The griffin, griffon, or gryphon is a legendary creature with the body and back legs of a lion. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, Griffins were known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions. In Greek and Roman texts and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets."In medieval heraldry, the Griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine. The derivation of this word remains uncertain, it could be related to the Greek word γρυπός, meaning'curved', or'hooked'. This could have been an Anatolian loan word, compare Akkadian karūbu, similar to Cherub. A related Hebrew word is כרוב. Most statuary representations of griffins depict them with bird-like talons, although in some older illustrations griffins have a lion's forelimbs.
Its eagle's head is conventionally given prominent ears. Infrequently, a griffin is portrayed without wings, or a wingless eagle-headed lion is identified as a griffin. In 15th-century and heraldry, such a beast may be called an alce or a keythong. In heraldry, a griffin always has forelegs like an eagle's hind-legs. A type of griffin with the four legs of a lion was distinguished by only one English herald of heraldry as the Opinicus, which had a camel-like neck and a short tail that resembles a camel's tail. There is evidence of representations of griffins in Ancient Iranian and Ancient Egyptian art dating back to before 3000 BC. In Egypt, a griffin can be seen in a cosmetic palette from Hierakonpolis, known as the "Two Dog Palette", dated to ca. 3300-3100 BC. In Iranian mythology, griffin is called Shirdal means: Lion-Eagle. Shirdal have used in ancient art of Iran since late second millennium BC. Shirdals appeared on cylinder seals from Susa as early as 3000 BC. Shirdals are common motifs in the art of Luristan and North West region of Iran in Iron Age, Achaemenid art.
Griffin depictions appear in the Levant and Anatolia in the Middle Bronze Age, dated at about 1950-1550 BC. Early depictions of griffins in Ancient Greek art are found in the 15th century BC frescoes in the Throne Room of the Bronze Age Palace of Knossos, as restored by Sir Arthur Evans, it continued being a favored decorative theme in Classical Greek art. In Central Asia, the griffin appears about a thousand years after Bronze Age Crete, in the 5th–4th centuries BC originating from the Achaemenid Persian Empire; the Achaemenids considered the griffin "a protector from evil and secret slander". The modern generalist calls it the lion-griffin, as for example, Robin Lane Fox, in Alexander the Great, 1973:31 and notes p. 506, who remarks a lion-griffin attacking a stag in a pebble mosaic at Pella as an emblem of the kingdom of Macedon or a personal one of Alexander's successor Antipater. The Pisa Griffin is a large bronze sculpture, in Pisa in Italy since the Middle Ages, though it is of Islamic origin.
It is the largest bronze medieval Islamic sculpture known, at over three feet tall, was created in the 11th century in Al-Andaluz. From about 1100 it was placed on a column on the roof of Pisa Cathedral until replaced by a replica in 1832. Adrienne Mayor, a classical folklorist and historian of science, proposes that the ancient Greek idea and image of the griffin in classical art and literature beginning in the seventh century BC was influenced in part by the fossilized remains of beaked dinosaurs such as Protoceratops observed on the way to gold deposits by nomadic prospectors of ancient Scythia, This hypothesis is speculative, based on a number of Greek and Latin literary sources and related artworks, beginning with the first written ancient descriptions of griffins in a lost work by Aristeas of Proconnessus in the seventh century BC), cited by Aeschylus and Herodotus and ending with Aelian. Mayor's suggestion has been contested in a blog claiming that it ignores pre-Mycenaean accounts and bird-lion composites in earlier art that goes far earlier than 7th century BCE..
A multitude of imaginary composite creatures combining features of birds and mammals can be found in ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern art, including mammals with bird heads in Minoan, Mycenaean,and Egyptian art, but there are no pre-Mycenaean written accounts about Griffins. Mayor's suggestion is speculative, intended to account for the profusion of Greco-Latin literary accounts of the "gryps" as a real animal of the East and the accompanying popularity of artistic representations that arose in Greece after travelers like Aristeas brought back tales of "Griffins" from Central Asia. Several ancient mythological creatures are similar to the griffin; these include the Lama
Eurogamer is a website focused on video game journalism and other features. It is operated by Gamer Network Ltd. with headquarters in East Sussex. It was formed in 1999 by brothers Nick Loman while they were in secondary school. Gamer Network states that the site has the largest readership of any independent videogames website in Europe, was the first such site to subject its traffic to independent verification by the ABC Electronic system; the site caters to a UK/Ireland audience. Most of its reviews are of PAL releases of games. In February 2015, Eurogamer dropped its 10-point scale review scores system in favour of a "recommendation system," where games would either receive no specific recommendation or awards for being "Recommended," "Essential" or "Avoid." Eurogamer launched on 4 September 1999. Among its founders were Rupert Loman, a Quake and esports community organiser. Eurogamer's current editor is Oli Welsh, who took over the role from Tom Bramwell in September 2014; the editor prior to Bramwell was Kristan Reed.
Contributors to the site include past or present writers from PC Gamer, GamesTM, Rock, Shotgun, such as Kieron Gillen, Jim Rossignol, John Walker, Simon Parkin, Alec Meer, Richard Leadbetter, Dan Whitehead, as well as former GamesIndustry.biz editor Rob Fahey. Eurogamer founder Rupert Loman was interviewed in February 2007 by MCV magazine, he was featured in the Sunday Telegraph on 19 August 2007, speaking about the experience he has gained from choosing to run Eurogamer instead of attending university. At the Games Media Awards, Eurogamer won the categories of Best Games Website – News, Best Games Website – Reviews & Features in 2007; the two awards were consolidated in 2008 and the site went on to win the new award for Best Games Website every year it was awarded, from 2008 to 2013, making it the only website to win the award in its history. Deputy Editor Tom Bramwell won Best Writer in Specialist Digital Media and Eurogamer TV editor Johnny Minkley won Best Games-Dedicated Broadcast on Mainstream TV or Radio in 2007.
News editor Wesley Yin-Poole won Best News Writer in 2014. Rupert Loman was winner of Entrepreneur of the Year 2003 at the Sussex Business Awards and The Observer's "One to Watch" in Media 2007, he was selected as one of 30 "Young Guns" by Growing Business magazine in October 2008. Eurogamer is the principal site of the Gamer Network family of video game-related websites which it has either launched or acquired. Many of its sister sites were started with language/country-specific sites through 2006 to 2012. Eurogamer Germany; this was followed up with Eurogamer France in June 2007, Eurogamer Portugal in May 2008, Eurogamer Netherlands in August 2008, Eurogamer Spain and Eurogamer Italy in October 2008, Eurogamer Romania in March 2009, Eurogamer Czech in May 2009, Eurogamer Denmark in June 2009, Eurogamer Belgium in August 2009, Eurogamer Sweden in April 2010 and Eurogamer Poland in November 2012. In April 2011, Eurogamer Netherlands and Eurogamer Belgium merged to form Eurogamer Benelux. Eurogamer Romania closed down in 2011.
In November 2012, Eurogamer launched their first non-European site, Brasilgamer,In February 2018, Gamer Network was acquired by ReedPOP for an undisclosed sum. Other sites under the Gamer Network include: GamesIndustry.biz, which reports on the global video games industry, launched in May 2008. USgamer, a site following the same principles as the main Eurogamer website but helmed by American staff, launched around 2013. VG247, a video game news site started between Gamer Network and Patrick Garrett in 2008. Mod DB, a database for video game modifications launched in 2002, acquired by Gamer Network in 2015. Rock, Shotgun, a British-based website principally devoted to personal computer video games; the site was acquired into the Gamer Network in May 2017. Eurogamer has hosted the Digital Foundry channel since 2007. Digital Foundry evaluates video game hardware and software from a technical level comparing performances of the same game across different platforms. In February 2018, ReedPOP, a subsidiary of Reed Exhibitions that runs the PAX conventions, acquired the Gamer Network and its network of sites as to expanding into digital news and editorial content, as well as EGX, the largest video game convention in the United Kingdom.
