Te Atatu is the name of two adjacent suburbs in western Auckland, New Zealand: Te Atatu Peninsula and Te Atatu South. They are located next to each other some 10 kilometres to the west of the Auckland city centre, are separated by the Northwestern Motorway. Te Atatu Peninsula known as Te Atatu North, lies, as the name suggests, on a small peninsula, it is located at the western extremity of the Waitemata Harbour, is formed by the Henderson Creek, an estuarial arm of the harbour that extends southwest from the harbour. The peninsula thus formed is four kilometres in length and two kilometres in width, is joined to the main part of the North Island at its southern end. Te Atatu South is sited at the point where the peninsula meets the rest of the island, south of the motorway interchange, which bisects the more linked areas. Both suburban areas are characterised by a well-established suburban neighbourhood, with two town centres providing shops, medical services and community facilities. Most inhabitants work in Auckland City.
The Te Atatū electorate, which covers both suburbs, is served in the New Zealand Parliament by Phil Twyford. The peninsula, is defined by Henderson Creek in the west, the Whau River in the east. Mangroves and other estuarine epifauna dominate the boundaries, with the geology composed of marine and stream sediments; the original Maori name for the area was Orukuwai. The remains of a large Māori settlement were found in many places on the suburb, the remains of flax baskets, fishing nets, old clothes were found in the land of a local resident and heaps of pipi shells have been found in farms. European settlement began between 1853 and 1873 when Thomas Henderson acquired land from the Ngati Whatua and the Crown in 1855, he established the Henderson Timber Mill in. The area was known as Henderson Point until 1907 when it was renamed Te Atatu by Reverend Jackson Bennett; the name was based upon his vision of the morning sun shimmering on the Waitemata. The two suburbs were rural areas until the 1950s when the first stages of the Northwestern Motorway were opened along the coast of the Waitemata Harbour.
This encouraged suburban settlements to the west of Auckland, Te Atatu grew as a result. In the 2000s, the working-class suburb area became popular for luxury apartments and other higher-cost residential development. In the 1950s, there were plans to build a new deepwater port at the Te Atatu peninsula. Land was acquired under public works regulations, the Auckland Harbour Bridge was built to a clear height sufficient to allow large ships to pass under it. However, the port idea was never realised. Homes stand on some of it. Walkways and Cycleways run along both coasts along the Henderson Creek and Whau River. A regular bus service runs to the city along Great North Road, another service runs along Te Atatu Rd. A ferry service to the city has been proposed; the local State secondary school is Rutherford College. Other convenient State secondary schools are Henderson High School, ACG Sunderland school and college, Liston College, St Dominic's College. Local intermediate schools are Rangeview Intermediate.
There are seven primary schools: Edmonton, Flanshaw Road, Tirimoana, Rutherford and Peninsula. Te Atatu is home to several sports clubs; the most successful is the Te Atatu Roosters rugby league team who were national champions in 1988. They are based at Jack Colvin Park. Other teams who play in the Te Atatu area are the Te Atatu Tennis Club, Waitakere Cricket Club, Waitakere rugby union club, Waitemata Football Club, Te Atatu Football Club, West City Baseball Club, Te Atatu softball club and Te Atatu Boating Club. Te Atatu Peninsula Business Association Photographs of Te Atatu held in Auckland Libraries' Heritage Collections
United Nations Security Council resolution 675, adopted unanimously on 5 November 1990, after recalling resolutions 637 and 644, the Council endorsed a report by the Secretary-General and decided to extend the mandate of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America for a further six months until 7 May 1991. The resolution noted the need to remain vigilant of the financial costs of the Observer Group, given the increased demand on United Nations peacekeeping forces, it requested the Secretary-General to report back before the end of the current mandate on all aspects of the Observer Group. History of Central America History of Nicaragua List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 601 to 700 Text of the Resolution at undocs.org Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 675 at Wikisource
Robert Evan Kendell, was a Welsh psychiatrist. He was Chief Medical Officer of Scotland 1991−96, President of the Royal College of Psychiatrists 1996−99, he was born on 28 March 1935 in Yorkshire, the son of teachers and spent some of his childhood in Wales. He was educated at the Mill Hill School in London won a scholarship to Peterhouse, where he was awarded a Double First in the Natural Sciences Tripos. After further study at the King's College Hospital Medical School and a brief stint in internal medicine he joined the Maudsley Hospital and trained under Sir Aubrey Lewis. Kendell was awarded the Gaskell Medal. Aged 38 he was appointed to the chair of psychiatry in Edinburgh. In 1986 he was made the Dean of the Medical School and during his four years in this post he supervised a period of expansion. In 1991 he was appointed the Chief Medical Officer of Scotland. In 1997 he was elected the president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and served for a three-year term; as Chief Medical Officer, he worked to build awareness of the influence of diet and smoking on health, as well as contributing to the responses to Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and HIV/AIDS.
He published more that 200 papers during his career, continuing after he had retired from employment. Much of his work focussed on the classification and diagnosis of mental disorders He was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2002, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He was awarded the Paul Hoch Medal of the American Psychopathological Association, he was a member of the World Health Organisation's Expert Advisory Panel on Mental Health for 12 years. On 19 December 2002 he collapsed and died that day, of an unsuspected brain tumour
Reward is an unincorporated community in western Kern County, California. It is located 3.5 miles west-northwest of McKittrick, at an elevation of 1,276 feet in the southern Temblor Range. Reward is located in the McKittrick Oil Field. Reward was the location of the Aguaje de Santa Maria water stop on the 19th century El Camino Viejo in Alta California; the first wooden oil derrick in Kern County was constructed at the future site of Reward in 1878, to drill for flux oil to mix with asphalt, being mined in Asphalto and refined in McKittrick. The settlement of Reward was founded in 1907, with a post office operating there from 1909 to 1937
Crossfire is a fictional character, a supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Crossfire's first appearance was in Marvel Two-in-One #52 and was created by writer Steven Grant and artist Jim Craig, his next appearance in Hawkeye Vol. 1 #4 was the first of many encounters with the title character. Crossfire would face off against Hawkeye in the pages of Captain America #317, Avengers Spotlight #24-25, Avengers West Coast Vol. 2 #100 and Hawkeye & Mockingbird #1-6. Crossfire has battled Nick Fury in Nick Fury: Agent of S. H. I. E. L. D. Vol. 3 #40-41. The character was one of the central villains in Spider-Man: Breakout #1-5. Flashback scenes revealed elements of Crossfire's life before his supervillain exploits, he went on to appear as a central character in the limited series Villains for Hire #1-4, a supervillain spin-off of Marvel's Heroes for Hire series. Crossfire has made minor appearances in Agent X #6, Secret War #3-5 and Union Jack Vol. 2 #1-2. He appeared as a member of the Hood's criminal syndicate in New Avengers Vol. 1 #35, 46, 50, 55-57, 60-61, 63-64, New Avengers Annual #2, Secret Invasion #6, #8, Dark Reign: The Hood #1-2, 4-5, Marvel Zombies 4 #2, Dark Reign: The Cabal #1, Captain America: Siege #1 and New Avengers: Finale #1.
William Cross was born in Wisconsin. He became an interrogation expert for the CIA. Cross was building his own rogue covert operations when he romanced federal corrections officer Rozalyn Backus with whom he developed ultrasonic brainwashing technology. Backus was unaware of Cross' illicit activities, they were engaged to be married until Cross stole the technology and disappeared. In his disappearance, he faked his own framed Backus for his own murder. Surviving an attempt on his life which cost him his left eye and his left ear, he replaced them with cybernetic implants and became a prosperous high-tech freelance subversive known as "Crossfire". Plotting to make the growing superhero community exterminate each other via ultrasonic mind control, Crossfire abducted the Thing to test his technology. Moon Knight interfered and Crossfire was defeated. Crossfire secretly rebuilt his operations at Cross Technological Enterprises, founded by his cousin Darren Cross; when Hawkeye and Mockingbird investigated, Crossfire first tried to eliminate the two using the assassins Bombshell and Silencer.
When his three assassins failed, Crossfire decided Hawkeye would make an ideal test subject for his super hero mind control plot, because Hawkeye was prominent enough in the super hero community to attract en masse at a funeral and weak enough to be an easy target. However, Hawkeye thwarted Crossfire's brainwashing, captured the criminals and rescued Mockingbird, married shortly thereafter; the vengeful Crossfire subsequently stalked the newlyweds to former film star Moira Brandon's estate. The elderly actress was declared an honorary Avenger after helping Hawkeye and Mockingbird recapture the supervillain. A juggling supervillain team freed Crossfire from police custody, but when he proved unable to pay the group, Crossfire is held for ransom until Captain America and Mockingbird captured the whole gang. Crossfire escaped and placed a bounty on Hawkeye's arm, hoping to destroy the hero's skills and break the archer's spirit. An army of supervillains look to claim the reward, but are defeated by Hawkeye and Trickshot.
With the bounty hunting supervillains captured, Hawkeye pursues Crossfire through the sewers. Crossfire is left clinging on for his life. Hawkeye contemplates letting the foe fall to his doom and ending the feud between them once and for all; the archer saves Crossfire's life, letting him rot in prison instead. Crossfire was among the army of technology based supervillains recruited by Lucia Von Bardas to attack Nick Fury and a group of superheroes who were involved in a secret war in Latveria a year earlier; the hired supervillains were revealed to each be a component of a bomb designed to destroy the city. Fury and the heroes were able to foil the plot and arrested the supervillains involved, including Crossfire. At some point during one of his prison stays, he befriended Vector of the U-Foes whose secret power nullification technology he had hoped to exploit. Recaptured following an encounter with S. H. I. E. L. D, he was imprisoned in the Vault where the long since exonerated Rozalyn Backus was a member of the Vault's Guardsman force.
Aiding and foiling an escape plot by the U-Foes and Crossfire, Backus turned the criminals against each other, faked her own death, stole a fortune in cash and goods from the criminals, including Vector's power nullification chamber. The criminals were transferred to the new Raft super-prison, all escaped during Electro's mass breakout, with Crossfire leading a gang of his fellow mind-manipulators: Controller, Corruptor and Mister Fear. Pursuing Backus, the chamber and their grudges against each other, the U-Foes and Crossfire's gang fought a super-powered gang war in New York until Spider-Man, Captain America and Iron Man broke it up. Crossfire and his gang were recaptured and Backus surrendered herself to the authorities. Along with the Death-Throws, Crossfire was hired by R. A. I. D. to take part in a terror plot in London, only to be foiled by Union Jack, Contessa Fontaine and the Arabian Knight. Crossfire w
Ascription occurs when social class or stratum placement is hereditary. In other words, people are placed in positions in a stratification system because of qualities beyond their control. Race, age, class at birth, ethnicity and residence are all good examples of these qualities. Ascription is one way sociologists; this idea was first introduced into Sociology by anthropologist Ralph Linton in 1936 when he described it in his work The Study of Man. His coined terms of role and ascribed status and achieved status are the three terms that gained him the most sociological acceptance. Although role has become bothersome, “ascription and achievement have such strong face validity that they are challenged or examined”. According to Linton, the conventional view of ascription provides three different explanations for the practice of ascription: It facilitates socialization for positions in the division of labor, it is inevitable, given the usual cohesion of the relationship unit and its communication with the occupational system.
It prevails and persists because it is an efficient and inexpensive way to solve certain problems of “functional subsystems” in society. Linton viewed ascription of status as a means by which society could begin to prepare the individual from birth for his or her future functions on the assumption that the earlier training for a class can begin, the more successful it is to be, he proposed that in all societies the actual ascription of statuses to the individual is controlled by a series of reference points. Together, these reference points serve to restrict the domain of his future participation in the life of the group; these points of reference include age, family relationships, caste or class. In 1950 sociologist Kingsley Davis proposed that status is ascribed to an infant as a consequence of the position of the socializing agents; because of such subjective connection of the infant with people who have a status in the social structure, it gives the child membership in the society and a specific place in the system of social status.
Statuses of the agent that can define the infant include kinship, citizenship, religious affiliation, community membership, legitimacy. However and sex are two of the most prominent criteria of ascription and they are applicable to the child without being based on the statues of the socializing agent. Therefore, one ascriptive reference point can originate from the inherent characteristics of the child regardless of the socializing agent while the other can originate from the agent's status. Davis thought that it was important to note that ascribed statues limit the achievement of achieved statuses meaning that a person may not be exposed to the tools necessary to achieve their full potential because of their ascribed status. Davis believed, he thought that there were certain individuals who were designed for a task, but that others could use competition as motivation to move up the social hierarchy based on their achievements. Ascription is a barrier to this Social Mobility. Although the training for a person's ascribed status begins theoretically from birth, it is much more than training for a person's occupation.
It is training for a life of justifiable status, whether it be greater or lesser, hence perpetuates ascriptive inequality. Talcott Parsons said in 1951 that ascription defined patterns of differential treatment within a role, he concluded that points of ascription are either primary or secondary and can further be broken down into classificatory or relational aspects. An example of primary-classificatory organization would be sex and race. An example of primary-relational organization would be kinship. Kinship is the social class position is ascriptively determined for the child by the link between the father's family role and his work role. Parsons claims that “ascription is a crucial point of convergence and marks the intergenerational transformation of power into status”. Sociologist Barbara Reskin has done extensive research to try to explain why and how ascriptive inequality occurs. Most it is thought to occur because of a person's motives, such as personal taste for example; when examining ascriptive inequality using the conflict theory, it appears as though dominant groups use their control over resources to uphold their privileges and therefore exemplify motive-based explanations.
"Theories that attempt to explain why inequality occurs say it is the result of separate individuals acting to advance their own interests". Because employers "tastes" can explain why they are willing to pay higher wages to for one group as opposed to another, many acts of discrimination that lead to inequality occur frequently. For example, until the 1980s only males held managerial positions and most they were white; when asked why this was, many responded saying that hey preferred "ease of communication and hence social certainty over the strains of dealing with persons who are'different'". This is conflict theory in action; when minority groups become large enough to threaten whites, whites respond by demoting minorities to worse jobs and thus perpetuate the problems of ascriptive inequality because these men are being judged by their race and not by their performance. However, it is hard to prove why ascriptive inequality occurs because motive based theories cannot be empirically tested because people's motives cannot be observed.
Motive based theories attribute these motives as across-