Cotton Belt train route. The city has a rail museum with various displays showing its rail history; the city began to wane in population in the 1950s. Waldo was once home to the Waldo High School Bulldogs basketball teams; these teams made playoffs and on numerous occasions won the state championship. The legacy of Waldo School will carry on in the community despite its closing in 2005; the Waldo Water Tower, completed in 1936 by the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Waldo is located in northwestern Columbia County at 33°21′07″N 93°17′40″W. By U. S. Route 371 it is 7 miles northwest of the county seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all land. Waldo, located in South Arkansas near the northern Louisiana border, has a subtropical climate like that of the Bayou State and similar terrain.
The area is characterized by swamps. Most of the area in and about the city is covered with hardwood forests; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,594 people, 645 households, 425 families residing in the city. The population density was 720.4 people per square mile. There were 749 housing units at an average density of 338.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 39.77% White, 58.72% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.63% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. 1.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 645 households, of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 26.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,353, the median income for a family was $24,306. Males had a median income of $25,300 versus $17,212 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,170. About 30.6% of families and 34.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.2% of those under age 18 and 21.5% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 371 Arkansas Highway 98 The Magnolia School District, including Magnolia High School, serves the community; the Waldo School District consolidated into the Magnolia district on July 1, 2006. The Waldo district operated Waldo High School. Mujahid Abdul-Karim, imam of Masjid Al Rasul mosque in Watts, Los Angeles, leader of the Imam Mahdi Movement Algie D. Brown, member of the Louisiana House of Representatives Chris DeFrance, professional football player Travis Jackson, baseball shortstop.
Columbia County, Arkansas
Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,552; the county seat is Magnolia. The county was formed on December 17, 1852, was named for Christopher Columbus; the Magnolia, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Columbia County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 767 square miles, of which 766 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. Columbia County is in South Arkansas. Columbia County, along with Union County, is home to the largest Bromine reserve in the United States. Dorcheat Bayou flows through Columbia County from its origin in Nevada County southward into Webster Parish, before emptying into Lake Bistineau. Nevada County Ouachita County Union County Claiborne Parish, Louisiana Webster Parish, Louisiana Lafayette County As of the 2000 census, there were 25,603 people, 9,981 households, 6,747 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile.
There were 11,566 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.08% White, 36.06% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,981 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 12.30% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.90 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,640, the median income for a family was $36,271. Males had a median income of $31,313 versus $20,099 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,322. About 15.80% of families and 21.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.70% of those under age 18 and 20.00% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 371 Highway 19 Highway 98 Highway 160 Future Interstate 69 Magnolia Municipal Airport is a public-use airport in Columbia County, it is owned by the city of Magnolia and located three nautical miles southeast of its central business district. Magnolia Emerson McNeil Taylor Waldo Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research.
Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Columbia County are listed below. Emerson McNeil Magnolia Taylor Village Waldo List of lakes in Columbia County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Arkansas Columbia County Sheriff's Office
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol