The nine-banded armadillo, or the nine-banded, long-nosed armadillo, is a medium-sized mammal found in North and South America, making it the most widespread of the armadillos. Its ancestors originated in South America, remained there until the formation of the Isthmus of Panama allowed them to enter North America as part of the Great American Interchange; the nine-banded armadillo is a solitary nocturnal animal, found in many kinds of habitats, from mature and secondary rainforests to grassland and dry scrub. It is an insectivore, feeding chiefly on ants and other small invertebrates; the armadillo can jump 3–4 ft straight in the air if sufficiently frightened, making it a particular danger on roads. It is the state small mammal of Texas; the nine-banded armadillo evolved in a warm, rainy environment, is still most found in regions resembling its ancestral home. As a adaptable animal, though, it can be found in scrublands, open prairies, tropical rainforests, it cannot thrive in cold or dry environments, as its large surface area, not well insulated by fat, makes it susceptible to heat and water loss.
The nine-banded armadillo has been expanding its range both north and east within the United States, where it is the only occurring species of armadillo. The armadillo crossed the Rio Grande from Mexico in the late 19th century, was introduced in Florida at about the same time by humans. By 1995, the species had become well established in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida, had been sighted as far afield as Kansas, Tennessee and South Carolina. A decade the armadillo had become established in all of those areas and continued its migration, being sighted as far north as southern Nebraska, southern Illinois, southern Indiana; the primary cause of this rapid expansion is explained by the species having few natural predators within the United States, little desire on the part of Americans to hunt or eat the armadillo, the animals' high reproductive rate. The northern expansion of the armadillo is expected to continue until the species reaches as far north as Ohio, New Jersey and Connecticut, all points southward on the East Coast of the United States.
Further northward and westward expansion will be limited by the armadillo's poor tolerance of harsh winters, due to its lack of insulating fat and its inability to hibernate. As of 2009, newspaper reports indicated the nine-banded armadillo seems to have expanded its range northward as far as Omaha, Nebraska in the west, Kentucky Dam and Evansville, Indiana, in the east. In 1995, armadillos were only seen in the southern tip of South Carolina, within two to three years, they had swept across most of the state. In late 2009, North Carolina began considering the establishment of a hunting season for armadillo, following reports that the species has been moving into the southern reaches of the state. Outside the United States, the nine-banded armadillo ranges southward through Central and South America into northern Argentina and Uruguay, where it is still expanding its range. Nine-banded armadillos are insectivores, they forage for meals by thrusting their snouts into loose soil and leaf litter and frantically digging in erratic patterns, stopping to dig up grubs, ants and worms, which their sensitive noses can detect through 8 in of soil.
They lap up the insects with their sticky tongues. Nine-banded armadillos have been observed to roll about on ant hills to dislodge and consume the resident ants, they supplement their diets with amphibians and small reptiles in more wintery months when such prey tends to be more sluggish, bird eggs and baby mammals. Carrion is eaten, although the species is most attracted to the maggots borne by carcasses rather than the meat itself. Less than 10% of the diet of this species is composed by nonanimal matter, though fungi, tubers and seeds are eaten. Nine-banded armadillos weigh from 2.5–6.5 kg, though the largest specimens can scale up to 10 kg. They are one of the largest species of armadillos. Head and body length is 38–58 cm, which combines with the 26–53 cm tail, for a total length of 64–107 cm, they stand 15–25 cm tall at the top of the shell. The outer shell is composed of ossified dermal scutes covered by nonoverlapping, keratinized epidermal scales, which are connected by flexible bands of skin.
This armor covers the back, head and outside surfaces of the legs. The underside of the body and the inner surfaces of the legs have no armored protection. Instead, they are covered by a layer of coarse hair; the vertebrae attach to the carapace. The claws on the middle toes of the forefeet are elongated for digging, though not to the same degree as those of the much larger giant armadillo of South America, their low metabolic rate and poor thermoregulation make them best suited for semitropical environments. Unlike the South American three-banded armadillos, the nine-banded armadillo cannot roll itself into a ball, it is, capable of floating across rivers by inflating its intestines, or by sinking and running across riverbeds. The second is possible due to its ability to hold its breath for up to six minutes, an adaptation developed for allowing the animal to keep its snout submerged in soil for extended periods while foraging. Although nine is the typical number of bands on the nine-banded arma
Eastern diamondback rattlesnake
Crotalus adamanteus called the eastern diamondback rattlesnake, among other names, is a species of venomous pit viper in the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to the southeastern United States, it is the heaviest, though not the longest, venomous snake in the Americas and the largest rattlesnake. No subspecies are recognized. C. adamanteus is the largest rattlesnake species and is the heaviest known species of venomous snake, with one specimen shot in 1946 measuring 7.8 ft in length and weighing 15.4 kg. However, other venomous snakes may rival this species in weight; the much longer but more slender king cobra is greater in average body mass if not maximum weight, the shorter but bulkier Gaboon viper could exceed the eastern diamondback rattlesnake in both mean adult body mass and even maximum body mass. Maximum reported lengths for the eastern diamondback rattlesnake are 8 ft and 8.25 ft. However, the stated maximum sizes have been called into question due to a lack of voucher specimens.
Males are larger than females. Specimens over 7 ft are well documented. Klauber included a letter he received from E. Ross Allen in 1953, in which Allen explains how for years he offered a reward of $100, $200, for an 8 ft specimen, dead or alive; the reward was never claimed. He did receive a number of 7 ft range specimens and some 8 ft skins, but said such skins can be taken from specimens as short as 6 ft. A 7.3 ft specimen was caught and killed outside a neighborhood in St. Augustine, Florida in September 2009; the average size is much less. Specimens are found under 1 foot in length. Lengths of 3.5 to 5.5 ft, 2.75 to 6 ft are given. One study found an average length of 5.6 ft based on 43 females. The average body mass is 2.3 kg. The average weight of 9 laboratory-kept specimens was 2.55 kg, with a range of 0.8 to 4.9 kg. Few specimens can exceed 5.12 kg. The scalation includes 25–31 rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 165–176/170–187 ventral scales in males/females and 27–33/20–26 subcaudal scales in males/females, respectively.
On the head, the rostral scale is higher than contacts two internasal scales. There are 10 -- 21 scales in 5 -- 11 intersupraocular scales. There are two loreal scales between preoculars and the postnasal. There are 12–17 supralabial scales, the first of, in broad contact with the prenasal, 15–21 sublabial scales; the color pattern consists of a brownish, brownish-yellow, brownish-gray or olive ground color, overlaid with a series of 24–35 dark brown to black diamonds with lighter centers. Each of these diamond-shaped blotches is outlined with a row of yellowish scales. Posteriorly, the diamond shapes become more like crossbands and are followed by 5–10 bands around the tail; the belly is a cream-colored, with diffused, dark mottling along the sides. The head has a dark postocular stripe that extends from behind the eye backwards and downwards to the lip. Anteriorly and posteriorly, the postocular stripe is bordered by distinct yellow stripes. Common names for C. adamanteus include eastern diamondback rattlesnake, eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, eastern diamondback, diamond rattlesnake, diamond-back rattlesnake, common rattlesnake, diamond-back, diamond rattler, eastern diamond-back, eastern diamond rattlesnake, Florida diamond-back, Florida rattlesnake, lozenge-spotted rattlesnake, rattlesnake, southeastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, southeastern diamond-backed rattler, southern woodland rattler, water rattle, water rattlesnake, diamondback rattlesnake.
C. adamanteus is found in the southeastern United States from southeastern North Carolina, south along the coastal plain through peninsular Florida to the Florida Keys, west along the Gulf Coast through southern Alabama and Mississippi to southeastern Louisiana. The original description for the species does not include a type locality, although Schmidt proposed it be restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina"; the species C. adamanteus is classified as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. Species are listed as such due to their wide distribution, presumed large population, or because they are unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category; the population trend was down when assessed in 2007. In North Carolina, C. adamanteus is protected by state law and considered endangered within the state. It is extirpated in Louisiana, having last been observed there in 1995. In fact some scientists and conservationists believe it may be extirpated in North Carolina.
This species is under review for being added to the Endangered Species List by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service due to its recent decline, the current population represents only 3% of the historical population. C. adamanteus inhabits upland dry pine forest and palmetto flatwoods and coastal maritime hammocks, longleaf pine/turkey oak habitats, grass-sedge marshes and swamp forest, cypress swamps, mesic hammocks, sandy mixed woodlands, xeric hammocks, salt marshes, as well as wet prairies during dry periods. In many areas, it seems to use burrows made by gophers and gopher tortoises during the summer and winter. C. adamanteus shelters by tunneling in gopher and tortoise burrows, emerging in the early morning or afternoon t
The peach is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a nectarine; the specific name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, from where it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot and plum, in the rose family; the peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Due to their close relatedness, the inside of a peach stone tastes remarkably similar to almond, peach stones are used to make a cheap version of marzipan, known as persipan. Peaches and nectarines are the same species though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes.
China alone produced 58% of the world's total for peaches and nectarines in 2016. Prunus persica grows up to 7 m wide. However, when pruned properly, trees are 3–4 m tall and wide; the leaves are lanceolate, 7 -- 16 cm long, 2 -- pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; the fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, a skin, either velvety or smooth in different cultivars. The flesh is delicate and bruised in some cultivars, but is firm in some commercial varieties when green; the single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped 1.3–2 cm long, is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries and apricots, are stone fruits. There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian Peach, or Indian Blood Peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer, can have color ranging from red and white, to purple. Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this varies greatly.
Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars; the scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple" becoming French pêche, whence the English peach; the scientific name, Prunus persica means "Persian plum", as it is related to the plum. Fossil endocarps with characteristics indistinguishable from those of modern peaches have been recovered from late Pliocene deposits in Kunming, dating to 2.6 million years ago. In the absence of evidence that the plants were in other ways identical to the modern peach, the name Prunus kunmingensis has been assigned to these fossils. Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the neolithic period.
Until it was believed that the cultivation started c. 2000 BC. More recent evidence indicates that domestication occurred as early as 6000 BC in Zhejiang Province of China; the oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao site. Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where the early selection for favorable peach varieties took place. Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early 1st millennium BC. A domesticated peach appeared early in Japan, in 4700–4400 BC, during the Jōmon period, it was similar to modern cultivated forms, where the peach stones are larger and more compressed than earlier stones. This domesticated type of peach was brought into Japan from China. In China itself, this variety is attested only at a date of c. 3300 to 2300 BC. In India, the peach first appeared during the Harappan period, it is found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times. Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC, it is claimed that Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians, although there is no historical evidence for this belief.
Peaches were, well known to the Romans in the 1st century AD, were cultivated in Emilia-Romagna. Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples; the peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. The horticulturist George Minifie brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buc
The longleaf pine is a pine native to the Southeastern United States, found along the coastal plain from East Texas to southern Maryland, extending into northern and central Florida. It reaches a height of 30–35 m and a diameter of 0.7 m. In the past, before extensive logging, they grew to 47 m with a diameter of 1.2 m. The tree is a cultural symbol of the Southern United States, being the official state tree of Alabama and the unofficial state tree of North Carolina; the bark is thick, reddish-brown, scaly. The leaves are dark green and needle-like, occur in bundles of three, they are twisted and 20–45 cm in length. It is one of the two Southeastern U. S. pines with long needles, the other being slash pine. The cones, both female seed cones and male pollen cones, are initiated during the growing season before buds emerge. Pollen cones begin forming in their buds in July, while seed conelets are formed during a short period of time in August. Pollination occurs early the following spring, with the male cones 3–8 cm long.
The female cones mature in about 20 months from pollination. The seeds are 7–9 mm long, with a 25–40 mm wing. Longleaf pine may live to be 500 years old; when young, they grow a long taproot, 2–3 m long. They grow on well-drained sandy soil, characteristically in pure stands. Longleaf pine is known as being one of several species grouped as a southern yellow pine or longleaf yellow pine, in the past as pitch pine; the species epithet palustris is Latin for "of the marsh" and indicates its common habitat. The scientific name meaning "of marshes" is a misunderstanding on the part of Philip Miller, who described the species, after seeing longleaf pine forests with temporary winter flooding. Longleaf pine is pyrophytic. Periodic natural wildfire selects for this species by killing other trees, leading to open longleaf pine forests or savannas. New seedlings do not resemble a dark-green fountain of needles; this form is called the grass stage. During this stage, which lasts for 5–12 years, vertical growth is slow, the tree may take a number of years to grow ankle high.
After that, it makes a growth spurt if no tree canopy is above it. In the grass stage, it is resistant to low intensity fires because the terminal bud is protected from lethal heating by the packed needles. While immune to fire at this stage, the plant is quite appealing to feral pigs. Longleaf pine forests are rich in biodiversity, they are well-documented for their high levels of plant diversity, in groups including sedges, carnivorous plants, orchids. These forests provide habitat for gopher tortoises, which as keystone species, dig burrows that provide habitat for hundreds of other species of animals; the red-cockaded woodpecker is dependent on mature pine forests and is now endangered as a result of this decline. Longleaf pine seeds are large and nutritious, forming a significant food source for birds and other wildlife. Nine salamander species and 26 frog species are characteristic of pine savannas, along with 56 species of reptiles, 13 of which could be considered specialists on this habitat.
The Red Hills Region of Florida and Georgia is home to some of the best-preserved stands of longleaf pines. These forests have been burned for many decades to encourage bobwhite quail habitat in private hunting plantations. Vast forests of longleaf pine once were present along the southeastern Atlantic coast and Gulf Coast of North America, as part of the eastern savannas; these forests were the source of naval stores - resin and timber - needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. They have been cutover since for timber and replaced with faster-growing loblolly pine and slash pine, for agriculture, for urban and suburban development. Due to this deforestation and overharvesting, only about 3% of the original longleaf pine forest remains, little new is planted. Longleaf pine is available, however, at many nurseries within its range; the yellow, resinous wood is used for pulp. Boards cut years ago from virgin timber were wide, up to 1 m, a thriving salvage business obtains these boards from demolition projects to be reused as flooring in upscale homes.
The long needles are popular for use in the ancient craft of coiled basket making. The stumps and taproots of old trees become will not rot. Farmers sometimes find old buried stumps in fields in some that were cleared a century ago, these are dug up and sold as fatwood, "fat lighter", or "lighter wood", in demand as kindling for fireplaces, wood stoves, barbecue pits. In old-growth pine, the heartwood of the bole is saturated in the same way; when boards are cut from the fat lighter wood, they are heavy and will not rot, but buildings constructed of them are quite flammable and make hot fires. Th
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz, metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, become hard and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties; the distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists use 4–5 μm, colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg limits. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 silt particles as being larger. Mixtures of sand and less than 40% clay are called loam. Loam is used as a building material. Clay minerals form over long periods of time as a result of the gradual chemical weathering of rocks silicate-bearing, by low concentrations of carbonic acid and other diluted solvents; these solvents acidic, migrate through the weathering rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the weathering process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of clay deposits: secondary. Primary clays remain at the site of formation. Secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with low energy depositional environments such as large lakes and marine basins.
Depending on the academic source, there are three or four main groups of clays: kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a separate group within the phyllosilicates. There are 30 different types of "pure" clays in these categories, but most "natural" clay deposits are mixtures of these different types, along with other weathered minerals. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by seasonal deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion and organic content; this type of deposit is common in former glacial lakes. When fine sediments are delivered into the calm waters of these glacial lake basins away from the shoreline, they settle to the lake bed; the resulting seasonal layering is preserved in an distribution of clay sediment banding. Quick clay is a unique type of marine clay indigenous to the glaciated terrains of Norway, Northern Ireland, Sweden, it is a sensitive clay, prone to liquefaction, involved in several deadly landslides.
Powder X-ray diffraction can be used to identify clays. The physical and reactive chemical properties can be used to help elucidate the composition of clays. Clays exhibit plasticity. However, when dry, clay becomes firm and when fired in a kiln, permanent physical and chemical changes occur; these changes convert the clay into a ceramic material. Because of these properties, clay is used for making pottery, both utilitarian and decorative, construction products, such as bricks and floor tiles. Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware and porcelain. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay; some of the earliest pottery shards recovered are from Japan. They are associated with the Jōmon culture and deposits they were recovered from have been dated to around 14,000 BC. Clay tablets were the first known writing medium. Scribes wrote by inscribing them with cuneiform script using a blunt reed called a stylus. Purpose-made clay balls were used as sling ammunition.
Clays sintered in fire were the first form of ceramic. Bricks, cooking pots, art objects, smoking pipes, musical instruments such as the ocarina can all be shaped from clay before being fired. Clay is used in many industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production, chemical filtering; until the late 20th century, bentonite clay was used as a mold binder in the manufacture of sand castings. Clay, being impermeable to water, is used where natural seals are needed, such as in the cores of dams, or as a barrier in landfills against toxic seepage. Studies in the early 21st century have investigated clay's absorption capacities in various applications, such as the removal of heavy metals from waste water and air purification. Traditional uses of clay as medicine goes back to prehistoric times. An example is Armenian bole, used to soothe an upset stomach; some animals such as parrots and pigs ingest clay for similar reasons. Kaolin clay and attapulgite have been used as anti-diarrheal medicines.
Clay as the defining ingredient of loam is one of the oldest building materials on Earth, among other
ACF River Basin
The ACF River Basin is the drainage basin, or watershed, of the Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee River, Flint River, in the Southeastern United States. This area is alternatively known as the Apalachicola Basin and is listed by the United States Geological Survey as basin HUC 031300, as well as sub-region HUC 0313, it is located in the South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region, listed as HUC 03. The basin is further sub-divided into 14 sub-basins; the ACF River Basin begins in the mountains of northeast Georgia, drains much of metro Atlanta, most of west Georgia and southwest Georgia and adjoining counties of southeast Alabama, before it splits the central part of the Florida Panhandle and flows into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachicola Bay, near Apalachicola, Florida. It drains an area of 20,355 square miles. Most of the northern half of the basin abuts the Eastern Continental Divide on the east, the ACT River Basin to the west; these states and Alabama have been involved in a water-use dispute for two decades, known as the Tri-state water dispute.
Georgia has lobbied the United States Congress to end navigation on the Appalachicola and lower Chattahoochee, to conserve more water during droughts. Keeping the two rivers at a navigable depth during these times requires large releases from dams upstream, sending potential drinking water downstream for shipping, dropping lakes to levels dangerous to boaters. Other ecological conservation and economic concerns include protecting harvests of oysters in Apalachicola Bay, which require a large enough flow of fresh water to prevent excessive saltwater intrusion from the Gulf. Numerous endangered and imperiled species occur in the basin, including many endemic mussels The cost of dredging silt, much of it from uncontrolled growth across metro Atlanta's fine red clay soil, has been called wasteful to float so little ship traffic. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: ACF Basin website Florida DEP: Apalachicola River Watershed
Agkistrodon contortrix is a species of venomous snake endemic to Eastern North America, a member of the subfamily Crotalinae. The common name for this species is the copperhead; the behavior of Agkistrodon contortrix may lead to accidental encounters with humans. Five subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here. Adults grow to an average length of 50–95 cm; some may exceed 1 m, although, exceptional for this species. Males are larger than females. Good-sized adult males do not exceed 74 to 76 cm, females do not exceed 60 to 66 cm. In one study, males were found to weigh from 101.5 to 343 g, with a mean of 197.4 g. According to a different study, females have a mean body mass of 119.8 g. The maximum length reported. Brimley mentions a specimen of A. c. mokasen from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, "four feet, six inches", but this may have been an approximation. The maximum length for A. c. contortrix is 132.1 cm. The body is stout and the head is broad and distinct from the neck.
