A track bicycle or track bike is a bicycle optimized for racing at a velodrome or outdoor track. Unlike road bicycles, the track bike is a fixed-gear bicycle. Tires are inflated to high pressure to reduce rolling resistance. Tubular tires are most used in track racing and training, though advances in clincher tire design have seen them being used somewhat more often; the first bicycle race is popularly held to have been a 1,200 meter race on the 31 May 1868 at the Parc de Saint-Cloud, Paris. It was won by expatriate Englishman James Moore; the machine is now on display at the museum in Ely, England. The Union Cycliste Internationale was founded on 14 April 1900 by Belgium, the United States, France and Switzerland to replace the International Cycling Association, formed in 1892, over a row with Great Britain as well as because of other issues. A track frame is specific to its intended use, with emphasis on rigidity and lightness. Frames for sprinting seek to maximize rigidity, while those for general racing seek to reduce aerodynamic drag.
The governing body, the Union Cycliste Internationale, sets limits on design and dimensions as well as the shape and diameter of the tubes used to construct the frame. A Keirin bike is a track bike. A track bicycle differs from one used on the road by having: higher bottom bracket so the pedals do not touch a steeply banked track steeper seat tube for a more aerodynamic position and a shorter wheelbase steeper head tube for more responsive steering, less fork rake. Very tight clearances between wheels and frame tubes, a shorter than normal top tube with a longer handlebar stem to compensate. Track bikes have substantial toe overlap with the front wheel; this is not an issue for velodrome riding but can make slow-speed turns awkward if the bike is used on the road. Typical track frames use 120 mm spacing for the rear hub; the dropouts or track ends face rearwards to facilitate chain tension adjustment. Frames are made of steel, aluminium, or titanium alloys, carbon fiber, or a combination of these materials.
Carbon fiber frames are most common at the professional level. Frames are cast in a mould for "one-piece" type models; the UCI permits special exceptions for the geometry of track bikes. Track bicycles have only one drive sprocket and one chainring, so the size ratio is relevant. A lower gear ratio can limit top speed. A larger gear ratio makes sustained speed easier, important in pursuit racing, time trial and bunched races such as points or scratch events. Without a good jump, the rider risks opponents accelerating away. Track cyclists practice fast pedalling as a compromise. Long-distance attempts such as the hour record sometimes use high gear combinations such as 52x12 or 55x14. Ondřej Sosenka used 54x13 with 190 mm cranks to set the 2005 record. There are two common widths of single speed and fixed gear bicycle chains: 3⁄32 - inch; the chainring and chain should all be the same width. Although an 1⁄8-inch chain will work on a 3⁄32-inch chainring or sprocket, it is not ideal. A 3⁄32-inch chain will not work on a 1⁄8-inch chainring or sprocket.
Because they do not need to shift between sprockets, track chains use a full bushing to reduce flex and increase strength. Newer bicycles with derailleur gears use bushingless chains which flex, making gear changing possible. Outline of cycling Path racer Keirin Red Hook Crit
Keirin – "racing cycle" – is a form of motor-paced cycle racing in which track cyclists sprint for victory following a speed-controlled start behind a motorized or non-motorized pacer. It was developed in Japan around 1948 for gambling purposes and became an official event at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia. Riders use brakeless fixed-gear bicycles. Races are 1.5 kilometres long: 6 laps on a 250 m track, 4 laps on a 333 m track, 4 laps on a 400 m track. Lots are drawn to determine starting positions for the sprint riders behind the pacer, a motorcycle, but can be a derny, electric bicycle or tandem bicycle. Riders must remain behind the pacer for 3 laps on a 250 m track; the pacer starts at 30 km/h increasing to 50 km/h by its final circuit. The pacer leaves the track 750 m before the end of the race; the winner's finishing speed can exceed 70 km/h. Competition keirin races are conducted over several rounds with one final; some eliminated. Keirin has been a UCI men's World Championship event since 1980 and a UCI women's World Championship event since 2002.
Danny Clark of Australia and Li Na of China were the first UCI world champions. The 2017 men's and women's world champions are Azizulhasni Awang of Malaysia and Kristina Vogel of Germany. Keirin made its debut at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney as a men's event, after being admitted into the Olympics in December 1996; the women's event was added for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. A BBC News investigation, reported in July 2008, found evidence that following admission into the Olympics, the Union Cycliste Internationale required the Japan Keirin Association to support UCI projects in "material terms". Four members of the governing body were arrested in Tokyo. Professional Track cycling began as a betting sport in Japan in 1948, has since become popular there. In 1957, the Nihon Jitensha Shinkōkai was founded to establish a uniform system of standards for the sport in Japan. Today keirin racing is regulated by the JKA Foundation. In 2011, the sum of bets placed on keirin races exceeded ¥600 billion, the number of attendees in the races was 4.9 million people.
Aspiring professional keirin riders in Japan compete for entrance into the Japan Keirin School. The 10 percent of applicants who are accepted undergo a strict 15-hours-per-day training regimen; those who pass the graduation exams, are approved by the NJS become eligible for professional keirin races in Japan. Japanese races for women were reintroduced under the title of Girl's Keirin. Women were permitted to participate from 1949 until 1964. Like the men, the women must undergo a strict training regimen at the Keirin School. Koichi Nakano was one of the first Japanese keirin athletes to compete outside of his native country, Nakano holds the best matched sprint record as a track cyclist at the UCI Track World Championships with a record of ten consecutive professional Sprint World Track Cycling Championship wins from 1977–86 against western European pro track cyclists, although he never won the Keirin World Championship. At that time, many leading sprint riders were from the Eastern bloc countries and competed in separate "amateur" events.
Katsuaki Matsumoto is the all-time professional keirin athlete with the most wins - 1341 - over his career. The current Keirin Grand Prix champion is Kohta Asai. Keirin races in Japan begin with the cyclists parading to the starting blocks, bowing as they enter the track and again as they position their bikes for the start of the race; every participant is assigned a colour for identification and betting purposes. At the sound of the gun, the cyclists leave their starting blocks and attempt to gain position behind the pacer, a keirin bicyclist wearing purple with orange stripes; as the pace quickens, the pacer will depart the track with between one and two laps remaining, but the actual location where the pacer leaves varies with every race. With 1 1⁄2 laps remaining, officials begin sounding a bell or gong, increasing in frequency until the bicyclists come around to begin the final lap of the race; the race is monitored by four referees, each located in a tower next to one of the four turns.
After every race, each referee will wave either a red flag. A white flag indicates. A red flag, signals a possible infraction and launches an inquiry into the race. Judges examine video of the race and decide if a participant committed a rules violation. Keirin ovals are divided into specific areas: The two straightaways, the four turns, two locations called the "center", referring to the area between corners 1 and 2 and corners 3 and 4. There are a total of six ranks. SS is the highest rank, followed by S1, S2, A1, A2 and A3. All new keirin graduates begin their careers with an A3 rank and work their way up by competing in keirin events; the color of the shorts worn by each keirin competito
Motor-paced racing and motor-paced cycling refer to cycling behind a pacer in a car or more on a motorcycle. The cyclist follows as close; the first paced races were behind other cyclists, sometimes as many as five riders on the same tandem. Bordeaux-Paris and record attempts have been ridden behind cars. More races or training are behind motorcycles. Cyclists started to use tandem bicycles as pacers in the late 19th century. There could be as many as five riders on the pacing machine. Companies such as Dunlop sponsored pacing teams, "tens of thousands" turned out to watch. A south London rider, J. W. Stocks, set British record of 32 miles 1,086 yards in an hour behind a Dunlop quintuplet on 27 September 1897; the pacing tandems were ridden by professionals. Each competitor had six to eight pacing teams for races between 100 miles. Speeds rose. Arthur Chase and the Frenchman, Émile Bouhours set English records behind powered tandems in 1898 and 1899. Chase used a 4 1⁄2 bhp motorcycle to pace him to 37 miles 196 yards in a private test at The Crystal Palace, south London, in July 1900 but riders in the USA and in Paris had done better.
Some races mixed pacing with solo bicycles and motorcycle, with the riders given different start points in compensation. Bordeaux-Paris, a race of nearly 600 km from south-west France to the capital, was paced part of the way by cars in 1897, 1898 and 1899. So was Paris–Roubaix; the historian Pierre Chany said: "Cars made only a brief appearance in Paris–Roubaix. On the roads of the north, these noisy cars, high with wooden wheels with their tires nailed in place, raised huge clouds of dust; the drivers, wearing leathers, their eyes protected by huge goggles, were stepping into the unknown! The riders hidden in all this chaos could see nothing and risked their life at 50 km/h on the edge of a razor; the noise was infernal and the column advanced in the stink of exhaust pipes." The first races were limited more by the speed a motorcycle could achieve than the ability of the rider to follow, with 50 km/h being a good average, according to the historian H. M. Ellis; the races became faster. Paced races kept.
Tens of thousands watched in Germany. The popularity of this form of pacing declined in the latter part of the 20th century. There were few rules. Pacing machines had small rollers set sideways behind the back wheel to avoid crashes caused by the rider touching the back of the motorcycle, but there were few other regulations. Race distances extended to six days, although 100-mile contests were more common. Windshields were allowed but abandoned after the world championship in 1904. Speeds rose and accidents became commonplace. An American, Harry Elkes, died of his injuries from a crash in front of 10 000 spectators at Boston, Massachusetts, USA, his rear tire exploded at 100 km/h and he was thrown under another rider's pacing machine, which "crushed the prostrate man in a dreadful manner." George Leander, of Chicago, USA, said "Only the clumsy get themselves killed" before starting a race at the Parc des Princes in Paris. Leander was thrown five metres into the air after 80 km, fell to the track, bounced into the seating and died 36 hours later.
A crash in Berlin on 18 July 1909 killed nine when a motorcycle careered into the stands and exploded. The historian Peter Nye wrote: Motorpace racing was glamorous but dangerous. Falls were common because bicycle tires tended to burst at speed; the riders wore neither gloves. They depended on fast reflexes, the rude health of youth, luck. Despite having all three, Bobby Walthour collected an impressive inventory of injuries over his career: 28 fractures of the right collarbone, 18 of the left, 32 broken ribs, 60 stitches to his face and head. Once, according to family history, he was given up for dead in Paris and taken to a morgue, where he regained consciousness on the slab; the biggest machines were built by the pacers, using parts from other motorcycles, with engines as large as 2,400 cc. The largest had two riders, one crouched over the handlebars to steer and the other sitting upright above the back wheel to protect the rider and to operate the engine; the pacers wore leathers and helmets but many riders wore a flat cap.
The world governing body, the Union Cycliste Internationale, set regulations for pacing motorcycles in 1920. Until standards had been set by the police in Germany, or by the track promoters. World championships were held annually, except during wars, for 100 years separately for amateurs and professionals. Carsten Podlesch, who won in 1994, is reigning world champion. National championships continue in several European countries and European championships are conducted annually. Motorcycles now used include the 750 cc Triumph BMW machines; the motorcycle for motor-pacing has a roller on a frame at the rear to create a uniform distance to the cyclist. Some riders objected when the UCI insisted on them in 1920; the pacer stands or sits upright to offer a maximum windbreak, the handlebars are extended to facilitate the stance, in a standardized leather suit that allows for the same slipstream effect for any rider. Speeds of 100 km/h can be reached; the bicycles are steel and have a smaller front wheel to let the stayer bend forward into the slipstream.
A Derny is a light
An omnium is a multiple race event in track cycling. The omnium has had a variety of formats. In recent years, road racing has adopted the term to describe multi-day races that feature the three primary road race events; the omnium was re-introduced into the World Championships as a five race track cycling format for men in 2007 and for women in 2009. The omnium was changed in 2010 by the UCI to include the elimination race and the distances of the events were lengthened to favour endurance cyclists; the omnium replaced the individual pursuit, the points race, the Madison at the Summer Olympic Games beginning in 2012. The change received some criticism from cyclist Rebecca Romero, left unable to defend her Olympic title. From June 2014 until the end of 2016, the omnium as defined by the Union Cycliste Internationale consisted of the following six events held over 2 days: Scratch race Individual pursuit 4,000 metres for elite men, 3,000 metres for junior men and elite women, 2,000 metres for junior women Elimination race Time trial 1 km men, 500 metres women Flying lap Points race 40 km for elite men, 25 km for elite women, 25 km for junior men, 20 km for junior womenFor the first five events, each winner was awarded 40 points, each second place 38 points, each third place 36, etc.
Riders below will each be awarded 1 point. In the Points Race, riders add to and lose points from their totals based on laps gained and lost, points won in sprints. After the 2016 season, the three timed events - the sprint time trial, flying lap and individual pursuit were all removed from the event, a tempo race added, the event shortened to a single day; the points race as final race format remains with minor modifications. Scratch race Elimination race Tempo race Points race 25 km for elite men, 20 km for elite women, 20 km for junior men, 15 km for junior womenThe winner of the Omnium is the rider who has obtained the highest total of points. In the event of a tie in the final ranking, the places in the final sprint of the last event, the Points Race, breaks the tie. A rider must have completed every event in the omnium. A road race omnium consists of a time trial, a criterium, a mass-start road race - held across a weekend or other 2-3 day period. Points totaled at the end of the event; the overall winner for the event is chosen based on the number of accumulated points.
Organizers will stipulate that riders must complete each event in order to qualify for the overall prize. Omnium introduced by Cyclingnews.com UCI wants Sixth Event in Olympic Omnium
Cycling at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Women's team pursuit
The women's cycling team pursuit at the 2012 Olympic Games in London was held at the London Velopark on 3 and 4 August. The Great Britain team consisting of Dani King, Laura Trott and Joanna Rowsell won the gold medal in world record-breaking time. Including pre-Olympic races and the Olympic final itself, in the six times they had ridden together they had broken the world record in every race. Sarah Hammer, Dotsie Bausch and Jennie Reed of the United States took the silver medal and Canada's Tara Whitten, Gillian Carleton and Jasmin Glaesser won bronze; the women's team pursuit race consists of a 3 km race between two teams of three cyclists, starting on opposite sides of the track. If one team catches the other, the race is over; the tournament consisted of an initial qualifying round. The top four teams in the qualifying round remained in contention for the gold medal, the 5th to 8th place teams could compete for a possible bronze, the remaining teams were eliminated; the "first round" consisted of the four fastest qualifiers competing in head-to-head races.
The winners of these heats advanced to the gold medal final. The other four qualifiers competed in the first round. Advancement to the bronze medal final was based on time, with the fastest two teams among the six qualifiers who had not advanced to the gold medal final reaching the bronze medal final. Qualification races were held to determine 5th/6th place and 7th/8th place. All times are British Summer Time In the final classification are the riders listed who competed during the Qualification and the First Round
The madison is a relay race event in track cycling, named after the first Madison Square Garden in New York, known as the "American race" in French and in Italian and Spanish as Americana. The madison is a race. Riders in each team alternate during the race, handing over to the other member and returning to the race. Teams are of two riders but of three. Only one of the team is racing at any time, the replacement rider has to be touched before he can take over; the touch can be a push on the shorts, or one rider hurling the other into the race by a hand-sling. How long each rider stays in the race is for each team to decide. Riders took stints of a couple of hours or more and the resting rider went off for a sleep or a meal; that was easier in earlier six-day races because hours could pass without riders attempting to speed away from the others. As races became more intensive, both riders from the team began riding on the track at the same time, one going fast on the short line around the bottom of the track and the other idling higher up until his turn comes to take over.
Modern six-days last less than 12 hours a day and the madison is now only a featured part, so staying on the track throughout is more feasible. Tied positions are split by points awarded for placings at a series of sprints at intervals during the race; the madison is a feature of six-day races, but it can be a separate race, as in the Olympic Games. It has its own championships and specialist riders. UCI-sanctioned madison races have a total distance of 50 kilometres; the madison began as a way of circumventing laws passed in New York in the US, aimed at restricting the exhaustion of cyclists taking part in six-day races. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle said: The wear and tear upon their nerves and their muscles, the loss of sleep make them. If their desires are not met with on the moment, they break forth with a stream of abuse. Nothing pleases them; these outbreaks do not trouble the trainers with experience, for they understand the condition the men are in. The condition included hallucinations. Riders wobbled and fell.
But the riders were well paid since more people came to watch them as their condition worsened. Promoters in New York paid Teddy Hale $5,000 when he won in 1896 and he won "like a ghost, his face as white as a corpse, his eyes no longer visible because they'd retreated into his skull," as one report had it; the New York Times said in 1897: An athletic contest in which participants "go queer" in their heads, strain their powers until their faces become hideous with the tortures that rack them, is not sport. It is brutality. Days and weeks of recuperation will be needed to put the Garden racers in condition, it is that some of them will never recover from the strain. Alarmed, New York and Illinois ruled in 1898 that no competitor could race for more than 12 hours a day; the promoter of the event at Madison Square Garden, reluctant to close his stadium for half the day, realised that giving each rider a partner with whom he could share the racing meant the race could still go on 24 hours a day but that no one rider would exceed the 12-hour limit.
Speeds rose, distances grew, crowds increased, money poured in. Where Charlie Miller rode 2,088 miles alone, the Australian Alf Goullet and a decent partner could ride 2,790 miles; the fastest average speed of madison men's race known, is 59.243 kilometres per hour, achieved by the German duo of Roger Kluge and Theo Reinhardt, at the 2019 UCI Track Cycling World Championships in Pruszków, March 3, 2019. The official rules of the madison, traditionally regarded as being hard to follow, are stated as follows by British Cycling, the British Governing Body of Cycling: Teams shall be of two or three riders wearing the same colours and number. There must be one rider of each team in the race at all times. Riders may relieve each other at any time during the race. Changing shall take place below the stayers line and as near to the inside edge of the track as practicable. Relieved riders must take up a position outside the stayers line as soon as it is safe and practicable. Changing shall be by one rider touching to denote relief.
The touch may be a handsling. The winners of the race shall be the team. If two or more teams are on the same lap, the result shall be determined by the team which has won the most sprint points during the race. Should there be an equality of laps and points, the winners shall be the best placed team in the final sprint; the race shall end. Lapped riders need not fulfil lost laps, shall be placed as so many laps behind the winners. At pre-determined times during the race there will be sprints for points, with the first four teams over the line gaining 5, 3, 2 and 1 points respectively. A whistle shall be blown to indicate one lap to go before a sprint. A bell will be rung at the start of the last lap. Teams that rejoin the field, after losing laps, shall be eligible for sprint points. Should one member of a team suffer a puncture or mishap, he will be allowed to rejoin the race. However, his partner should rejoin the race within two laps being covered by the field from the point at which the incident occurred.
The Chief Commissaire will pair the rider in the race with another team, at the same relative position in the race. The rider will ride'in and out' with the nominated member of the other team until his partner rejoins t
In road bicycle racing, a domestique is a rider who works for the benefit of his or her team and leader, rather than trying to win the race. In French, domestique translates as "servant"; the use of the term dates back to 1911. Much of a cyclist's effort is to push aside the air in front of him. Riding in the slipstream of another rider is easier than taking the lead; the difference increases with speed. Racers have known this from the start and have ridden accordingly sharing the lead between them. From there it is a small step to employing a rider to create a slipstream while his leader rides behind him. More complicated tactics become possible as the number of domestiques available increases. Where the domestique finishes a race is less important than the help he gives. During their role as domestiques, riders do not share the fame of leaders such as Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault or Miguel Induráin. However, several domestiques have gone on to achieve fame of their own. Lucien Aimar, who supported Jacques Anquetil, won the 1966 Tour de France.
