Video game programmer
A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who develops codebases for video games or related software, such as game development tools. Game programming has many specialized disciplines, all of which fall under the umbrella term of "game programmer". A game programmer should not be confused with a game designer. In the early days of video games, a game programmer took on the job of a designer and artist; this was because the abilities of early computers were so limited that having specialized personnel for each function was unnecessary. Game concepts were light and games were only meant to be played for a few minutes at a time, but more art content and variations in gameplay were constrained by computers' limited power; as specialized arcade hardware and home systems became more powerful, game developers could develop deeper storylines and could include such features as high-resolution and full color graphics, advanced artificial intelligence and digital sound.
Technology has advanced to such a great degree that contemporary games boast 3D graphics and full motion video using assets developed by professional graphic artists. Nowadays, the derogatory term "programmer art" has come to imply the kind of bright colors and blocky design that were typical of early video games; the desire for adding more depth and assets to games necessitated a division of labor. Art production was relegated to full-time artists. Next game programming became a separate discipline from game design. Now, only some games, such as the puzzle game Bejeweled, are simple enough to require just one full-time programmer. Despite this division, most game developers have some say in the final design of contemporary games. A contemporary video game may include advanced physics, artificial intelligence, 3D graphics, digitised sound, an original musical score, complex strategy and may use several input devices and may be playable against other people via the Internet or over a LAN; each aspect of the game can consume all of one programmer's time and, in many cases, several programmers.
Some programmers may specialize in one area of game programming, but many are familiar with several aspects. The number of programmers needed for each feature depends somewhat on programmers' skills, but are dictated by the type of game being developed. Game engine programmers create the base engine of the game, including the simulated physics and graphics disciplines. Video games use existing game engines, either commercial, open source or free, they are customized for a particular game, these programmers handle these modifications. A game's physics programmer is dedicated to developing the physics. A game will only simulate a few aspects of real-world physics. For example, a space game may need simulated gravity, but would not have any need for simulating water viscosity. Since processing cycles are always at a premium, physics programmers may employ "shortcuts" that are computationally inexpensive, but look and act "good enough" for the game in question. In other cases, unrealistic physics are employed to allow easier gameplay or for dramatic effect.
Sometimes, a specific subset of situations is specified and the physical outcome of such situations are stored in a record of some sort and are never computed at runtime at all. Some physics programmers may delve into the difficult tasks of inverse kinematics and other motions attributed to game characters, but these motions are assigned via motion capture libraries so as not to overload the CPU with complex calculations. For a role-playing game such as World of Warcraft, only one physics programmer may be needed. For a complex combat game such as Battlefield 1942, teams of several physics programmers may be required; this title belonged to a programmer who developed specialized blitter algorithms and clever optimizations for 2D graphics. Today, however, it is exclusively applied to programmers who specialize in developing and modifying complex 3D graphic renderers; some 2D graphics skills have just become useful again, for developing games for the new generation of cell phones and handheld game consoles.
A 3D graphics programmer must have a firm grasp of advanced mathematical concepts such as vector and matrix math and linear algebra. Skilled programmers specializing in this area of game development can demand high wages and are a scarce commodity, their skills can be used for video games on any platform. An AI programmer develops the logic of time to simulate intelligence in opponents, it has evolved into a specialized discipline, as these tasks used to be implemented by programmers who specialized in other areas. An AI programmer may program pathfinding and enemy tactic systems; this is one of the most challenging aspects of game programming and its sophistication is developing rapidly. Contemporary games dedicate 10 to 20 percent of their programming staff to AI; some games, such as strategy games like Civilization III or role-playing video games such as The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, use AI while others, such as puzzle games, use it sparingly or not at all. Many game developers have created entire languages that can be used to program their own AI for games via scripts.
These languages are less technical than the language used to implement the game, will be used by the game or level designers to implement the world of the game. Many studios make their games' scripting available to players
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Engrish is a slang term for the misuse or corruption of the English language by native speakers of Asian languages. The term itself relates to Japanese speakers' tendency to inadvertently substitute the English phonemes "R" and "L" for one another, a process known as lallation, unlike English, the Japanese language has only one liquid consonant; the related term "wasei-eigo" refers to pseudo-anglicisms. While the term may refer to spoken English, it is more used to describe written English. In Japan, it is common to add English text to items for decorative and fashion purposes; such text is added to create a cosmopolitan feeling rather than to be read by native English speakers, so may be meaningless or grammatically incorrect. Engrish can be found in many places, including signs and advertisements. Terms such as Japanglish, Japlish or Janglish for Japan, Konglish for Korea, Chinglish for China are more specific terms for Engrish. There are two contributing factors to Japanese Engrish. Firstly, the two languages have different grammar: Japanese word order, the frequent omission of subjects in Japanese, the absence of articles, a near-complete absence of consecutive consonants, difficulties in distinguishing /l/ and /r/, or /θ/ and /s/ sounds, all contribute to substantial problems using Standard English effectively.
