Travis County, Texas
Travis County is a county in south central Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,024,266, it is the fifth-most populous county in Texas. Its county seat is the capital of Texas; the county was established in 1840 and is named in honor of William Barret Travis, the commander of the Republic of Texas forces at the Battle of the Alamo. Travis County is part of the Austin-Round Rock Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is along the Balcones Fault, the boundary between the Edwards Plateau to the west and the Blackland Prairie to the east. Evidence of habitation of the Balcones Escarpment region of Texas can be traced to at least 11,000 years ago. Two of the oldest Paleolithic archeological sites in Texas, the Levi Rock Shelter and Smith Rock Shelter, are in southwest and southeast Travis County, respectively. Several hundred years before European settlers arrived, a variety of nomadic Native American tribes inhabited the area; these indigenous peoples fished and hunted along the creeks, including present-day Barton Springs, which proved to be a reliable campsite.
At the time of the first permanent settlement of the area, the Tonkawa tribe was the most common, with the Comanches and Lipan Apaches frequenting the area. The region was claimed by the Spanish Empire in the 1600s, but at the time no attempt was made to settle the area. In 1691 Domingo Terán de los Ríos made an inspection tour through East Texas that took him through Travis Country; the first European settlers in the area were a group of Spanish friars who arrived from East Texas in July 1730. They established three temporary missions, La Purísima Concepción, San Francisco de los Neches and San José de los Nazonis, on a site by the Colorado River near Barton Springs; the friars found conditions undesirable and relocated to the San Antonio River within a year of their arrival. In 1821 Mexico won its independence from Spain, the new government enacted laws encouraging colonists to settle the Texas frontier by granting them land and reduced taxation. Over the next decade, thousands of foreign immigrants moved into Texas.
Josiah and Mathias Wilbarger, Reuben Hornsby, Jacob M. Harrell, John F. Webber were early settlers who moved into the area in the early 1830s. In 1836 Texas won its independence from Mexico, forming a new Republic of Texas. After Texas Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited central Texas during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital be relocated to a site on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839 the site was chosen as the republic's new capital and given the name Waterloo, Texas. A new county was established the following year, of which Austin would be the seat. Travis. Though the Republic's capital moved back to Houston during the events surrounding the Texas Archive War, by 1845 Austin was again the capital, it became the capital of the new State of Texas when Texas was annexed by the United States that year. In 1861 Travis County was one of the few Texas counties to vote against secession from the Union. Since the majority of the state did favor secession, Travis County became a part of the Confederacy for the duration of the Civil War.
After the Confederacy's defeat, Texas was readmitted to the Union in 1870. From the end of the Civil War to the early twenty-first century, Travis County has experienced steady, rapid population growth, driven by the growth of Austin and its suburbs. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,023 square miles, of which 990 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. Travis County is located in the southern part of central Texas, between San Antonio and Dallas–Fort Worth; the county's geographical center lies two miles northwest of downtown Austin at 30°18' north latitude and 97°45' west longitude. Travis County straddles the Balcones Fault, the boundary between the Edwards Plateau to the west and the Texas Coastal Plain to the east; the western part of the county is characterized by the karst topography of the Texas Hill Country, while the eastern part exhibits the fertile plains and farmlands of the Blackland Prairie. The Colorado River meanders through the county from west to east, forming a series of man-made lakes.
The limestone karst geology of the western and southwestern parts of Travis County gives rise to numerous caverns and springs, some of which have provided shelter and water for humans in the region for thousands of years. Notable springs in the county include Deep Eddy and Hamilton Pool. Travis County is crossed by Interstate Highway 35, US Highways 183 and 290, Texas Highway 71. IH-35 leads northward to Waco and Dallas–Fort Worth and southward to San Antonio. US-183 southward to Lockhart. US-290 leads westward eastward to Houston. TX-71 leads westward eastward to Bastrop. Other major highways within the county include Texas Highway Loop 1, which runs from north to south through the center of th
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle, its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting; the bald eagle is an opportunistic feeder which subsists on fish, which it swoops down and snatches from the water with its talons. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests recorded for any animal species, up to 4 m deep, 2.5 m wide, 1 metric ton in weight. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years. Bald eagles are not bald; the adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage; the beak is hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown; the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal. In the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. government's list of endangered species on July 12, 1995 and transferred to the list of threatened species. It was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28, 2007; the plumage of an adult bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white tail. The tail is moderately long and wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in plumage coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species, in that females are 25% larger than males; the beak and irises are bright yellow. The legs are feather-free, the toes are short and powerful with large talons; the developed talon of the hind toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is hooked, with a yellow cere; the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The related African fish eagle has a brown body, white head and tail, but differs from the bald in having a white chest and black tip to the bill.