No immediate changes were expected at other sites on the Gamer Network. Eurogamer.net GamesIndustry.biz
Kenji Kaido is the producer of Sony Interactive Entertainment's Product Development Department #1 division. Kaido started his videogaming career at Taito in 1987, where he worked as project leader and lead game designer on arcade titles Bonze Adventure, Night Striker, Champion Wrestler, Sonic Blast Man, Warrior Blade and Dead Connection. Kaido changed departments to work on the world's first Home Karaoke Console, the X55 from its beginnings. In 1996, he worked as the project leader and lead game designer for coin-op game Cleopatra Fortune. In 1997, Kaido joined Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.. There he started working on the associate producer. Most Kaido worked as product manager and producer for Ico in 2001, Shadow of the Colossus in 2005, he left Sony in August 2012. Bonze Adventure Night Striker Champion Wrestler Cameltry Sonic Blast Man Warrior Blade Dead Connection Cleopatra Fortune Tomba! Ape Escape Tomba! 2: The Evil Swine Return Ico Shadow of the Colossus Interview with EuroGamer.net Interview with Kikizo.com
Shadow of the Colossus
Shadow of the Colossus, released in Japan as Wander and the Colossus, is an action-adventure game developed by SCE Japan Studio and Team Ico, published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation 2. The game was released in North America and Japan in October 2005 and PAL regions in February 2006, it was directed by Fumito Ueda and developed at SCEI's International Production Studio 1 known as Team Ico. The game's storyline focuses on a young man named Wander. Wander must travel across a vast expanse on horseback and defeat sixteen massive beings, known as colossi, in order to restore the life of a girl named Mono; the game is unusual within the action-adventure genre in that there are no towns or dungeons to explore, no characters with whom to interact, no enemies to defeat other than the colossi. Shadow of the Colossus has been described as a puzzle game, as each colossus can only be killed by attacking certain weak points which require specific actions to access. Cited as an influential title in the video game industry and one of the greatest video games of all time, Shadow of the Colossus is regarded as an important example of video game as art due to its minimalist landscape designs, immersive gameplay and emotional journey.
It received wide critical acclaim by the media and was met with strong sales compared to Ico, due in part to a larger marketing campaign. The soundtrack was widely praised; the game won several awards for its audio and overall quality. Shadow of the Colossus is referenced numerous times in debates regarding the art quality and emotional perspectives of video games. A remastered version for the PlayStation 3 was developed by Bluepoint Games and released alongside Ico as The Ico & Shadow of the Colossus Collection in September 2011, it features high-definition graphics, content missing from the North American version, PlayStation Network Trophies, 3D support. The HD version was released separately in Japan. A high-definition remake for the PlayStation 4 was released in February 2018. Progression through Shadow of the Colossus occurs in cycles. Beginning at a central point in an expansive landscape, the player seeks out and defeats a colossus, is returned to the central point to repeat the process.
To find each colossus, Wander may raise his sword while in a sunlit area to reflect beams of light, which will converge when the sword is pointed in the right direction of the next encounter. The journey to a colossus is a straightforward matter: stretches of varied terrain require that a detour be taken along the way. Most colossi are located within ancient structures. Once a colossus is found, the player must discover its weaknesses to defeat it; each colossus dwells in a unique lair, many colossi cannot be defeated without making use of the surrounding environment. Every colossus has at least one weak point, indicated by a glowing sigil that can be illuminated and identified by the sword's reflected light; each colossus has areas covered with fur or protruding ledges, which Wander may use to grip and scale the colossus while it thrashes about in an attempt to dislodge him. While scaling a colossus, the player must act as Wander has a limited stamina gauge that decreases while he hangs onto the creature.
Wander and the colossi have life bars to indicate their remaining health. A colossus' health will decrease when its weak points are attacked, while Wander can be harmed by a colossus' attacks or a fall from great height. Throughout the game, Wander is equipped with only a sword and a bow with arrows, but may obtain other weapons from completing the Time Attack trials. While the colossi are the only enemies, there are natural animals in the environment. Only one species, has any effect on gameplay: eating the tail of a certain kind of lizard increases Wander's stamina gauge; the player may find fruit that increases Wander's maximum health. Wander's horse, plays a large role in the game. In addition to serving as a means of transportation, fighting from horseback is vital to defeating some of the colossi. There are, many environments that cannot be traversed by horse, colossi inhabit areas within deep water or beyond large obstacles that must be scaled. Agro cannot travel beyond these, when separated from Wander by such obstacles, cannot participate in the following battle.
Agro is referred to as a male in the English-language version of the game, though director Fumito Ueda said that he saw Wander's horse as female. The environment must be used to the player's advantage more as the game progresses; the first two battles take place on simple, flat areas of land, with the only goal being to discover how to scale the colossi and attack their weak points. However, the majority of the following fourteen battles require that some aspect of the battlefield be used. During Shadow of the Colossus, the player receives little information concerning the backstories of the characters and their relationships with one another; the game takes place in a fantasy setting, with most of the game's events occurring within a vast and unpopulated peninsula, known as the Forbidden Land, separated from the outside world by a mountain range to its north and sea to the south and east. The presence of ruins and other ancient structures indicate; the region is only accessible via a small cleft in the mountains to the north, leading to a massive stone bridge.
This bridge spans half the distance of the landscape and terminates at a large temple called the "Shrine of Worship" located at its center. It is, for
Ico is an action-adventure game developed by SCE Japan Studio and Team Ico, published by Sony Computer Entertainment, released for the PlayStation 2 video game console in 2001 and 2002 in various regions. It was designed and directed by Fumito Ueda, who wanted to create a minimalist game around a "boy meets girl" concept. Planned for the PlayStation, Ico took four years to develop; the team employed a "subtracting design" approach to reduce elements of gameplay that interfered with the game's setting and story in order to create a high level of immersion. The protagonist is a young boy named Ico, born with horns, which his village considers a bad omen. Warriors lock him away in an abandoned fortress. During his explorations of the fortress, Ico encounters the daughter of the castle's Queen; the Queen plans to use Yorda's body to extend her own lifespan. Learning this, Ico seeks to escape the castle with Yorda, keeping her safe from the shadow-like creatures that attempt to draw her back. Throughout the game, the player controls Ico as he explores the castle, solves puzzles and assists Yorda across obstacles.
Ico introduced several design and technical elements, including a story told with minimal dialogue, bloom lighting, key frame animation, that have influenced subsequent games. Although not a commercial success, it was critically acclaimed for its art, original gameplay and story elements and received several awards, including "Game of the Year" nominations and three Game Developers Choice Awards. Considered a cult classic, it has been called one of the greatest games of all time, is brought up in discussions about video games as an art form, it was rereleased in Europe in 2006 in conjunction with Shadow of the Colossus, the spiritual successor to Ico. Ico is a three-dimensional platform game; the player controls Ico from a third-person perspective as he explores the castle and attempts to escape it with Yorda. The camera swivels to follow Ico or Yorda as they move; the game includes many elements of platform games. These actions are complicated by the fact; the player must use Ico so that he helps Yorda cross obstacles, such as by lifting her to a higher ledge, or by arranging the environment to allow Yorda to cross a larger gap herself.
The player can tell Yorda to wait at a spot. The player can have Ico take Yorda's hand and pull her along at a faster pace across the environment. Players are unable to progress in the game until they move Yorda to certain doors that only she can open. Escaping the castle is made difficult by shadow creatures sent by the Queen; these creatures attempt to drag Yorda into black vortexes if Ico leaves her for any length of time, or if she is in certain areas of the castle. Ico can dispel these shadows using a stick or sword and pull Yorda free if she is drawn into a vortex. While the shadow creatures cannot harm Ico, the game is over if Yorda becomes engulfed in a vortex; the player will restart from a save point if Ico falls from a large height. Save points in the game are represented by stone benches that Ico and Yorda rest on as the player saves the game. In European and Japanese releases of the game, upon completion of the game, the player has the opportunity to restart the game in a local co-operative two-player mode, where the second player plays as Yorda, still under the same limitations as the computer-controlled version of the character.
Ico, a horned boy, is taken by a group of warriors to an abandoned castle and locked inside a stone coffin to be sacrificed. A tremor topples the Ico escapes; as he searches the castle, he comes across a captive girl who speaks a different language. Ico defends her from shadow-like creatures; the pair arrive at the bridge leading to land. As they cross, the Queen, ruler of the castle and tells Yorda that as her daughter she cannot leave the castle; as they try to escape on the bridge, it slips up and they get separated. Yorda tries to save Ico but the Queen prevents it, he ends up losing consciousness. Ico awakens below the castle and makes his way back to the upper levels, finding a magic sword that dispels the shadow creatures. After discovering that Yorda has been turned to stone by the Queen, he confronts the Queen in her throne room, who reveals that she plans to restart her life anew by taking possession of Yorda's body. Ico slays the Queen with the magic sword, but his horns are broken in the fight and at the end of it he is knocked unconscious.
With the Queen's death the castle begins to collapse around Ico, but the Queen's spell on Yorda is broken, a shadowy Yorda carries Ico safely out of the castle to a boat, sending him to drift to the shore alone. Ico awakens to find the distant castle in ruins, Yorda, in her human form, washed up nearby, she smiles at Ico. Lead designer Fumito Ueda came up with the concept for Ico in 1997, envisioning a "boy meets girl" story where the two main characters would hold hands during their adventure, forming a bond between them without communication. Ueda's original inspiration for Ico was a TV commercial he saw, of a woman holding the hand of a child while walking through the woods, the manga series Galaxy Express 999 (1977–1981
Video game industry
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide; the computer and video-game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream. They took in about US$9.5 billion in the US in 2007, 11.7 billion in 2008, 25.1 billion in 2010. Modern personal computers owe many advances and innovations to the game industry: sound cards, graphics cards and 3D graphic accelerators, faster CPUs, dedicated co-processors like PhysX are a few of the more notable improvements. Sound cards were developed for addition of digital-quality sound to games and only improved for music and audiophiles. Early on, graphics cards were developed for more colors. Graphic cards were developed for graphical user interfaces and games, they are one of the only pieces of hardware to allow multiple hookups. CD- and DVD-ROMs developed for mass distribution of media in general. Ben Sawyer of Digitalmill observes that the game industry value chain is made up of six connected and distinctive layers: Capital and publishing layer: involved in paying for development of new titles and seeking returns through licensing of the titles.
Product and talent layer: includes developers and artists, who may be working under individual contracts or as part of in-house development teams. Production and tools layer: generates content production tools, game development middleware, customizable game engines, production management tools. Distribution layer: or the "publishing" industry, involved in generating and marketing catalogs of games for retail and online distribution. Hardware layer: or the providers of the underlying platform, which may be console-based, accessed through online media, or accessed through mobile devices such as smartphones; this layer now includes network infrastructure and non-hardware platforms such as virtual machines, or software platforms such as browsers or further Facebook, etc. End-users layer: or the users/players of the games; the game industry employs those experienced in other traditional businesses, but some have experience tailored to the game industry. Some of the disciplines specific to the game industry include: game programmer, game designer, level designer, game producer, game artist and game tester.
Most of these professionals are employed by video game publishers. However, many hobbyists produce computer games and sell them commercially. Game developers and publishers sometimes employ those with extensive or long-term experience within the modding communities. Prior to the 1970s, there was no significant commercial aspect of the video game industry, but many advances in computing would set the stage for the birth of the industry. Many early publicly-available interactive computer-based game machines used or other mechanisms to mimic a display; some examples of these included the 1940 "Nimatron", an electromagentic relay-based Nim-playing device designed by Edward Condon and built by Westinghouse Electric for the New York World's Fair, Bertie the Brain, an arcade game of tic-tac-toe, built by Josef Kates for the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition, Nimrod created by engineering firm Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain,The development of cathode ray tube—the core technology behind televisions—created several of the first true video games.
In 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a patent for a "cathode ray tube amusement device". Their game, which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display, challenges players to fire a gun at target. Between the 1950s and 1960s, with mainframe computers becoming available to campus colleges and others started to develop games that could be played at terminals that accessed the mainframe. One of the first known examples is Spacewar!, developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, Wayne Wiitanen. The introduction of easy-to-program languages like BASIC for mainframes allowed for more simplistic games to be developed. In 1971, the arcade game, Computer Space was released; the following year, Inc. released the first commercially successful video game, the original arcade version of which sold over 19,000 arcade cabinets. That same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of the early video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey.
However, both the arcade and home markets would be dominated by Pong clones, which flooded the market and led to the video game crash of 1977. The crash came to an end with the success of Taito's Space Invaders, released in 1978, sparking a renaissance for the video game industry and paving the way for the golden age of video arcade games; the game's success inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores during the golden age. Space Invaders would go on to sell over 360,000 arcade cabinets worldwide, by 1982, generate a revenue of $2 billion in quarters, equivalent to $4.6 billion in 2011. Soon after, Space Invaders was licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; the success of the Atari 2600 in turn revived the home video game market dur
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1