Greer, South Carolina
Greer is a city in Greenville and Spartanburg counties in the U. S. state of South Carolina. The population was 25,515 as of the 2010 census and had risen to an estimated 30,899 as of 2017; the eastern part of the city is in Spartanburg County, while the bulk of the city is in Greenville County. It is part of the Greenville–Anderson–Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city is additionally part of the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area in Upstate South Carolina. Greer is adjacent to Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport, which serves Greenville and the Upstate. Greer is the site of the only BMW manufacturing facility in North America. According to a June 2005 article in The Greenville News, BMW's Greer plant employs about 9,000 people, has attracted dozens of suppliers in South Carolina, providing jobs for more than 12,000 people. Greer is home to the South Carolina Inland Port, an intermodal facility that receives and sends containers by rail to the Port of Charleston.
Greer is located at 34°55′49″N 82°13′30″W. It is 12 miles northeast of Greenville and 17 miles west of Spartanburg, both via U. S. Route 29. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 20.6 square miles are land and 2.1 square miles, or 9.18%, are water. Greer has three lakes: Apalache Lake and Lake Cunningham; the South Tyger River runs through the northern part of part of the Broad River watershed. Greer was named for James Manning Greer, whose ancestry traces through Ireland. Many of his descendants still reside in the region. James Manning Greer was a descendant of John Greer, Sr. who surveyed his land in Laurens County in 1750. John and his family were in Laurens County, prior to the Greer passengers who arrived aboard the ship The Falls in 1764. John Greer's family settled at Duncans Creek between that Creek and the Enoree River and close to Duncan's Creek Presbyterian Church. John, Sr.'s great grandson James Manning Greer settled his family near Greenville in an area that became Greer's Station.
Located in the foothills of the upstate region of South Carolina, Greer's history stretches from its days as a hunting ground for local Cherokees, to its settlement by pioneering families in the 1700s, to the advent of the railroad in the 1800s. The area now known as Greer was once part of the "Domain of the Cherokees" prior to the American Revolutionary War. In 1777 the area was added to the state of South Carolina. Development toward the birth of the town occurred in 1873, when the Richmond and Danville Air Line Railway established a line between Atlanta and Charlotte. A station was built on land that belonged to James Manning Greer, was named Greer's Station; the first post office was located in Greer's Depot. That depot was Victorian structure with a slate roof and a cupola, it was located adjacent to the current Norfolk Southern rail line between Trade Street and Depot Street, facing toward Moore Street. It was demolished in 1976 by its owner, the Southern Railway System, in order to avoid property taxes.
When the town was incorporated in 1876, it was named Town of Greer's. One hundred years the name was changed to the City of Greer without an "s" on the end. Merchants and physicians set up shop in what is now the downtown area of Greer. In 1900, Greer's first bank, the Bank of Greer's, opened; the Piedmont and Northern Railway laid a second railroad line through Greer in 1914. With two active train lines, Greer became an attractive site for commerce; the railway meant big business for local farmers, enabling them to ship their crops cotton and peaches, out of state. Greer became a textile-manufacturing center, with flourishing mills that included Victor, Franklin and Greer Mills; the communities that grew up around the mills were as close-knit as the outlying farming communities. In 1939 artist Winfred Walkley painted a mural and Peach Growing, for the town's old post office as one of thirteen works commissioned by the U. S. Treasury Department's Section of Fine Arts between 1938 and 1941 for post offices and federal buildings throughout South Carolina.