The plumage of the immature is a dark brown overlaid with messy white streaking until the fifth year, when it reaches sexual maturity. Immature bald eagles are distinguishable from the golden eagle, the only other large, non-vulturine raptorial bird in North America, in that the former has a larger, more protruding head with a larger beak, straighter edged wings which are held flat and with a stiffer wing beat and feathers which do not cover the legs; when seen well, the golden eagle is distinctive in plumage with a more solid warm brown color than an immature bald eagle, with a reddish-golden patch to its nape and a contrasting set of white squares on the wing. Another distinguishing feature of the immature bald eagle over the mature bird is its black, yellow-tipped beak; the bald eagle has sometimes been considered the largest true raptor in North America. The only larger species of raptor-like bird is the California condor, a New World vulture which today is not considered a taxonomic ally of true accipitrids.
However, the golden eagle, averaging 4.18 kg and 63 cm in wing chord length in its American race, is 455 g lighter in mean body mass and exceeds the bald eagle in mean wing chord length by around 3 cm. Additionally, the bald eagle's close cousins, the longer-winged but shorter-tailed white-tailed eagle and the overall larger Steller's sea eagle, may wander to coastal Alaska from Asia; the bald eagle has a body length of 70–102 cm. Typical wingspan is between 1.8 and 2.3 m and mass is between 3 and 6.3 kg. Females are about 25% larger than males, averaging as much as 5.6 kg, against the males' average weight of 4.1 kg. The size of the bird varies by location and corresponds with Bergmann's rule, since the species increases in size further away from the Equator and the tropics. For example, eagles from South Carolina average 3.27 kg in mass and 1.88 m in wingspan, smaller than their northern counterparts. One field guide in Florida listed small sizes for bald eagles there, at about 4.13 kg. Of intermediate size, 117 migrant bald eagles in Glacier National Park were found to average 4.22 kg but this was juvenile eagles, with 6 adults here averaging 4.3 kg.
Wintering eagles in Arizona were found to average 4.74 kg. The largest eagles are from Alaska, where large females may weigh more than 7 kg and span 2.44 m across the wings. A survey of adult weights in Alaska showed that females there weighed on average 5.35 kg and males weighed 4.23 kg against immatures which averaged 5.09 kg and 4.05 kg in the two sexes. An Alaskan adult female eagle, considered outsized we
William E. Dyess
William Edwin "Ed" Dyess was an officer of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. He was captured after the Allied loss at the Battle of Bataan and endured the subsequent Bataan Death March. After a year in captivity, Dyess escaped and spent three months on the run before being evacuated from the Philippines by a U. S. submarine. Once back in the U. S. he recounted the story of his capture and imprisonment, providing the first published eye-witness account of the brutality of the death march. He was killed in a training accident months later. Born and raised in Albany, Dyess was the son of Judge Richard T. and Hallie Graham Dyess. He played football and ran track and field at Albany High School, graduated in 1934, he attended John Tarleton Agricultural College in Stephenville and graduated on May 18, 1936. He was a distant cousin of fellow World War II veteran Aquilla J. Dyess. Dyess underwent flight training at Kelly and Randolph Fields in San Antonio and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Air Corps in 1937.
Promoted to first lieutenant and command of the 21st Pursuit Squadron at Hamilton Field, San Francisco, Dyess led the squadron to Nichols Field, Philippines, in November 1941. The 21st Pursuit Squadron was assigned to the 24th Pursuit Group which together with the 19th Bomb Group suffered heavy casualties during the opening of the war with Japan in 1941. Flying P-40 Warhawks against superior Japanese types, Dyess maintained his unit's morale in the face of staggering losses during the Battle of Bataan; when his squadron ran short of aircraft, Dyess transitioned to an infantry officer, serving in this capacity during the Battle of the Points. When the Bataan Peninsula fell to the Japanese, Dyess, as commanding officer, refused to abandon those of his squadron who could not be evacuated, he gave his airplane to another fighter pilot, Lieutenant I. B. "Jack" Donaldson, for last bombing run on April 9, after which Jack was ordered to fly it to Cebu, where he crash landed. Dyess supervised the evacuation of Philippine Army Colonel Carlos Romulo, a close friend of General Douglas MacArthur, who would survive the war and would serve as President of the United Nations General Assembly.
Dyess was captured by the Japanese on April 9, 1942, north of Mariveles and the next morning, he and the others who surrendered at Bataan began the infamous Bataan Death March. He was imprisoned at Camp O'Donnell and from June to 26 October 1942, at Cabanatuan. There, his men and he were denied the rights of prisoners of war. Dyess and others were transported by ship, the Erie Maru, to the Davao Penal Colony on Mindanao, arriving November 7. After two months of planning and preparation, along with 9 other American POWs, including Major Jack Hawkins, Austin Shofner, Samuel Grashio, two Filipino convicts escaped from Davao on April 4, 1943, it was the only large-scale escape of Allied POWs from the Japanese in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Dyess and his group spent several weeks evading pursuit joined a group of guerrillas for several months; the group decided to split up, with seven joining organized guerrilla forces in northern Mindanao. Dyess and two others were evacuated by the U.
S. Navy submarine Trout to Australia in July 1943. Upon reaching the United States in August, he was debriefed on his experiences as a POW by high-ranking military brass, he was ordered to recuperate, in September 1943, at the Ashford General Hospital in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. From his hospital bed, Dyess worked with Chicago Tribune writer Charles Leavelle to tell the story of the atrocities and brutality his fellow POWs and he had experienced and witnessed while in Japanese captivity; the U. S. government, refused to release Dyess' story for publication on the grounds that it would infuriate the Japanese and risk the death of remaining American prisoners. The Tribune had to wait another four and a half months for the Secretary of War to grant release of the story. Promoted to lieutenant colonel, Dyess was assigned to fly P-38 Lightnings in preparation for a return to combat. On December 22, 1943, his aircraft, P-38G-10-LO Lightning, 42-13441, of the 337th Fighter Squadron, 329d Fighter Group, lost an engine caused by a fire on take-off from Grand Central Airport.
Dyess had a chance to abandon his troubled aircraft, but was flying over a populated area and did not want to be responsible for any civilian casualties. He died while guiding it onto a vacant lot, he is buried in Albany Cemetery in Texas. One month after his death, the Chicago Tribune received permission from government censorship offices to release the deceased aviator's story on January 28, 1944; the story was picked up by over 100 American newspapers. According to Leavelle, it was the biggest story of the war since Pearl Harbor. Published in book form in 1944, The Dyess Story became a bestseller. Among other commendations, Dyess received the Distinguished Flying Cross twice and Distinguished Service Cross twice. In 1957, Abilene Army Airfield was renamed Dyess Air Force Base in his honor, his personal papers are archived at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama and the special collections archive at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. His awards and decorations include: USAAF pilot badge Army Presidential Unit Citation Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation Escape From Davao: The Forgotten Story of the Most Daring Prison Break of the Pacific War List of American guerrillas in the Philippines Ray C. Hunt Iliff David Richardson
Texas's 19th congressional district
Texas' Nineteenth Congressional District of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the upper midwestern portion of the state of Texas The district includes portions of the State from Lubbock to Abilene. The current Representative from the 19th District is Republican Jodey Arrington. District 19's current boundaries were drawn up during the controversial 2003 Texas State Legislature Redistricting made famous by the Texas Eleven; the district was redrawn in such a way that two Congressional incumbents and Democrat Charlie Stenholm, were pitted against one another in the 2004 Congressional elections. Neugebauer won with over 58% of the vote; the border runs along the western boundary with New Mexico, runs along county borders to include far reaching cities. The area is predominantly rural, with the exceptions of Abilene and Lubbock, includes many state parks and farms; this is one of the most conservative districts in the nation. It has not supported a Democratic presidential candidate since 1964.
