Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III
Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III was a notable New Zealand tribal leader. Of Māori descent, he identified with the Ngati Tuwharetoa iwi
John Ballance was an Irish-born New Zealand politician, the 14th Premier of New Zealand, from January 1891 to April 1893, the founder of the Liberal Party, a Georgist. In 1891 he led his party to its first election victory, forming the first New Zealand government along party lines, but died in office three years later. Ballance supported votes for women and land reform, though at considerable cost to Māori; the eldest son of Samuel Ballance, a tenant farmer, Mary McNiece, Ballance was born on 27 March 1839 in Glenavy in County Antrim in Ireland. He was educated at a national school apprenticed to an ironmonger in Belfast, he became a clerk in a wholesale ironmonger's house in Birmingham, where he married. Ballance was interested in literature, was known for spending vast amounts of time reading books, he became interested in politics due to the influence of his parents – his father was active in conservative circles, while his mother was a liberal. It was from his mother that Ballance gained many of the ideas he was to promote.
Having witnessed religious rioting when in Belfast, he became committed to the principle of secularism. In 1866, Ballance and his wife migrated to New Zealand, intending to start in business as a small jeweller. After settling in Wanganui, however, he took an opportunity to found a newspaper, The Wanganui Herald, he became the editor, remained chief owner for the rest of his life. During the fighting with the Māori chief Titokowaru in 1867, Ballance was involved in the raising of a volunteer cavalry troop, in which he received a commission, he was deprived of this owing to the appearance in the Herald of articles criticising the management of the campaign. He behaved well in the field. Following the conflict, Ballance's status in Wanganui grew, he was respected for his management of the Herald his forthright and direct approach to reporting. He became involved in the affairs of the town, establishing a number of societies and associations; the least important to Wanganui but among the most important to him was the chess club – he became a skilled player.
In 1868 his wife Fanny died of illness, aged only 24. Two years he married Ellen Anderson, daughter of a Wellington architect. Ballance first contemplated moving into national politics in 1872, putting his name forward as a candidate for the seat of Egmont in a parliamentary by-election. However, Ballance withdrew from the ballot. In 1875, Ballance entered Parliament, he campaigned on two major issues – the abolition of the provinces and the provision of free education. Ballance soon made; the abolition of the provinces occurred in 1876 under Julius Vogel—after which Ballance turned his attention to promoting closer land settlement, considering it the main political issue of the day. In 1877, Ballance entered the cabinet of Sir George Grey, a former Governor, Premier. Grey's policies were not aligned with those of Ballance, but Ballance believed that he could accomplish something worthwhile, he was Minister of Customs, Minister of Education, Colonial Treasurer. His appointment to head the treasury was a surprise to most, giving a high office to a relative newcomer on the political stage.
On 6 August 1878, Ballance delivered a financial statement, seen as the most significant since the public works announcement by Julius Vogel in 1870. Ballance set about reforming the tariff system by removing duties on basic necessities and introducing a modest though somewhat symbolic land tax, an idea he revisited, his alliance with Grey ended with a notorious and painful quarrel. Ballance found Grey far too controlling and authoritarian, resigning his portfolios yet still gave him confidence in the house. From 1879 Ballance represented Wanganui, but in 1881 he lost by just four votes, it was reported that seven of his supporters were too late to vote as their carriage broke down, he returned to Parliament for Wanganui in 1884. On re-election as an Independent in 1884, Ballance became a minister in the Cabinet of Robert Stout, a fellow liberal, he was Minister of Defence and Minister of Native Affairs. In his role as Minister of Lands he encouraged intensive settlement of rural areas, aiming to increase the number of people leaving the cities to "work the land", which he believed was essential to increase productivity and self-sufficiency.
His system of state-aided "village settlements" - small holdings were leased by the Crown to farmers and money lent them to make a beginning of building and cultivation - was successful. Despite this desire for increased settlement of colonist-held land, he supported the rights of Māori to retain the land they still held – many other politicians of his time believed that acquisition of Māori land was essential for increasing settlement, he reduced military presence in areas where strong tensions with Māori existed, made an attempt to familiarise himself with Māori language and culture. In 1887 Stout's government lost the general election. Illness prevented his full participation in politics, but with his recovery in July 1889 he became Leader of the Opposition. In 1890 Ballance led a loose coalition of liberal politicians to victory in the general election; the more liberal minded candidates at the election fared well as there was public discontent with the sitting administration. The backgroun
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Tongariro National Park
Tongariro National Park is the oldest national park in New Zealand, located in the central North Island. It has been acknowledged by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site of mixed natural values. Tongariro National Park was the sixth national park established in the world; the active volcanic mountains Ruapehu and Tongariro are located in the centre of the park. There are a number of Māori religious sites within the park, many of the park's summits, including Ngauruhoe and Ruapehu, are tapu, or sacred; the park includes many towns around its boundary including Ohakune, Horopito, Erua, National Park Village, Whakapapa skifield and Turangi. The Tongariro National Park is home to the famed Tongariro Alpine Crossing regarded as one of the world's best one-day hikes. Tongariro National Park covers 786 km2 stretching between 175° 22' and 175° 48' East and 38° 58' and 39° 25' South in the heart of the North Island of New Zealand, it is just a few kilometres west-southwest of Lake Taupo. It is 330 km south of Auckland by road, 320 km north of Wellington.