The building is now home to the Greer Heritage Museum. After World War II, the city began to diversify its industrial base. A new hospital and high school were built. People came to downtown Greer from Greenville to shop. In the early 1960s Interstate 85 was opened, as well as the Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport. Imports derailed the textile industry in the 1970s and threatened to turn Greer into a ghost town, but the citizens of Greer worked together to attract new industry; the Arthur Barnwell House, Davenport House, Gilreath's Mill, Greer Depot, Greer Downtown Historic District, Greer Post Office, Louie James House, R. Perry Turner House, Robert G. Turner House and Earle R. Taylor House and Peach Packing Shed are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; as of the census of 2000, there were 16,843 people, 6,714 households, 4,511 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,044.5 people per square mile. There were 7,386 housing units at an average density of 458.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 73.39% white, 19.49% African American, 1.16% Asian, 0.22% Native American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 4.42% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.18% of the population. 21.6% were of American, 9.5% Irish, 8.9% German and 8.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 90.6% spoke English and 8.5% Spanish as their first languag
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Easley, South Carolina
Easley is a city in Pickens County in the State of South Carolina. It is a principal city of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the city lies in Pickens County, with only a small portion of the city in Anderson County. In 2001, Easley hosted the Big League World Series for the first time, continued to host the tournament annually until it was disbanded in 2016. In 2017, the Senior League World Series moved to Easley as the host for the annual tournament; the Upper South Carolina State Fair is held annually in early September. In 1791 Washington District was established by the state legislature out of the former Cherokee territory. Rockville was created in 1791 but changed to Pickensville in 1792. Pickensville became the district seat of Washington District, composed of Greenville and Pendleton Counties. In 1798 Washington District was divided into Pendleton Districts. In 1828 Pendleton District was divided further with the upper portion becoming Anderson County and the lower becoming Pickens County named after Andrew Pickens.
Col. Robert Elliott Holcombe became a co-founder of the town by starting off as a farmer and timber mill owner in the area, his farming ventures enabled him to establish the storeroom in 1845 as the first business in the area. The namesake of the town was William King Easley. Easley was born in Pickens County, South Carolina in 1825. Easley and four others from Greenville represented the Greenville area in the South Carolina Secession Convention; when the American Civil War erupted, Easley raised a company of cavalry from Greenville and Pickens counties. During the war Easley served as a major in the Confederate Army. After the civil war Easley became a local attorney and persuaded the Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line Railway to be established through Pickensville by raising $100,000 to invest in the railroad. Holcombe was considered to be the first citizen of Easley, building the first dwelling and train depot in the town from his family's lumber mill. Holcombe became the first mayor of the town and was the first agent of the train depot.
The town of Easley was chartered in 1873. At the time, the consensus was that it should be named Holcombe or Holcombetown, but Col. Holcombe said that he didn't think Holcombe was a attractive name and that Easley sounded better; the Pickensville Post Office became Easley Post Office in 1875. The railroad transformed Easley into an industrious and thriving textile town; the Easley Textile Company known as Swirl Inc. came to Easley in 1953. The construction of U. S. Route 123 helped establish new business to Easley. On April 25, 1951, a department store was on fire threatening many buildings in downtown Easley but the quick response of the fire department extinguished the fire. Easley is located in southeastern Pickens County at 34°49′24″N 82°35′25″W, 12 miles west of the center of Greenville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 square miles, of which 12.2 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.17%, is water. Larry Bagwell is the elected mayor.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,754 people, 7,227 households, 5,058 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,668.8 people per square mile. There were 7,932 housing units at an average density of 745.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.35% White, 11.81% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.82% of the population. There were 7,227 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,204, the median income for a family was $47,867. Males had a median income of $35,399 versus $25,443 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,965. About 8.4% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. The City of Easley maintains its own city police department, which has jurisdiction inside the city limits of Easley; the current chief of police is Tim Tollison. The department is located at the Easley Law Enforcement Center on Northwest Main Street in downtown Easley. There are 42 sworn police officers working for the department along with 3 civilians; the department is made up of an administration division, uniform patrol division, a detective division. The Administration Division is made up of the chief of police, deputy chief of police, uniform patrol captain, detective captain.
The Uniform Patrol Division is made up of patrol team one, patrol team two, patrol team three, patrol team four, two school resource officers, a reserve officer. The Detective Division is made up of 3 investigations officers; the rank structure is nepotistic. New officers are patrolmen, before rising to master patrol officer,then detective sergeant lieutenant captain major, finally
Upstate South Carolina
The Upstate is the region in the westernmost part of South Carolina, United States known as the Upcountry, the historical term. Although loosely defined among locals, the general definition includes the ten counties of the commerce-rich I-85 corridor in the northwest corner of South Carolina; this definition coincides with the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area, as first defined by the Office of Management and Budget in 2015, maintained as of 2017. The region's population was 1,347,112 as of 2016. Situated between Atlanta and Charlotte, the Upstate is the fastest-growing region of South Carolina, is the geographical center of the Charlanta mega-region. After BMW's initial investment, foreign companies, including others from Germany, have a substantial presence in the Upstate. Greenville is the largest city in the region with a population of 67,453 and an urban-area population of 400,492, it is the base of most commercial activity. Spartanburg and Anderson are next in population.
Ten counties are included in the Upstate of South Carolina: Greenville, Anderson, Oconee, Laurens, Union, Abbeville. Within the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson CSA are a total of two Metropolitan Statistical Areas and three Micropolitan Statistical Areas; as of the 2010 Census, the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson CSA had a population of 1,362,073. The following population rankings are based on the 2010 Census Greenville and Anderson; the Office of Management and Budget labels all these cities as principal cities in their respective MSA's. Cities: Greenwood and Mauldin. In the 2016 Census population estimate, the cities of Easley and Simpsonville have populations that exceed 20,000; the OMB has labelled Easley as principal cities. CDPs: Taylors, Wade Hampton Cities: Clemson and Gaffney. If students from Clemson University are included, Clemson has close to 30,000 residents. CDP's: Berea, Five Forks, Parker Communities in the Upstate with under 10,000 residents include: Cities: Towns: According to the 2010 Census, no town in the Upstate has a population greater than 6000.
CDP's: The following table shows the major institutions of higher education in the Upstate. In 2008, U. S. News ranked Furman as the 37th best liberal arts college, Wofford College as the 59th best, Presbyterian College as the 101st best, they ranked Clemson University as the 67th best national university. According to the Bob Jones University, its Museum and Gallery constitutes the largest collection of religious art in the Western Hemisphere; the majority of business and commerce in the Upstate takes place in Greenville County. Greenville has the largest concentration of businesses and financial institutions in its downtown area. In fact, the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson MSA was ranked seventh in the nation by site consultants considering the top markets for economic development. Many financial institutions have regional offices located in downtown Greenville; these include Bank of the now-defunct Wachovia. Other major industries of commerce in the Upstate include the auto industry, concentrated along the corridor between Greenville and Spartanburg around the BMW manufacturing facility in Greer.
The other major industry in the Upstate is pharmaceuticals. Greenville Hospital System and Bon Secours St. Francis Health System are the area's largest in the healthcare sector, while the pharmaceutical corporation of Bausch & Lomb have set up regional operations alongside smaller developed local companies like IRIX Manufacturing and Pharmaceutical Associates; the Upstate is home to a large amount of private sector and university-based research including R&D facilities for Michelin and General Electric and research centers to support the automotive, life sciences and photonics industries. Clemson University, BMW, IBM, Michelin have combined their resources to create International Center for Automotive Research, a research park that specializes in the development of automotive technology; the following corporations have a major presence in the Upstate: Adidas, Advance America, Bank of America, BMW of North America, Bon Secours St. Francis Health System, Bosch North America, Denny's Restaurants, Dunlop Slazenger Group, Ernst & Young, Fluor Corporation, Freightliner LLC, GE Power Systems, Greenville Hospital System, IBM, Kemet Corporation, Liberty Corporation, Mary Black Health System, Michelin of North America, Milliken & Co.
Spartanburg Regional Health System, Spectrum Communications, SunTrust, Ovation Brands, Perrigo Company of South Carolina, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Verizon. • BMW's only North American manufacturing plant is located in Spartanburg County, with an investment of $3.7 billion. • Fujifilm located their first manufacturing facility in the U. S. in Greenwood County. • Michelin North America's headquarters is located in Greenville, along with seven manufacturing plants, R&D facility and test track located in the Upstate. Michelin employs more than 7,800 in South Carolina. • Walgreens has their southeastern distribution center located in Anderson County, which employs mentally handicapped workers as nearly 40% of their workforce. The Upstate is served by two major interstate highways, I-85 and I-26. Other major interstate spurs include I-185, I-385, I-585; the major airport in the region is Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport, located nearly halfway between Greenville and Spartanburg in suburban Greer.
Greenville, Anderson, Pickens and Gaffney each have smaller airfields. AMTRAK service
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif