Taymanitic

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Taymanitic
RegionTaymāʾ Saudi Arabia
Erasecond half of the 6th century BCE
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
Glottologtaym1240[1]

Taymanitic is the language and script of the oasis of Taymāʾ in northwestern of Saudi Arabia , dated to the second half of the 6th century BCE.[2]

Classification[edit]

Taymanitic does not participate in the key innovations of Proto-Arabic, precluding it from being considered a member of the Arabic language family, it shares one key isogloss with Northwest Semitic: the change w > y in word-initial position. Examples include yrḫ for *warḫum 'moon, month' and ydʿ for wadaʿa 'to know'.[3]

It is clear that Taymanitic script expressed a distinct linguistic variety that is not Arabic and not closely related to Hismaic or Safaitic, while it can tentatively be suggested that it was more closely related to Northwest Semitic.[4]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes[5]
  Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
Plosive p b t d   k ɡ     ʔ  
Ejective plosive                    
Affricate     ts dz                
Ejective affricate     tsʼ                  
Lateral fricative     ɬ                  
Lateral ejective affricate     tɬʼ                  
Fricative     s       x ɣ ʕ ħ h  
Nasal   m   n                
Trill       r                
Approximant           j   w        
Lateral approximant       l                

Vowels[edit]

Monophthong phonemes
Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close i u
Open a
Diphthong phonemes[5]
  Closer component
is front
Closer component
is back
Opener component is unrounded

Characteristics[edit]

Taymanitic exhibits two major features which are innovative:[3]

  1. The change w > y in word-initial position: yrḫ for *warḫum 'moon, month' and ydʿ for wadaʿa 'to know'.
  2. The mergers *z, * > *z, *s3, * > *s3, and *, * > * (loss of interdentals).

Unlike Arabic, Taymanitic does not exhibit the merger of Proto-Semitic [s] and [ts].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Taymanitic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Kootstra, Fokelien (15 August 2016). "The Language of the Taymanitic Inscriptions and its Classification". Arabian Epigraphic Notes. LeiCenSAA: 68.
  3. ^ a b "Al-Jallad. The earliest stages of Arabic and its linguistic classification (Routledge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics, forthcoming)". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
  4. ^ Kootstra, Fokelien (15 August 2016). "The Language of the Taymanitic Inscriptions and its Classification". Arabian Epigraphic Notes. LeiCenSAA: 107.
  5. ^ a b "The Language of the Taymanitic Inscriptions and its Classification". Retrieved 2016-09-14.