Penny (United States coin)
The United States one-cent coin called the penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. The cent's symbol is ¢, its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010; the coin is 0.75 inches in diameter and 0.0598 inches in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production; the U. S. Mint's official name for the coin is "cent" and the U. S. Treasury's official name is "one cent piece"; the colloquial term penny derives from the British coin of the same name, the pre-decimal version of which had a similar place in the British system. In American English, pennies is the plural form. In the early 2010s the price of metal used to make pennies rose to a noticeable cost to the mint which peaked at a $0.02 for $0.01 ratio.
This pushed the mint to look for alternative metals again for the coin, brought the penny debate into more focus. There are no firm plans to eliminate the penny as arguments for and against the coin continue to be debated. In honor of Lincoln's 200th anniversary, special 2009 cents were minted for collectors in the same composition as the 1909 coins; the isotope composition of early coins spanning the period 1828 to 1843 reflects the copper from Cornish ores from England, while coins after 1850 reflect the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan ores, a finding consistent with historical records. In 1943, at the peak of World War II, zinc-coated steel cents were made for a short time because of war demands for copper. A few copper cents from 1943 were produced from the 1942 planchets remaining in the bins; some 1944 steel cents have been confirmed. From 1944 to 1946, salvaged ammunition shells made their way into the minting process, it was not uncommon to see coins featuring streaks of brass or having a darker finish than other issues.
During the early 1970s, the price of copper rose to the point where the cent contained one cent's worth of copper. This led the Mint to test alternative metals, including aluminum and bronze-clad steel. Aluminum was chosen, over 1.5 million of these pennies were struck and ready for public release before being rejected. The proposed aluminum pennies were rejected for two reasons: vending machine owners complained the coins would cause mechanical problems. One aluminum cent was donated to the Smithsonian Institution; the cent's composition was changed in 1982 because the value of the copper in the coin started to rise above one cent. Some 1982 pennies used the 97.5% zinc composition, while others used the 95% copper composition. With the exception of 2009 bicentennial cents minted for collectors, United States cents minted after 1982 have been zinc with copper plating. In Fiscal Year 2013, the average one-cent piece minted cost the U. S. Mint 1.83 cents, down from 2.41 cents apiece in FY 2011. The bronze and copper cents can be distinguished from the newer zinc cents by dropping the coins on a solid surface.
The predominantly zinc coins make a lower-pitched "clunk", while the copper coins produce a higher-pitched ringing sound. In addition, a full 50-cent roll of pre-1982/3 coins weighs 5.4 oz compared to a post-1982–83 roll which weighs 4.4 oz. Mintage figures for the penny can be found at United States cent mintage figures; the coin has gone through several designs over its two-hundred-year time frame. Until 1857 it was about the size of the current U. S. dollar coins. The following types of cents have been produced: Large cents: Flowing Hair Chain 1793 Flowing Hair Wreath 1793 Liberty Cap 1793–1796 Draped bust 1796–1807 Classic Head 1808–1814 Coronet 1816–1839 Braided Hair 1839–1857, 1868 Small cents: Flying Eagle cent Indian Head cent Lincoln cent Lincoln Wheat Lincoln Memorial Lincoln Bicentennial 4 reverse designs Lincoln Union Shield Throughout its history, the Lincoln cent has featured several typefaces for the date, but most of the digits have been old-style numerals, except with the 4 and 8 neither ascending nor descending.
The only significant divergence is that the small 3 was non-descending in the early history, before switching to a descending, large 3 for just one year in 1934 and permanently in 1943. The digit 5 was small and non-descending up to 1945 from 1950 and on, it became a large descending 5. From 1959 until 2008, the Lincoln Memorial was shown on the reverse of the United States cent; because the Lincoln Memorial was shown in sufficient detail to discern the statue of Lincoln on the reverse of cent, Abraham Lincoln was at that time the only person to be depicted on both the obverse and reverse of the same United States coin. In 1999, the New Jersey state quarter was released, which depicts George Washington on both sides, crossing the Delaware River on the reverse side and in profile on the obverse. (The state quarter for South Dakota, released in 2006 features Washington on both sides: the typical profile on the obverse, Washington within Mount Rushmore on the re
Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other
Aston Clinton is a historic village and civil parish in the Vale of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England. The village is at the foot of the Chiltern Hills, 2 miles from Weston Turville, 4 miles from Aylesbury and is bisected both at the northern end of the parish by the Aylesbury Arm and in the centre of the parish by the Wendover Arm stretch of the Grand Union Canal; the village lies between the market towns of Wendover. It is believed that the village started at the crossing of two Roman roads, Akeman Street and Icknield Way, both of which are still main roads in the village. After the fall of the Roman Empire, it became a Saxon settlement and remains of a Saxon cemetery were found during the construction of the Aston Clinton Bypass. Before the Norman conquest of England in 1066 the settlement was held under patronage of King Edward the Confessor; the village is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 where in Old English it was called Estone, which means "eastern estate". The manor to be known as Aston Clinton, was for a short period after 1100 under the control of Edward de Salisbury, King Henry I's standard-bearer.
In 1217 King Henry III gave it to Sir William de Farendon. However, by 1237 the manor was owned by the de Clinton family, hence the name at that time of Aston de Clinton. William de Clinton separated out from Aston Clinton to a new manor called Chivery as a dowry for his daughter Alice. Sometime after 1239, King Edward I granted the estates to the Montacutes, who were the ancestors of the Earls of Salisbury, their descendant the Countess of Salisbury was beheaded by King Henry VIII in 1541. Successive families have owned the manor, passing by marriage from the Hastings to the Barringtons, to Lord Lake of Aston Clinton to become Gerard Lake, 1st Viscount Lake. Composer and lutenist Daniel Bacheler was born in the village in 1572. On 22 September 1934, a twin-engined biplane named Youth of New Zealand of Sir Alan Cobham's National Aviation Displays, crashed into a field near the canal at Aston Clinton; the Youth of New Zealand had just departed from Heston Aerodrome after being refuelled when it crashed, killing all four crew.
The probable cause was the failure of a bolt through metal fatigue. The modern parish of Aston Clinton was created in 1934. Of the other medieval manors:- Dundridge. Dundridge manor became part of the ecclesiastical parish of St Leonards which has itself since 1934 become part of the parish of Cholesbury-cum-St Leonards. Aston Clinton Civil Parish is bordered by other civil parishes to the: North by: Bierton with Broughton, Hulcott & Tring Rural East by: Buckland South by: Cholesbury-cum-St Leonards & Wendover West by: Halton & Weston Turville St. Michael and All Angels parish church dates from the 13th and 14th centuries; the car manufacturer Aston Martin took one part of its name from the village combining it with that of its co-founder Lionel Martin. It had great success in the Aston Clinton Hillclimb competition up nearby Aston Hill. A plaque now marks the site. There are many historic buildings with listed status in Aston Clinton including Anthony Hall, a concert hall situated in the centre of the village, donated to the community by the widow of Anthony Nathan de Rothschild.
To the south-east of the village in Green Park was the former Aston Clinton House. Aston Clinton School is a primary school that takes pupils between the ages of 4 and 11; the school has 275 pupils. The school badge includes the five arrows from the Rothschild coat of arms, because the family built the first schools in the village; the village is home to the picturesque Chiltern Forest Golf Club, nearby to Weston Turville Golf Club. The village was used as a filming location for the 1962 film Lolita; the TV programme Hotel Babylon was filmed in Aston Clinton. Rock band Marillion were formed in the village in 1979 as Silmarillion. Australian Formula One driver Mark Webber lists Aston Clinton as his home in England where he lives with his partner Ann Neal; the BAFTA and Oscar winning special effects make-up artistDavid Malinowski lives in the village. Aston Clinton Household Recycling Centre opened in 2009 and was built to the north of the village off the A41 Aston Clinton bypass. In 2011 a new industrial park opened in Aston Clinton called Halton Brook Business Park and developed by Horstonbridge Development Management which replaced an old dairy, demolished in 2006, that once stood in the same location.
Two companies occupy Halton Brook, Zethon & DeSoutter Medical. According to the 2001 census there are 1,402 households in Aston Clinton with a Population of 3,542: 1,725 males and 1,817 females. In accordance with the government plans to boost housing supply, due to the rising population, there has been an increase in new housing developments in Aston Clinton: The Burnhams, Stratford Close, 28 flats near the surgery, four detached houses to the south of London Road Pavilion Gardens and The Willows. Aston Clinton is located at the northern edge of the Chiltern Hills, Buckinghamshire, to the east of Aylesbury; the A41 Aston Clinton bypass opened on the 3 October 2003. Several bus routes serve the village with connections to Aylesbury, Leighton Buzzard and Luton operated by Arriva, Redline Buses and Red Kite Buses. Aston Clinton House St Michael and All Angels Church, Aston Clinton Buckinghamshire Aylesbury Vale Aylesbury British History Online – The parishes of Aylesbury hundred: Aston Clinton Brit
Midnight Cowboy is a 1969 American buddy drama film. Based on the 1965 novel of the same name by James Leo Herlihy, the film was written by Waldo Salt, directed by John Schlesinger, stars Jon Voight and Dustin Hoffman, with notable smaller roles being filled by Sylvia Miles, John McGiver, Brenda Vaccaro, Bob Balaban, Jennifer Salt, Barnard Hughes. Set in New York City, Midnight Cowboy depicts the unlikely friendship between two hustlers: naive prostitute Joe Buck, ailing con man "Ratso" Rizzo; the film won three Academy Awards: Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay. Midnight Cowboy is the only X-rated film to win Best Picture, was the first LGBT Best Picture winner, it has since been placed 36th on the American Film Institute's list of the 100 greatest American films of all time, 43rd on its 2007 updated version. In 1994, Midnight Cowboy was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.