Indeed, Japanese have tended to score comparatively poorly on international tests of English. Secondly, English is used in Japan for aesthetic rather than functional purposes. Indeed, it is claimed that in such decorative English "there is no attempt to try to get it right, nor do the vast majority of the Japanese population attempt to read the English design element in question. There is therefore less emphasis on checking spelling and grammatical accuracy." English is taught in Japanese schools with an emphasis on grammar over speaking. The written word is taught using Romaji; the spoken word is taught using Katakana script. Katakana is a syllabary like Hiragana but is used – analogously to italics in the Latin script – to denote foreign words. Katakana script is used in daily life for many foreign words used with Japanese; the limitations of the Katakana script mean. Furthermore, as Katakana is made up of syllables, not individual letters, there are included vowels that should be ignored in a Katakana English word, but are pronounced.
Conversely, soft letters are ignored. For example, the English word "start" used when referring to a race, is written in Katakana as スタート; the restricted nature of the Katakana set of syllables is. The answer to this is to teach spoken English using the Latin alphabet. Many Japanese people know how to write English well, but are not confident speakers due to this issue, it is not uncommon to receive a well-composed e-mail in English from a Japanese person, only to find that in person they will not attempt to speak English, preferring to apologise that they cannot speak, only write English. Instances of Engrish due to poor translation were found in many early video games produced in Japan due to the creators not having enough money for proper translations. One well-known example of Engrish in pop culture is the translation of the video game Zero Wing which gave birth to the phenomenon All your base are belong to us, which became an Internet meme; this phenomenon is parodied in Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga, in which the character Fawful speaks Engrish.
In the Japanese version of Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story, in the same subseries, the character Broque Monsieur speaks Engrish. Engrish has been featured in the Trey Parker and Matt Stone cartoon South Park, such as the song "Let's Fighting Love", used in the episode "Good Times with Weapons", which parodies the poorly translated opening theme sequences sometimes shown in anime, in Parker and Stone's feature length Team America: World Police where the North Korean leader Kim Jong Il is depicted singing the song "I'm so Ronery"; the British fashion brand Superdry, in a reverse parody of the phenomenon, has established a style of placing meaningless Japanese text such as'Sunglasses company' and'membership certificate' on clothing sold in Britain. The company explained to a Japanese television crew that most translations were done using simple automatic translation programs such as Babelfish. Monty Python's Flying Circus featured a parody of the drama series Elizabeth R, where they portrayed the cast riding motor-scooters and speaking Engrish, thus changing the title to "Erizabeth L".
In the 1983 film A Christmas Story, the Parker family goes to a Chinese restaurant for their Christmas dinner, are serenaded by the waitstaff with Engrish Christmas carols, such as "Deck the harrs wis boughs of horry, fa ra ra ra ra ra ra ra ra" and "Jingre berrs, jingre berrs, jingre arr the way, oh what fun it is to ride in one-horse open sreigh!" All your base are belong to us Broken English Japanese Pidgin English Non-native pronunciations of English Perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers Wasei-eigo List of wasei-eigo Eng
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer. This alignment of three celestial objects is known as a syzygy. Apart from syzygy, the term eclipse is used when a spacecraft reaches a position where it can observe two celestial bodies so aligned. An eclipse is the result of either a transit; the term eclipse is most used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow crosses the Earth's surface, or a lunar eclipse, when the Moon moves into the Earth's shadow. However, it can refer to such events beyond the Earth–Moon system: for example, a planet moving into the shadow cast by one of its moons, a moon passing into the shadow cast by its host planet, or a moon passing into the shadow of another moon. A binary star system can produce eclipses if the plane of the orbit of its constituent stars intersects the observer's position.
For the special cases of solar and lunar eclipses, these only happen during an "eclipse season", the two times of each year when the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun crosses with the plane of the Moon's orbit around the Earth. The type of solar eclipse that happens during each season depends on apparent sizes of the Sun and Moon. If the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, the Moon's orbit around the Earth were both in the same plane with each other eclipses would happen each and every month. There would be a lunar eclipse at every full moon, a solar eclipse at every new moon, and if both orbits were circular each solar eclipse would be the same type every month. It is because of non-circular differences that eclipses are not a common event. Lunar eclipses can be viewed from the entire nightside half of the Earth, but solar eclipses total eclipses occurring at any one particular point on the Earth's surface, are rare events that can be many decades apart. The term is derived from the ancient Greek noun ἔκλειψις, which means "the abandonment", "the downfall", or "the darkening of a heavenly body", derived from the verb ἐκλείπω which means "to abandon", "to darken", or "to cease to exist," a combination of prefix ἐκ-, from preposition ἐκ, "out," and of verb λείπω, "to be absent".
For any two objects in space, a line can be extended from the first through the second. The latter object will block some amount of light being emitted by the former, creating a region of shadow around the axis of the line; these objects are moving with respect to each other and their surroundings, so the resulting shadow will sweep through a region of space, only passing through any particular location in the region for a fixed interval of time. As viewed from such a location, this shadowing event is known as an eclipse; the cross-section of the objects involved in an astronomical eclipse are disk shaped. The region of an object's shadow during an eclipse is divided into three parts: The umbra, within which the object covers the light source. For the Sun, this light source is the photosphere; the antumbra, extending beyond the tip of the umbra, within which the object is in front of the light source but too small to cover it. The penumbra, within which the object is only in front of the light source.
A total eclipse occurs when the observer is within the umbra, an annular eclipse when the observer is within the antumbra, a partial eclipse when the observer is within the penumbra. During a lunar eclipse only the umbra and penumbra are applicable; this is because Earth's apparent diameter from the viewpoint of the Moon is nearly four times that of the Sun. The same terms may be used analogously in describing other eclipses, e.g. the antumbra of Deimos crossing Mars, or Phobos entering Mars's penumbra. The first contact occurs when the eclipsing object's disc first starts to impinge on the light source. For spherical bodies, when the occulting object is smaller than the star, the length of the umbra's cone-shaped shadow is given by: L = r ⋅ R o R s − R o where Rs is the radius of the star, Ro is the occulting object's radius, r is the distance from the star to the occulting object. For Earth, on average L is equal to 1.384×106 km, much larger than the Moon's semimajor axis of 3.844×105 km. Hence the umbral cone of the Earth can envelop the Moon during a lunar eclipse.
If the occulting object has an atmosphere, some of the luminosity of the star can be refracted into the volume of the umbra. This occurs, for example, during an eclipse of the Moon by the Earth—producing a faint, ruddy illumination of the Moon at totality. On Earth, the shadow cast during an eclipse moves approximately at 1 km per sec; this depends on the angle in which it is moving. An eclipse cycle takes place; this happens. A particular instance is the saros, which results in a repetition of a solar or lunar eclipse every 6,585.3 days, or a little over 18 years. Because this is not a
Rayman is a franchise of platform video games, published by Ubisoft. Since the release of the original Rayman, conceived by Michel Ancel in 1995, the series has produced a total of 44 games across multiple platforms; the series is set in a fantastical, magical world which features a wide range of environments that are based on certain themes, such as "the Eraser Plains", a landscape made of stationery. The core games of the series are platformers; the main protagonist of the series is the eponymous Rayman, a magical being renowned for his courage and determination who, with the help of his friends, must save his world from various villains. Rayman is the main protagonist of the series, he has no arms, legs or neck, though he has hands, a head that are able to move independent of his body. Due to his lack of arms, Rayman is able to throw his fists in long-range punches at his enemies, in some games is able to project balls of energy from his hands, he is able to glide by spinning his hair like a helicopter blade.
He is found wearing white gloves, a red neckerchief on a purple shirt and a white ring on the chest, yellow trainers. He is voiced by David Gasman and Steve Perkinson in the video games and by Billy West in the animated series, he was awarded the Best New Character award of 1995 by Electronic Gaming Monthly. Globox is sidekick. Although frightened, he has demonstrated his courage. In Rayman 3, he is voiced by John Leguizamo. Barbara is a spunky, red-haired princess warrior and barbarian who first appeared in Rayman Legends, becoming the first human being to be playable in the main series with another sister and eight other cousins who can be rescued throughout Legends, she is armed with a flail battle axe, whose head can be launched forward from the shaft to strike foes from a distance, uses a magical winged helmet to float through the air, mimicking Rayman's helicopter hair ability. Barbara returns in Rayman Adventures, having cut her long hair to neck level and exchanged her axe with a shovel.