Republicans have held the seat since 1985. In the last three decades, a Democrat has only won 40 percent of the vote in this district twice, in 1984 and 2004. Much of this region continued to elect conservative Democrats to local offices and the Texas Legislature until 1994. Since the mid-1990s, Republicans have dominated every level of government. There are no elected Democrats left above the county level, Republicans win most races by 70 percent or more of the vote; the district voted 77% for George W. Bush in 2004 and 71% for John McCain in 2008. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present "Current Election History". Office of the Secretary of State of Texas. Archived from the original on November 8, 2006.
Retrieved November 20, 2012
Butterfield Overland Mail
Butterfield Overland Mail was a stagecoach service in the United States operating from 1858 to 1861. It carried passengers and U. S. Mail from two eastern termini, Tennessee, St. Louis, Missouri, to San Francisco, California; the routes from each eastern terminus met at Fort Smith and continued through Indian Territory, New Mexico, Arizona and California ending in San Francisco. On March 3, 1857, Congress authorized the U. S. postmaster general, Aaron Brown, to contract for delivery of the U. S. mail from Saint Louis to San Francisco. Prior to this, U. S. Mail bound for the Far West had been delivered by the San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line since June 1857. John Butterfield was a descendant of Benjamin Butterfield, who brought his family from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638, his father, Daniel Butterfield, lived at Berne, in the Helderberg, near Albany, N. Y. where John was born. He attended schools near his boyhood home. John's early involvement with stage lines started about 1820.
"John Butterfield was borne at Berne, in the Helderberg, near Albany, November 18, 1801. In early life we find him in the employment of Thorpe & Sprague, of that city, as a driver, through the solicitation of Mr. Theodore S. Faxton came to Utica, where he for a time was employed in picking up passengers from the taverns and boats for Parker's stages. After a time he started a livery with but small accommodations… His connection to Parker & Co. continued so long as they were still in business, was succeeded by lines of his own, wherein he was a leading manager in the State until staging was superseded by railroads." After his employment with other stage lines, John decided to use this experience for running his own stage lines in Upstate New York. "Mr. Butterfield devoted his attention to lines running North and South. At the height of stage coaching he had forty lines running from Utica as headquarters to Ogdensburg and Sacketts Harbor on the North, South to the Pennsylvania line, through Chemung and Susquehanna valleys."
By 1857, when John was awarded the Overland Mail Company contract, he had had 37 years of experience working for and running stage lines. This was one of the reasons. Through the 1840s and 1850s there was a desire for better communication between the east and west coasts of the United States. There were several proposals for railroads connecting the two coasts. A more immediate realization was an overland mail route across the west. Congress authorized the Postmaster General to contract for mail service from Missouri to California to facilitate settlement in the west; the Post Office Department advertised for bids for an overland mail service on April 20, 1857. Bidders were to propose routes from the Mississippi River westward. Nine bids were made by some of the most experienced stage men. None of the express companies, such as American Express, Adams Express, or Wells Fargo & Co. Express, bid on the contract because, as of yet, they had no experience running stage lines. A suggestion by The New York Times that the express companies could do a better job than the Overland Mail Company drew a sharp rebuttal from a Washington, D.
C. newspaper. Mail Contract No. 12,578 for $600,000 per annum for a semi-weekly service was assigned to John Butterfield of Utica, New York, president for the contract, named the Overland Mail Company. This was the longest mail contract awarded in the United States, it was a stockholding company and the main stockholders, besides John Butterfield who were the directors, were William B. Dinsmore of New York City. There were four others known as sureties. All of the stockholders were connected to other businesses in Upstate New York and most lived not far from Butterfield's home in Utica, New York. Alexander Holland was Butterfield's treasurer of the Overland Mail Company. Dinsmore was vice-president of the company; the office for the company was in New York City. Why John Butterfield was chosen was stated best by Postmaster General Aaron Brown:... a route which no contractor had bid for, but one which in the judgement of A. V. Brown, of Memphis, had more advantages than any other, and, as John Butterfield & Co. had, in the opinion of Brown, greater ability and experience than anybody else to carry out a mail service, John Butterfield & Co. was selected and preferred.