Greg LeMond won the 1986 Tour de France after being Bernard Hinault's domestique in the 1985 Tour de France, as did Chris Froome in 2013 after riding for Bradley Wiggins in 2012. The writer Roger St Pierre said: It is team tactics which so win or lose races - and the lieutenants and the dog soldiers who expend their energy blocking chasing moves when they have riders up the road in a position to win, it is they who ride out into the wind so their aces can get an easier ride tucked inside their wheel. Rare indeed is the major victory that cannot be credited in large part to the groundwork laid by the domestiques; the first riders known to have been employed to help a leader were Jean Dargassies and Henri Gauban. They rode in the 1907 Tour de France for Henri Pépin, who promised them the equivalent of first prize if they would pace him from restaurant to restaurant; the three never hurried. They took 12 hours and 20 minutes longer than Émile Georget on the stage from Roubaix to Metz – they were far from last – and the judges were powerless because the race was decided not on time but points.
It mattered less. In an era when riders could be separated by hours, there was no point in hurrying after a rival who could not be caught and passed; the judges had to wait for everyone. The rules of the Tour in its first decades forbade team riding but Pépin did little to affect the result, he dropped out on stage five. The word was first used in cycling as an insult for Maurice Brocco, known as Coco, in 1911. Brocco started six Tours de France between 1908 and 1914, finished none of them, although a stage he won in 1911 caused the coining of domestique. Brocco's chances in 1911 ended. Unable to win, the next day he offered his services to other riders, for which he had a reputation. François Faber was in danger of being eliminated for taking too long and the two came to a deal. Brocco paced him to the finish. Henri Desgrange, the organiser and chief judge, wanted to disqualify him for breaking the rules, but he had no proof and feared Brocco would appeal to the national cycling body, the Union Vélocipédique Française.
He limited himself to scorn in L'Auto, writing: "He is unworthy. He is no more than a domestique." Next morning Brocco greeted Desgrange with: "Today, monsieur, we are going to settle our accounts." He won the day by 34 minutes. Desgrange followed the yellow jersey, Gustave Garrigou, as they climbed the Tourmalet. "So, am I forbidden to ride with him?" Brocco shouted. On the following mountain, the Aubisque, he dropped Garrigou, passed Paul Duboc, poisoned and was in agony beside the road, took the lead with Émile Georget. Desgrange was still watching. "Alors, quoi", Brocco shouted, "do I have the right to stay with him?" And he rode off alone and won. He had made two points to Desgrange; the first was. The second was that he had so much talent that his poor riding with Faber could only have been through a commercial arrangement. Desgrange replied that any rider with such flair had been selling the race. "He deserves his punishment", Desgrange wrote, "immediate disqualification." Domestiques had long been accepted in other races.
Desgrange believed the Tour should be a race of individuals and fought with the sponsors, bicycle factories, who saw it otherwise. Desgrange got rid of the factories' influence only by reorganising the Tour for national teams in 1930, with the effect that he thereby acknowledged teamwork and therefore domestiques; the dominant climber of the 1950s, Charly Gaul, was followed for as long as he could last by Luxemburger Marcel Ernzer. The two men were of similar size and rode bikes of the same dimensions though that made Ernzer a little low in the saddle, he was always there to give his bike to Gaul. Andrea Carrea was a domestique for Fausto Coppi. "He was a gregario par excellence", said the journalist Jean-Luc Gatellier, "the incarnation of personal disinterest... showing to perfection the notion of personal sacrifice. He refused the slightest bit of personal glory." Carrea was riding the Tour de France of 1952 and joined an attack to Lausanne to protect his leader's interests. Carrea said: "Without knowing it, I had slid into the important break of the day and at Lausanne, to my great surprise, I heard I had inherited a jersey destined for champions.
For me, it was a terrible situation." Carrea had no idea. When officials told him, he burst into tears, he had ousted Coppi and he dreaded the consequenc