Betilla the Fairy is a benevolent fairy. After failing to stop Mister Dark steal the Great Protoon, Betilla assists Rayman in his quest by granting him various new abilities as the game progresses. Betilla reappears in a similar role and with a new design in Rayman Origins, where it is revealed she was the one who created Rayman. Ly the Fairy is a benevolent fairy, she is voiced by Kim Michelle Broderick. Murfy serves as a guide to Rayman, he has a hasty nature, unable to deal with failure. He can not be bothered with trivial details, his race is depicted as mischievous and described as "cultivated hedonist". He is voiced by Billy West. Since his debut in 1995 on the Atari Jaguar, Rayman has become a popular video game character, along with his trademark helicopter power and lack of limbs. Official website
Capture the flag
Capture the flag is a traditional outdoor game where two teams each have a flag and the objective is to capture the other team's flag, located at the team's "base," and bring it safely back to their own base. Enemy players can be "tagged" by players in their home territory and, depending on the rules, they may be out of the game, become members of the opposite team, sent back to their own territory, or frozen in place until freed by a member of their own team. Capture the Flag requires a playing field of some sort. In both indoor and outdoor versions, the field is divided into two designated halves, known as territories. Players form one for each territory; each side has a "flag", most a piece of fabric, but can be any object small enough to be carried by a person. Sometimes teams wear dark colors at night to make it more difficult for their opponents to see them. If one team has the opposing team's flag on their territory they may be tagged because they have the opposing team's flag; the objective of the game is for players to venture into the opposing team's territory, grab the flag and return with it to their territory without being tagged.
The flag is defended by tagging opposing players who attempt to take it. Within their territory players are "safe". Once they cross into the opposing team's territory they are vulnerable; the flag is placed in a visibly obvious location at the rear of a team's territory. In a more difficult version, the flag is hidden in a place, it might have some challenge involved. For example, the flag could be hidden in the leaves up in a tall tree, the players have to see the flag knock it out and bring it to their base. Different versions of Capture the Flag have different rules, both for handling the flag and for what happens to tagged players. A player, tagged may be eliminated from the game be forced to join the opposing team, sent back to their own territory, or be placed in "jail" with or without a guard; the jail is a predesignated area of the group's territory which exists for holding tagged players and is towards the back of the group's territory. While tagged players may be confined to jail for a limited, predetermined time, the most common form of the game involves the option for a "jailbreak".
In this version, players who are tagged remain in jail indefinitely. However, players from their own team may free them from jail by means of a jailbreak. Jailbreaks are accomplished by a player running from their own territory into the enemy's jail; such action may, depending on the rules, free all jailed players or those who are physically touched by the one performing the jailbreak. But in some variants team mates who got tagged can be jailed only 3 times or they are kicked from the game until the next round. In general freed players are obligated to return directly to their own territory before attempting offensive action. While they return to their own side, freed players acquire "free walk-backs", in which they are safe from tagging until they reach their home territory; the player performing the jail break, on the other hand, is neither safe, nor restricted from performing other actions such as attempting to grab the flag or moving about enemy territory. Sometimes, players in jail form chains, so that if a teammate tags one person in the chain, everyone is free.
Leaving jail without being freed is considered poor sportsmanship and is frowned upon leading to expulsion from the game. If all players on one team are jailed the other team will have all the time they want to find the other team's flag; the rules for the handling of the flag vary from game to game and deal with the disposition of the flag after a failed attempt at capturing it. In one variant, after a player is tagged while carrying the flag, it is returned to its original place. In another variant, the flag is left in the location; this latter variant makes offensive play easier, as the flag will tend, over the course of the game, to be moved closer to the dividing line between territories. In some games, it is possible for the players to throw the flag to teammates; as long as the flag stays in play without hitting the ground, it is allowed for the players to pass. When the flag is captured by one player, they're not safe from being tagged. Sometimes, the flag holder may not be safe at all in their home territory, until they obtain both flags, thus ending the game.
But they have the option to return to their own side or hand it off to a teammate who will carry it to the other side. In most versions, they may not throw the flag but only hand it off while running; the game is won when a player returns to their own territory with the enemy flag or both teams' flags. As a general rule, the flag carrier may not attempt to free any of their teammates from jail. Alterations may include "one flag" CTF in which there is a defensive team and an offensive team, or games with three or more flags. In the case of the latter, one can only win, not only one. Another variation is when the players put bandannas in their pockets with about six inches sticking out. Instead of tagging your opponents, you must pull your opponent's bandanna out of their pocket. No matter where a player is when their bandanna is pulled, they're captured and must, depending on the preferences of the players, go to jail, or return