Joe Buck, a young Texan working as a dishwasher, quits his job and heads to New York City to become a prostitute. Unsuccessful, he manages to bed a middle-aged New York woman in her posh apartment, but the encounter ends badly: he gives her money after she is insulted and throws a tantrum when he requests payment. Joe meets Enrico Salvatore "Ratso" Rizzo, a con man with a limp who takes $20 from him by ostensibly introducing him to a pimp. After discovering that the man is an unhinged religious fanatic, Joe flees in pursuit of Ratso but cannot find him. Joe spends his days sitting in his hotel room. Soon broke, he is locked out of his hotel room and his belongings are impounded. Joe tries to make money by receiving oral sex from a young man in a movie theater, but learns after the fact that the young man has no money. Joe threatens him and asks for his watch, but lets him go unharmed; the next day, Joe angrily shakes him down. Ratso offers to share the apartment in a condemned building. Joe reluctantly accepts his offer, they begin a "business relationship" as hustlers.
As they develop a bond, Ratso's health grows worse. In a flashback, Joe's grandmother raises him, he has a tragic relationship with Annie, a mentally unstable girl. Ratso tells Joe his father was an illiterate Italian immigrant shoeshiner whose job led to a bad back and lung damage from long-term exposure to shoe polish. Ratso learned shoeshining from his father but considers it demeaning and refuses to do it. Ratso harbors hopes of moving to Miami, shown in daydreams in which he and Joe frolic carefree on a beach and are surrounded by dozens of adoring middle-aged women. An eccentric man and woman approach Joe in a diner and give him a flyer inviting him to a Warhol-esque party. Joe mistakes starts to hallucinate after taking several long puffs, he leaves the party with Shirley, a socialite who agrees to pay him $20 for spending the night, but Joe cannot perform sexually. They play Scribbage together and the resulting wordplay leads Shirley to suggest that Joe may be gay; the next morning, she sets up her friend as Joe's next client and it appears that his career is taking off.
When Joe returns home, Ratso is feverish. He begs Joe to put him on a bus to Florida. Desperate, Joe picks up a man in an amusement arcade and robs him during a violent encounter in the man's hotel room where Joe brutally beats the man. Joe buys bus tickets with the money. During the trip, Ratso's health deteriorates further: he becomes incontinent and sweat-drenched. At a rest stop, Joe discards his cowboy outfit. On the bus, Joe muses that there must be easier ways to earn a living than hustling, tells Ratso he plans to get a regular job in Florida; when Ratso fails to respond, Joe realizes that he has died. The driver tells Joe there is nothing to do but continue to Miami and asks Joe to close Ratso's eyelids. Joe, with tears welling in his eyes, sits with his arm around his dead friend; the opening scenes were filmed in Texas. A roadside billboard, stating "IF YOU DON'T HAVE AN OIL WELL... GET ONE!" was shown as the New York-bound bus carrying Joe Buck rolled through Texas. Such advertisements, common in the Southwestern United States in the late 1960s and through the 1970s, promoted Eddie Chiles's Western Company of North America.
In the film, Joe stays at the Hotel Claridge, at the southeast corner of Broadway and West 44th Street in Midtown Manhattan. His room overlooked the northern half of Times Square; the building, designed by D. H. Burnham & Company and opened in 1911, was demolished in 1972. A motif featured three times throughout the New York scenes was the sign at the top of the facade of the Mutual of New York Building at 1740 Broadway, it was extended into the Scribbage scene with Shirley the socialite, when Joe's incorrect spelling of the word "money" matched that of the signage. Despite his portrayal of Joe Buck, a character hopelessly out of his element in New York, Jon Voight is a native New Yorker, hailing from Yonkers. Dustin Hoffman, who played a grizzled veteran of New York's streets, is from Los Angeles. Voight was paid "scale", or the Screen Actors Guild minimum wage, for his portrayal of Joe Buck, a concession he willingly made to obtain the part; the line "I'm walkin' her
Mouawad is a held Swiss and Emirati luxury goods, vertically integrated company that makes High Jewelry, retail company that sources diamonds and gemstones, designs and sells jewelry collections, objects of art, luxury watches. The firm has headquarters in Geneva, with a Middle East headquarters at Jumeirah Lakes Towers in Dubai. Founded in 1891 in Beirut, Lebanon by David Mouawad, the firm is now led by 4th generation co-guardians Fred Mouawad, Alain Mouawad and Pascal Mouawad; the firm's jewelry and watch design and manufacturing divisions are located in Switzerland and Asia Pacific. The Mouawad Company and brand began with David Mouawad who spent more than two decades in New York City and Mexico learning the craft of watchmaker and jeweler before returning to Beirut in 1891, he opened a small shop in Beirut in 1908 where he combined the trade of watch and jewelry repairs, with his passion for creating intricate clocks and fashioning one-of-a-kind pieces commissioned by wealthy clients. His son Fayez Mouawad expanded the business in the 1950s.
He was able to capitalize on the Middle East's increased oil wealth by making personalized jewelry for people in the area. As jeweler to kings and the aristocracy, Fayez fashioned outstanding pieces and unique creations commemorating important state events; the firm moved into the worldwide market under Fayez's son Robert Mouawad. He had studied in Europe to become a doctor but returned after being convinced by his father to join the family business, he started as a salesman with Mouawad in order to learn the business from the ground up entering into an agreement with his father to take over the business as the sole president. In the early 1970s, Robert moved the headquarters to Switzerland, he took many risks with the firm by purchasing some of the world's largest diamonds. He expanded the brand into Europe and North America and began producing watches in the early 1990s. He’s contributed to the jewelry education and research through support of the Gemological Institute of America whose campus in Carlsbad, California is named in his honor.
Robert Mouawad acquired a historical residence in Beirut, Lebanon to host his collections of fine arts and antique pieces, in 2006 established the Robert Mouawad Private Museum for his collections of books, architectural elements, ancient weapons, jewelry, objets d'art and rare precious stones. In 2010, Robert Mouawad left the firm to focus on his real estate group, the Robert Mouawad Foundation, his museum, he retired on January 1, 2010, the company was led by his sons Fred Mouawad and Pascal Mouawad. Alain Mouawad joined to head up the watch division in January 2013. Over the years the Mouawad family has acquired a collection of diamonds, one of the world's finest in private hands. A good number of the largest diamonds in existence take their place among the gems in the collection; these diamonds include the Ahmedabad, a pear shaped diamond that weighs 78.86 carats with a D-VS1 Grade. Mouawad is the owner of the Indore Pears. In January 1925, armed men attacked a car in Bombay, being driven by an official of the Bombay Corporation.
The passenger in the vehicle was a young Muslim woman, the subject of the attack. The official was killed and four British officers came to the aid of the woman. Robbery was not the motive for this crime as the young woman was believed to be a dancer at the Court of Tukoji Rao III; the woman escaped from being a concubine and the murder was believed to be retaliation. It was agreed that the crime on Malabar Hill could not be ignored: Mumtaz Begum had recognized her assailants as an aide-de-camp of the Maharajah and members of the Indore army and mounted police; the Maharajah's involvement in the crime was never made public but he was asked either to appear at the subsequent official inquiry or abdicate in favor of his son. In the following year he chose the latter course. While traveling in Switzerland after his abdication, he met a rich young American. Amid much publicity the couple married in 1928; the bride embraced the Hindu religion and subsequently became known as the Maharanee Shamista Davi Holkar.
In 1946 Harry Winston bought the two pear-shaped diamonds, weighing 46.95 and 46.70 carats, which the Maharanee had worn on many occasions. The diamonds were purchased several times throughout the years until they were purchased by Robert Mouawad in 1987; the Queen of Holland diamond is another in the Mouawad collection. Its origin is unknown, it was first cut in 1904 by F. Freidman & Co. who made it a cushion-cut and named it after Queen Wihelmina of the Netherlands, incorrectly referred to as Holland. The diamond was re-cut sometime after the 1960s into its current weight of 135.92 carats. It is judged to be'D' color by the Gemological Institute of America; this diamond was formerly owned by William Goldberg. Mouawad is the owner of the Jubilee Diamond; the Jubilee Diamond was known as the Reitz Diamond and is a colourless, cushion-shaped diamond weighing 245.35 carats. It is the sixth largest diamond in the world and named after Francis William Reitz, the president of the Orange Free State at the time the diamond was discovered in the area.
The Jubilee is the largest diamond in the Mouawad collection. The Mouawad Liliac is considered one of the top ten pink diamonds in the world and is owned by Mouawad; the Mouawad Lilac weighs 24.44 carat. It is an emera
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was a British-American actress and humanitarian. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s, was one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the 1950s, she continued her career into the 1960s, remained a well-known public figure for the rest of her life. In 1999, the American Film Institute named her the seventh-greatest female screen legend. Born in London to wealthy prominent American parents, Taylor moved with her family to Los Angeles in 1939, she was soon given a film contract by Universal Pictures, she made her screen debut in a minor role in There's One Born Every Minute, but Universal terminated her contract after a year. Taylor was signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, had her breakthrough role in National Velvet, becoming one of the studio's most popular teenaged stars, she made the transition to adult roles in the early 1950s, when she starred in the comedy Father of the Bride and received critical acclaim for her performance in the drama A Place in the Sun.
Despite being one of MGM's most bankable stars, Taylor wished to end her career in the early 1950s. She disliked many of the films to which she was assigned, she began receiving roles she enjoyed more in the mid-1950s, beginning with the epic drama Giant, starred in several critically and commercially successful films in the following years. These included two film adaptations of plays by Tennessee Williams: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Suddenly, Last Summer. Although she disliked her role as a call girl in BUtterfield 8, her last film for MGM, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. Taylor was paid a then-record-breaking $1 million to play the title role in the historical epic Cleopatra, the most expensive film made up to that point. During the filming, Taylor and co-star Richard Burton began an extramarital affair, which caused a scandal. Despite public disapproval and Burton continued their relationship and were married in 1964. Dubbed "Liz and Dick" by the media, they starred in 11 films together, including The V.
I. P.s, The Sandpiper, The Taming of the Shrew, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. Taylor received the best reviews of her career for Woolf, winning her second Academy Award and several other awards for her performance, she and Burton divorced in 1974, but reconciled soon after, remarried in 1975. The second marriage ended in divorce in 1976. Taylor's acting career began to decline in the late 1960s, although she continued starring in films until the mid-1970s, after which she focused on supporting the career of her sixth husband, Senator John Warner. In the 1980s, she acted in her first substantial stage roles and in several television films and series, became the first celebrity to launch a perfume brand. Taylor was one of the first celebrities to take part in HIV/AIDS activism, she co-founded the American Foundation for AIDS Research in 1985, the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation in 1991. From the early 1990s until her death, she dedicated her time to philanthropy, for which she received several accolades, including the Presidential Citizens Medal.
Throughout her career, Taylor's personal life was the subject of constant media attention. She was married eight times to seven men, endured several serious illnesses, led a jet set lifestyle, including assembling one of the most expensive private collections of jewelry in the world. After many years of ill health, Taylor died from congestive heart failure in 2011, at the age of 79. Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born on February 27, 1932, at Heathwood, her family's home on 8 Wildwood Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, she received dual British-American citizenship at birth, as her parents, art dealer Francis Lenn Taylor and retired stage actress Sara Sothern, were United States citizens, both from Arkansas City, Kansas. They moved to London in 1929, opened an art gallery on Bond Street; the family led a privileged life in London during Taylor's childhood. Their social circle included artists such as Augustus John and Laura Knight, politicians such as Colonel Victor Cazalet. Cazalet was Taylor's unofficial godfather, an important influence in her early life.
She was enrolled in Byron House, a Montessori school in Highgate, was raised according to the teachings of Christian Science, the religion of her mother and Cazalet. In early 1939, the Taylor decided to return to the United States due to fear of impending war in Europe. United States ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy contacted Francis and encouraged him to return to the US with his family. Sara and the children left first in April 1939 aboard the ocean liner SS Manhattan, moved in with Taylor's maternal grandfather in Pasadena, California. Francis stayed behind to close the London gallery, joined them in December. In early 1940, he opened a new gallery in Los Angeles, after living in Pacific Palisades with the Chapman family, the family settled in Beverly Hills, where Taylor and her brother were enrolled in Hawthorne School. In California, Taylor's mother was told that her daughter should audition for films. Taylor's eyes in particular drew attention. Sara was opposed to Taylor appearing in films, but after the outbreak of war in Europe made return there unlikely, she began to view the film industry as a way of assimilatin