The route, known as the Oxbow Route because of its long curving route through the southwest, was 600 miles longer than the Central Overland Trail, but had the advantage of being snow free. The contract with the U. S. Post Office, which went into effect on September 16, 1858, identified the route and divided it into eastern and western divisions. Franklin, Texas to be named El Paso was the dividing point and these two were subdivided into minor divisions, five in the East and four in the West; these minor divisions were numbered west to east from San Francisco, each under the direction of a superintendent. John Butterfield Sr. turned to two of his most trusted and experienced employees to put in place the Butterfield Trail. In 1858, with expedition leader Marquis L. Kenyon, John Butterfield Jr. helped to select the route and sites for the stage stations. Kenyon was a stockholder/director of the Overland Mail Company and the only stockholder, other than John Butterfield, to have significant staging experience.
Marquis moved fr
Randolph B. Marcy
Randolph Barnes Marcy was an officer in the United States Army, chiefly noted for his frontier guidebook, the Prairie Traveler, based on his own extensive experience of pioneering in the west. This publication became a key handbook for the thousands of Americans wanting to cross the continent. In the Civil War, Marcy became chief of staff to his son-in-law George B. McClellan, was appointed Inspector General of the U. S. Army. Marcy was born at Greenwich and graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1832 as a lieutenant in the 5th U. S. Infantry, he married soon afterwards, one of his children, Ellen Mary, would marry future General-in-Chief George B. McClellan. Marcy first saw combat while serving in the Black Hawk War in Wisconsin, he was promoted Captain in the Mexican War, fought at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. He was assigned to duty in Texas and Oklahoma, where he escorted emigrants, located military posts, explored the wilderness, mapped routes. In 1852 he was in charge of the expedition that first reached the headwaters of both forks of the Red River.
In 1857, Marcy accompanied Brigadier General Albert Sidney Johnston on the expedition against the Mormons in Utah. Here he distinguished himself on a forced march through the Rockies in midwinter, when he led his troops to safety after they had run out of provisions for two weeks. Meanwhile, his achievements and well-written military reports had attracted attention in Washington, he was recalled to work for the Department of State. Here he prepared his acclaimed guidebook to the western trails, The Prairie Traveler: A Handbook for Overland Expeditions, with Maps and Itineraries of the Principal Routes between the Mississippi and the Pacific. Published by the U. S. Government in 1859, the Prairie Traveler became an indispensable guide for the thousands of Americans wanting to reach California, Oregon and other destinations. Based on his own extensive experience as a pioneer, the book provided authoritative advice about reconnaissance, fieldcraft and healthcare, that would save many lives on these perilous routes.
It covered key topics like hunting and tracking, food and water supply, as well as specialist advice about the selection of horses, the avoiding of quicksands, the interpreting of smoke signals and sign language, numerous other issues. It was a best-selling book for the remainder of the century. Andrew J. Birtle, author of U. S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine 1860-1941, has described the Prairie Traveler as "perhaps the single most important work on the conduct of frontier expeditions published under the aegis of the War Department." After completing this work, Marcy was promoted to the rank of major and posted to the Pacific Northwest, where he was assigned as paymaster. At the start of the Civil War, he returned East and served as chief of staff to McClellan, by now his son-in-law. By the end of the war, he was Inspector-General of the U. S. Army. Marcy was brevetted major general of volunteers in 1868 and became a brigadier general of the U. S. Army in 1878, he continued his service until he retired in 1881.
Fort Marcy Park in McLean, was named for General Marcy. A species of garter snake, Thamnophis marcianus, is named in his honor. List of American Civil War generals List of Massachusetts generals in the American Civil War Massachusetts in the American Civil War California Road Handbook of Texas Online, MARCY, RANDOLPH BARNES Works by Randolph B. Marcy at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Randolph B. Marcy at Internet Archive Works by Randolph B. Marcy at LibriVox Text of Marcy's Prairie Traveler Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana, in the year 1852 / by Randolph B. Marcy. Hosted by the Portal to Texas History Randolph B. Marcy at Find a Grave