Because the snout slopes down and back, it appears less blunt than that of the cottonmouth, A. piscivorus. The top of the head extends further forward than the mouth; the scalation includes 21–25 rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 138–157 ventral scales in both sexes and 38–62/37–57 subcaudal scales in males/females. The subcaudals are single, but the percentage thereof decreases clinally from the northeast, where about 80% are undivided, to the southwest of the geographic range where as little as 50% may be undivided. On the head there are 9 large symmetrical plates, 6–10 supralabial scales and 8–13 sublabial scales; the color pattern consists of a pale tan to pinkish tan ground color that becomes darker towards the foreline, overlaid with a series of 10–18 crossbands. Characteristically, both the ground color and crossband pattern are pale in A. c. contortrix. These crossbands are light tan to pinkish tan to pale brown in the center, but darker towards the edges, they are about 2 scales wide or less at the midline of the back, but expand to a width of 6–10 scales on the sides of the body.
They do not extend down to the ventral scales. The crossbands are divided at the midline and alternate on either side of the body, with some individuals having more half bands than complete ones. A series of dark brown spots is present on the flanks, next to the belly, are largest and darkest in the spaces between the crossbands; the belly may be a little whitish in part. At the base of the tail there are 1–3 brown crossbands followed by a gray area. In juveniles, the pattern on the tail is more distinct: 7–9 crossbands are visible, while the tip is yellow. On the head, the crown is unmarked, except for a pair of small dark spots, one near the midline of each parietal scale. A faint postocular stripe is present. Several aberrant color patterns for A. c. contortrix, or populations that intergrade with it, have been reported. In a specimen described by Livezey from Walker County, Texas, 11 of 17 crossbands were not joined middorsally, while on one side three of the crossbands were fused together longitudinally to form a continuous undulating band, surmounted above by a dark stripe, 2–2.5 scales wide.
In another specimen, from Lowndes County, the first three crossbands were complete, followed by a dark stripe that ran down either side of the body, with points of pigment reaching up to the midline in six places but never getting there, after which the last four crossbands on the tail were complete. A specimen found in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana by Ernest A. Liner, had a similar striped pattern, with only the first and last two crossbands being normal. Common names for A. contortrix include: copperhead, chunk head, highland moccasin, narrow-banded copperhead, northern copperhead, pilot snake, poplar leaf, red oak, red snake, southeastern copperhead, white oak snake, American copperhead, southern copperhead, cantil cobrizo. It is found in the United States in the states of Alabama, Connecticut, Northern Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and West Virginia. In Mexico, it occurs in Coahuila; the type locality is "Carolina".
Schmidt proposed the type locality be restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina". Unlike some other species of North American pit vipers, such as timber rattlesnake and Sistrurus catenatus, Agkistrodon contortrix has not reestablished itself north of the terminal moraine after the last glacial period, though it is found in southeastern New York and southern New England, north of the Wisconsin glaciation terminal moraine on Long Island. Within its range, it occupies a variety of different habitats. In most of North America, it favors mixed woodlands, it is associated with rock outcroppings and ledges, but is found in low-lying, swampy regions. During the winter, it hibernates in dens or limestone crevices together with timber rattlesnakes and black rat snakes. In the states around the Gulf of Mexico, this species is found in coniferous forest. In the Chihuahuan De