It contains a considerable part of the North Island Volcanic Plateau. Directly to the east stand the hills of the Kaimanawa range; the Whanganui River flows through Whanganui National Park to the west. Most of the park is located in the Ruapehu District, although the northeast is in the Taupo District; as a curiosity, their exact antipodes coincide in Spain. Tongariro National Park stretches around the massif of the three active volcanoes Mount Ruapehu, Mount Ngauruhoe, Mount Tongariro; the Pihanga Scenic Reserve, containing Lake Rotopounamu, Mount Pihanga and the Kakaramea-Tihia Massif, though separate from the main park area, is still part of the national park. On the park borders are the towns of National Park Village and Ohakune. Further away are Raetihi. Within the park borders, the only settlements are the tourism-based village at Whakapapa Village which consists of ski accommodation. Two Maori kainga Papakai and Otukou are not part of the park but lie on the shores of Lake Rotoaira between the Pihanga Scenic Reserve and the main park area.
The bulk of Tongariro National Park is surrounded by well-maintained roads that follow the park borders and provide easy access. In the west, State Highway 4 passes National Park village, in the east, State Highway 1, known for this stretch as the Desert Road, runs parallel to the Tongariro River. State Highway 47 joins these two highways to the north of much of the park, although it bisects the Pihanga Scenic Reserve; the southern link is State Highway 49. The North Island Main Trunk railway from Auckland to Wellington passes National Park village. Like the whole of New Zealand, Tongariro National Park is situated in a temperate zone; the prevailing westerly winds gather water over the Tasman Sea. As the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park are the first significant elevations that these winds encounter on the North Island, besides Mount Taranaki, rain falls daily; the east-west rainfall differences are not as great as in the Southern Alps, because the three volcanoes do not belong to a greater mountain range, but there is still a noticeable rain shadow effect with the Rangipo desert on the Eastern leeward side receiving 1,000 mm of annual rainfall.
At Whakapapa Village the average annual rainfall is about 2200 mm, in Ohakune about 1250 mm and in higher altitudes, such as Iwikau Village, about 4900 mm. In winter there is snow to about 1500 m. Temperatures vary even within one day. In Whakapapa, they can fall below the freezing point all year round; the average temperature is 13 °C, with a maximum of 25 °C in summer and a minimum of -10 °C in winter. In some summers the summits of the three volcanoes are covered with snow; the mountain summits are of great significance to the local Māori. In 1886 in order to prevent the selling of the mountains to European settlers, the local Ngati Tuwharetoa iwi had the mountains surveyed in the Native Land Court and set aside as a reserve in the names of certain chiefs one of whom was Te Heuheu Tukino IV, the most significant chief of the Māori Ngati Tuwharetoa iwi; the peaks of Mount Tongariro, Mount Ngauruhoe, parts of Mount Ruapehu, were conveyed to The Crown on 23 September 1887, on condition that a protected area was established there.
This 26.4 km2 area was considered to be too small to establish a national park after the model of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, so further areas were acquired. When the New Zealand Parliament passed the Tongariro National Park Act in October 1894, the park covered an area of about 252.13 km2, but it took until 1907 to acquire the land. When the Act was renewed in 1922, the park area was extended to 586.8 km2. Further extensions Pihanga Scenic Reserve in 1975, enlarged the park to its current size of 786.23 km2. The last modification to the Act was passed in 1980. Tongariro National Park has been under the control of the New Zealand Department of Conservation since the creation of the department in 1987; the first activities in the young Tongariro National Park were the construction of tourist huts at the beginning of the 20th century. But it was not before opening of the railway in 1908 and the building of roads in the 1930s that a significant number of people visited the park.
The second Tongariro National Park Act, in 1922, started some active conservation efforts, but it was not until 1931 that the first permanent park ranger began work. Road construction into
Ngāti Tūwharetoa is an iwi descended from Ngātoro-i-rangi, the priest who navigated the Arawa canoe to New Zealand. The Tūwharetoa region extends from Te Awa o te Atua at Matata across the central plateau of the North Island to the lands around Mount Tongariro and Lake Taupo. Tūwharetoa is the sixth largest iwi in Aotearoa with a population of 35,877 of the 2013 New Zealand census, 40% of its people under the age of 15; the tribe consists of a number of hapu represented by 33 marae. The collective is bound together by the legacy of Ngātoro-i-rangi as epitomised in the Ariki, Te Ariki Dr. Sir. Tumu Te Heuheu. Ngāti Tūwharetoa are descendants of the eponymous male warrior Tūwharetoa i te Aupouri, he was born. 1300. The main Tribal areas of his people are based from Te Awa o te Atua in Matata to Tongariro, he gains his mana principally from the powerful tohunga and navigator Ngātoro-i-rangi who piloted the great waka Te Arawa from Hawaiki to Aotearoa & the great navigator Toroa of the Mataatua waka.
Ngātoro-i-rangi was tricked onto the Te Arawa waka by the chief Tama-te-kapua as it was considered good luck to have him aboard. He was destined to travel aboard the Tainui waka; this angered Ngātoro-i-rangi and his disdain and animosity of the Te Arawa chief led to his leaving the group soon after arrival. In Aotearoa they made landfall at Te Awa o Te Atua, Ngātoro-i-rangi departed heading inland to Te Takanga i o Apa, thence to Ruawahia there he encountered the monstrous Tama o Hoi and reaching Taupo district where he climbed Mount Tauhara. From Tauhara, Ngātoro-i-rangi made his way to Tongariro with the intention of standing on its summit and thus claiming the district as his own. While climbing the mountain a powerful southerly wind whipped his face, icy gales chiselled the warmth from his body while the frozen volcano cut painfully into his feet bringing him to his knees with cold; as Ngātoro-i-rangi lay dying he called to his sisters Kuiwai and Haungaroa in Hawaikii, to send fire to warm him, "Kuiwai e!
Haungaroa e! Ka riro au i te tonga! Tukuna mai he ahi!" Heeding his call, they sent fire in the form of Te Pupu and Te Hoata. As they travelled underground the flames first erupted at White Island Rotorua and Taupo bursting at the feet of Ngātoro-i-rangi, welling up from the large vent in the volcano’s summit, warming the tohunga and thus allowing him to achieve his goal. On the summit of Tongariro Ngātoro-i-rangi gave thanks and established'Te Wharetoa o Tūmatauenga' The Warrior House of Tū - the legacy of Tūwharetoa. Ngātoro-i-rangi did not remain at Tongariro, instead returning to the coast to live out his life at Motiti Island, his descendants settled at Te Awa o Te Atua inland to Kawerau increasing over the generations until the time of Mawake Taupo, 8th generation descendant of Ngātoro-i-rangi. Mawake Taupo married an Ariki of Hapuoneone named Hahuru, whose lineage included the original inhabitants of the area and their son Manaia would take the name Tuwharetoa. Ngati Tuwharetoa were active during the early 19th Century through military and diplomatic actions amongst the surrounding iwi.
Although the location of Tuwharetoa in the Central North Island kept them isolated from European contact until 1833, the iwi was nonetheless aware of Pakeha impact on the coast both through the introduction of new crops and stock and due to upheavals and conflicts amongst neighboring iwi to the north caused by the introduction of muskets. Te Rauparaha had sought shelter with Tuwharetoa, during his early rise to prominence and the Tuwharetoa war party met with Hongi Hika during the 1820s as part of the Roto-a-tara campaign at Heretaunga. Most notably Tuwharetoa actions during this period consolidated its position as the dominant iwi of the central plateau and the mana of Te Heuheu Mananui as Paramount Ariki. In 1840 Iwikau Te Heuheu and others were in Auckland trading flax and attended the meeting at Waitangi; however he did not authority to sign. During the Flagstaff War Mananui attempted to support Hone Heke, but was dissuaded to do so by Waikato. Iwikau Te Heu Heu replaced his brother in 1846 and was a key supporter of the founding of the Kingitanga movement after hearing of growing abuses and land theft by the British Colonials.
Tuwharetoa did not take part in battles in Auckland. Their first effort to join the Kingitanga Patriots in the legendary Battle Of Orakau. A few Ngati Tuwharetoa men, women & children fought the Colonials with their fellow soldiers inside the Orakau fortifications; the bulk of Horonuku Te Heuheu's Tuwharetoa warriors were prevented from entering the rebel stronghold by the early arrival of government troops, who formed a ring around the stronghold to prevent reinforcement. Tuwharetoa warriors were left to watch from a hillside 900 metres away where they were intermittently bombarded by Armstrong cannons, they could only encourage the hapless defenders with haka from a safe distance. In 1869 Tuwharetoa joined with the Maori Sovereignty Warrior Te Kooti and his Hau Hau supporters. Te Kooti had been rebuffed; however the Kingitanga kept a close eye on Te Kooti as he fought with the government and settlers and loyal Maori. Tuwharetoa joined with Te Kooti's Hau Hau at Te Porere Redoubt, styled after a European fort.
The result of the battle was a decisive defeat for Te Kooti. Women taken prisoner at Te Porere by the government so
Mount Ngauruhoe is an active stratovolcano or composite cone in New Zealand, made from layers of lava and tephra. It is the youngest vent in the Tongariro volcanic complex on the Central Plateau of the North Island, first erupted about 2,500 years ago. Although seen by most as a volcano in its own right, it is technically a secondary cone of Mount Tongariro; the volcano lies between the active volcanoes of Mount Tongariro to the north and Mount Ruapehu to the south, to the west of the Rangipo Desert and 25 kilometres to the south of the southern shore of Lake Taupo. The local Māori traditions state that the volcano was named by Ngātoro-i-rangi, an ancestor of the local Māori iwi, Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ngātoro-i-rangi called volcanic fire from his homeland Hawaiki, which emerged at Ngauruhoe; the name given by Ngātoro-i-rangi either commemorates his slave, who had died from the cold before the fire arrived, or refers to the insertions of Ngātoro-i-rangi's hoe into the ground during his summoning of the volcanic fire.
Ngauruhoe erupted 45 times in the 20th century, most in 1977. Fumaroles exist on the rim of the eastern, outer crater. Climbers who suffer from asthma may be affected by the strong sulphurous gases emitted from the crater. A significant increase in earthquake activity in May 2006 prompted the alert level to be raised from zero to one. Over the next two years GeoNet recorded an average of 5 to 30 earthquakes a day close to Ngauruhoe, though the maximum daily number was as high as 80. After mid-2008, the number of volcanic earthquakes close to Ngauruhoe declined to the background level. Regular measurements of volcanic gas levels and the temperature of a summit gas vent failed to record any significant changes over the subsequent two and a half years. GNS Science accordingly reduced the alert level for Ngauruhoe to Level 0 on 2 December 2008. “The reduction in earthquake activity means that an eruption in the near future is unlikely without further earthquakes or other changes and the appropriate alert level is therefore zero”, said GNS Science Volcano Section Manager Gill Jolly.
An increase in seismic activity in March 2015 resulted in the alert level being raised to Level 1. The anomalous activity was deemed to have subsided after three weeks, the alert level was lowered back to Level 0; the mountain is climbed from the western side, from the Mangatepopo track. From the Mangatepopo hut to the base of the mountain takes a steady 11⁄2 hour walk; the track climbs steeply to the base of the climb. In summer the climb is difficult due to the loose tephra. In the summer of 2010 a climber was injured by falling rock. In winter, snow consolidates the tephra; as the slope is about 45 degrees, kicking steps is essential, this requires fitness. After rain, the snow may be covered by ice, treacherous. Ice axes and ropes are recommended in midwinter. Climbers should practice self arrest with ice axes on the lower slopes. Experienced and fit climbers can attempt the climb from the northern side by cutting across the lava flows in the Mangatepopo valley from the Mangatepopo hut; this route is not recommended for casual climbers.
Climbers on reaching the summit descend the normal eastern route. Before starting any climb an accurate favourable weather forecast should be obtained and climbers should have the appropriate level of skill, warm clothing and equipment. Between March and October the mountain is subject to sudden violent wind gusts and snow storms with the temperature plunging well below zero. During the closure of the central part of the Mt. Tongariro one day walk, due to volcanic activity, climbing Mt. Ngauruhoe became a popular alternative. At Easter 2013 four climbers were injured in separate incidents. Two of the accidents were due to congestion on the normal eastern route to the crater when a climber caused loose rock to hit another climber below. All the injured had to be rescued by helicopter. In 1974, as part of a promotional campaign for his sponsor Moët & Chandon, champion skier Jean-Claude Killy was filmed skiing down the unskied eastern slope of the mountain; the average slope on this side of the volcano is 35 degrees, Killy was caught on radar skiing more than 100 miles per hour.
As he fell on the first run, he did the descent twice. Mount Ngauruhoe was used as a stand-in for the fictional Mount Doom in Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, achieving worldwide exposure; the mountain was first climbed by J. C. Bidwill in March 1839, the ascent being from the north-west, he reported that “The crater was the most terrific abyss I looked into or imagined … it was not possible to see above 10 yards into it from the quantity of steam which it was continually discharging”. List of volcanoes in New Zealand List of mountains of New Zealand by height Volcanism in New Zealand Ruapehu Tongariro Official NZ Reports Ngauruhoe on Peakware - photos Volcano camera Department of Conservation Tongariro National Park New Zealand Topo Online
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala