Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861. At that point, he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878; the Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland. The monument Altare della Patria in Rome was built in his honor. Victor Emmanuel was born as the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, Maria Theresa of Austria, his father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military, sports. In 1842, he married Adelaide of Austria, he was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He took part in the First Italian War of Independence under his father, King Charles Albert, fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo, Santa Lucia and Custoza, he became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne, after a humiliating military defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara.
Victor Emmanuel was able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander, Radetzky. The treaty, was not ratified by the Piedmontese lower parliamentary house, the Chamber of Deputies, Victor Emmanuel retaliated by firing his Prime Minister, Claudio Gabriele de Launay, replacing him with Massimo D'Azeglio. After new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849, Victor Emmanuel fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a "vile and infected race of canailles." In 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. This turned out to be a wise choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind and a major player in the Italian unification in his own right. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the "Risorgimento", the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and early 60s, he was popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms.
Following Victor Emmanuel's advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so. Victor Emmanuel, was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and, more France. After seeking British support and ingratiating himself with France and Napoleon III at the Congress of Paris in 1856 at the end of the war, Count Cavour arranged a secret meeting with the French emperor. In 1858, they met at Plombières-les-Bains, where they agreed that if the French were to help Piedmont combat Austria, which still occupied the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia in northern Italy, France would be awarded Nice and Savoy; the Italo-French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully. However, sickened by the casualties of the war and worried about the mobilisation of Prussian troops, Napoleon III secretly made a treaty with Franz Joseph of Austria at Villafranca whereby Piedmont would only gain Lombardy.
France did not as a result receive the promised Nice and Savoy, but Austria did keep Venetia, a major setback for the Piedmontese, in no small part because the treaty had been prepared without their knowledge. After several quarrels about the outcome of the war, Cavour resigned, the king had to find other advisors. France indeed only gained Nice and Savoy after the Treaty of Turin was signed in March 1860, after Cavour had been reinstalled as Prime Minister, a deal with the French was struck for plebiscites to take place in the Central Italian Duchies; that same year, Victor Emmanuel II sent his forces to fight the papal army at Castelfidardo and drove the Pope into Vatican City. His success at these goals led him to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church. Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples, Sardinia-Piedmont grew larger. On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was established and Victor Emmanuel II became its king. Victor Emmanuel supported Giuseppe Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand, which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy.
However, the king halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, as it was under French protection. In 1860, through local plebiscites, Modena and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces; the king subsequently met with Garibaldi at Teano. Another series of plebiscites in the occupied lands resulted in the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel as the first King of Italy by the new Parliament of unified Italy, on 17 March 1861, he did not renumber himself after assuming the new royal title, however. Turin became the capital of the new state. Only Rome and Trentino remained to be conquered. In 1866 Victor Emmanuel allied himself with Prussia in the Third Italian War of Independence. Although not victorious in the Italian theater, he managed anyway to receive Veneto after the Austrian defeat in Germany; the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Clarendon, visited Florence in December 1867 and reported to London after talking to various Italian politicians: "There is universal agreement that Victor Emmanuel is an imbecile.
The Appian Way is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy, its importance is indicated by its common name, recorded by Statius: Appia longarum... regina viarum "the Appian Way the queen of the long roads" The road is named after Appius Claudius Caecus, the Roman censor who began and completed the first section as a military road to the south in 312 BC during the Samnite Wars. The Appian Way was used as a main route for military supplies since its construction for that purpose in 312 B. C; the Appian Way was the first long road built to transport troops outside the smaller region of greater Rome. The few roads outside the early city were Etruscan and went to Etruria. By the late Republic, the Romans had expanded over most of Italy and were masters of road construction, their roads began at Rome, where the master itinerarium, or list of destinations along the roads, was located, extended to the borders of their domain — hence the expression, "All roads lead to Rome".
Romans had an affinity for the people of Campania, like themselves, traced their backgrounds to the Etruscans. The Samnite Wars were instigated by the Samnites when Rome attempted to ally itself with the city of Capua in Campania; the Italic speakers in Latium had long ago been incorporated into the Roman state. They were responsible for changing Rome from a Etruscan to a Italic state. Dense populations of sovereign Samnites remained in the mountains north of Capua, just north of the Greek city of Neapolis. Around 343 BC, Rome and Capua attempted to form a first step toward a closer unity; the Samnites reacted with military force. Between Capua and Rome lay the Pontine Marshes, a swamp infested with malaria. A tortuous coastal road wound between Ostia at the mouth of the Neapolis; the Via Latina followed its ancient and scarcely more accessible path along the foothills of Monti Laziali and Monti Lepini, which are visible towering over the former marsh. In the First Samnite War the Romans found they could not support or resupply troops in the field against the Samnites across the marsh.
A revolt of the Latin League drained their resources further. They settled with Samnium; the Romans were only biding their time. The first answer was the colonia, a "cultivation" of settlers from Rome, who would maintain a permanent base of operations; the Second Samnite War erupted when Rome attempted to place a colony at Cales in 334 and again at Fregellae in 328 on the other side of the marshes. The Samnites, now a major power after defeating the Greeks of Tarentum, occupied Neapolis to try to ensure its loyalty; the Neapolitans appealed to Rome, which expelled the Samnites from Neapolis. In 312 BC, Appius Claudius Caecus became, he was of the gens Claudia, who were patricians descended from the Sabines taken into the early Roman state. He had been given the name of the founding ancestor of the gens, he was a populist. A man of inner perspicacity, in the years of success he was said to have lost his outer vision and thus acquired the name caecus, "blind". Without waiting to be told what to do by the Senate, Appius Claudius began bold public works to address the supply problem.
An aqueduct secured the water supply of the city of Rome. By far the best known project was the road, which ran across the Pontine Marshes to the coast northwest of Naples, where it turned north to Capua. On it, any number of fresh troops could be sped to the theatre of operations, supplies could be moved en masse to Roman bases without hindrance by either enemy or terrain, it is no surprise that, after his term as censor, Appius Claudius became consul twice, subsequently held other offices, was a respected consultant to the state during his years. The road achieved its purpose; the outcome of the Second Samnite War was at last favorable to Rome. In a series of blows the Romans reversed their fortunes, bringing Etruria to the table in 311 BC, the year of their revolt, Samnium in 304; the road was the main factor that allowed them to concentrate their forces with sufficient rapidity and to keep them adequately supplied, wherein they became a formidable opponent. The main part of the Appian Way was started and finished in 312 BC.
The road began as a leveled dirt road upon which mortar were laid. Gravel was laid upon this, topped with tight fitting, interlocking stones to provide a flat surface; the historian Procopius said that the stones fit together so securely and that they appeared to have grown together rather than to have been fitted together. The road was cambered in the middle and had ditches on either side of the road which were protected by retaining walls; the road began in the Forum Romanum, passed through the Servian Wall at the porta Capena, went through a cutting in the clivus Martis, left the city. For this stretch of the road, the builders used the via Latina; the building of the Aurelian Wall centuries required the placing of another gate, the Porta Appia. Outside of Rome the new via Appia went through well-to-do suburbs along the via Norba, the ancient track to the Alban hills, where Norba was situated; the road at the time was a via a gravel road. The Romans built a high-quality road, with layers of cemented stone over a layer of small stones, drainage ditches on either side, low retaining walls on sunken portions, dirt pathways for sidewalks.
The via Appia is believed to have be
Reggio di Calabria known as Reggio Calabria or Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria. Reggio is located on the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula and is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina, it is situated on the slopes of the Aspromonte, a long, craggy mountain range that runs up through the centre of the region. The third economic centre of mainland Southern Italy, the city proper has a population of more than 200,000 inhabitants spread over 236 square kilometres, while the fast-growing urban area numbers 260,000 inhabitants. About 560,000 people live in the metropolitan area, recognised in 2015 by Italian Republic as a metropolitan city; as a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical and economic ties with the city of Messina, which lies across the strait in Sicily, forming a metro city of less than 1 million people.
Reggio is the oldest city in the region, despite its ancient foundation – Ρηγιον was an important and flourishing colony of Magna Graecia – it has a modern urban system, set up after the catastrophic earthquake on 28 December 1908, which destroyed most of the city. The region has been subject to earthquakes, it is a major economic centre for regional services and transport on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with Naples and Taranto, is home to one of the most important archaeological museums, the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia, dedicated to Ancient Greece. Reggio is the seat, since 1907, of the Archeological Superintendence of Lucania; the city centre, consisting of Liberty buildings, has a linear development along the coast with parallel streets, the promenade is dotted with rare magnolias and exotic palms. Reggio has used popular nicknames: The "city of Bronzes", after the Bronzes of Riace that are testimonials of its Greek origins. During its 3,500-year history Reggio has been renamed.
Each name corresponds with the city's major historical phases: Recion, name appeared on the most ancient coins retrieved in Reggio. Erythrà, the pre-Greek settlement populated by the Italic people. Rhégion, the Greek city from the archaic age to the Magna Grecia age, from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC. Febèa, a short period under Dionysius II of Syracuse, in the 4th century BC. Regium, its first Latin name, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC became Rhegium. Rhègium Julium, as a noble Roman city during the Imperial age. Rivàh, Arabic name under the short domination by Emirate of Sicily, between 10th and 11th centuries. Rìsa, under the Normans, between the 11th and 12th centuries. Regols, Catalan name under the Crown of Aragon, in the late 13th century. Reggio or Regio, usual Italian name in the Middle and Modern age. Règgio di Calàbria, post Italian Unification; the toponym of the city is derived from Chaldean word Rec or maybe from the Greek one régnȳmi referring to the straits between Calabria and Sicily as a break in the land.
From the late 3rd millennium BC onwards until the 8th century BC the city was inhabited by peoples such as the Osci, Trojans and Achæans by Oenotrians, Ausones, Taureanes, Sicels and Itali. The land around Reggio was first known as Saturnia, or Neptunia, Italia, which in Roman times became the name of the whole Italian peninsula. In those days however, it corresponded only to present-day, southern Calabria, which came to be known as Bruttium, while the name Italia, in fact, was first used only for the area of Reggio itself. After Cumae, Reggio is one of the oldest Greek colonies in southern Italy; the colony was settled by the inhabitants of Chalcis in 730 or 743 BC on the site of the older settlement, Erythrà, meaning "the Red one". This dated back to the 3rd millennium BC and was established by the Ausones; the last Ausonian ruler was king Italós, from. King Iokastos is buried on the Punta Calamizzi promontory, called "Pallantiòn", where Greek settlers arrived; the colony retained the earlier name of "Rhégion".
Under Greek rule, Reggio became an ally of Athens. Rhégion was governed by the Messenians, from 737 to 461 BC. Reggio was one of the most important cities in Greater Greece, reaching great economic and political power during the 5th and 6th centuries BC under the Anaxilas government. Anaxilas allowed Reggio to rule over all the Messina Strait, including Zancle. Rhegion allied with Athens during the Peloponnesian War until 387 BC when the city was taken by the Syracusans. Throughout classic
The biblical Magi referred to as the Wise Men or Kings, were – in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition – distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold and myrrh. They are regular figures in traditional accounts of the nativity celebrations of Christmas and are an important part of Christian tradition. Matthew is the only of the four canonical gospels to mention the Magi. Matthew reports that they came "from the east" to worship the "king of the Jews"; the gospel never mentions the number of Magi, but most western Christian denominations have traditionally assumed them to have been three in number, based on the statement that they brought three gifts. In Eastern Christianity the Syriac churches, the Magi number twelve, their identification as kings in Christian writings is linked to Psalm 72:11, "May all kings fall down before him". Traditional nativity scenes depict three "Wise Men" visiting the infant Jesus on the night of his birth, in a manger accompanied by the shepherds and angels, but this should be understood as an artistic convention allowing the two separate scenes of the Adoration of the Shepherds on the birth night and the Adoration of the Magi to be combined for convenience.
The single biblical account in Matthew presents an event at an unspecified point after Christ's birth in which an unnumbered party of unnamed "wise men" visits him in a house, not a stable, with only "his mother" mentioned as present. The New Revised Standard Version of Matthew 2:1–12 describes the visit of the Magi in this manner: In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, "Where is the child, born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at its rising, have come to pay him homage." When King Herod heard this, he was frightened and all Jerusalem with him. They told him, "In Bethlehem of Judea. Herod secretly called for the wise men and learned from them the exact time when the star had appeared, he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, "Go and search diligently for the child. When they had heard the king, they set out; when they saw that the star had stopped, they were overwhelmed with joy. On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother.
Opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they left for their own country by another path; the text specifies no interval between the birth and the visit, artistic depictions and the closeness of the traditional dates of December 25 and January 6 encourage the popular assumption that the visit took place the same winter as the birth, but traditions varied, with the visit taken as occurring up to two winters later. This maximum interval explained Herod's command at Matthew 2:16–18 that the Massacre of the Innocents included boys up to two years old. More recent commentators, not tied to the traditional feast days, may suggest a variety of intervals; the wise men are mentioned twice shortly thereafter in verse 16, in reference to their avoidance of Herod after seeing Jesus, what Herod had learned from their earlier meeting. The star which they followed has traditionally become known as the Star of Bethlehem.
The Magi are popularly referred to as wise kings. The word magi is the plural of Latin magus, borrowed from Greek μάγος, as used in the original Greek text of the Gospel of Matthew. Greek magos itself is derived from Old Persian maguŝ from the Avestan magâunô, i.e. the religious caste into which Zoroaster was born. The term refers to the Persian priestly caste of Zoroastrianism; as part of their religion, these priests paid particular attention to the stars and gained an international reputation for astrology, at that time regarded as a science. Their religious practices and use of astrology caused derivatives of the term Magi to be applied to the occult in general and led to the English term magic, although Zoroastrianism was in fact opposed to sorcery; the King James Version translates the term as wise men. The same word is given as sorcerer and sorcery when describing "Elymas the sorcerer" in Acts 13:6–11, Simon Magus, considered a heretic by the early Church, in Acts 8:9–13. Several translations refer to the men outright as astrologers at Matthew Chapter 2, including New English Bible.
Although the Magi are referred to as "kings," there is nothing in the account from the Gospel of Matthew that implies that they were rulers of any kind. The identification of the Magi as kings is linked to Old Testament prophecies that describe the Messiah being worshipped by
The Via Latina was a Roman road of Italy, running southeast from Rome for about 200 kilometers. It led from the Porta Latina in the Aurelian walls of Rome to the pass of Mount Algidus, it must have preceded the Via Appia as a route to Campania, in as much as the Latin colony at Cales was founded in 334 BC and must have been accessible from Rome by road, whereas the Via Appia was made only twenty-two years later. It follows, too, a far more natural line of communication, without the engineering difficulties that the arrow-straight Via Appia had to overcome; as a through-route, it preceded the Via Labicana, though the latter may have been preferred in times. After their junction, the Via Latina continued to follow the valley of the Trerus, following a line taken by the modern railway to Naples, passing below the Hernican hill-towns, Ferentino and others. At Fregellae, it crossed the Liri, passed through Aquino and Cassino, both comparatively low-lying towns, it entered the interval between the Apennines and the volcanic group of Rocca Monfina, the original road and, instead of traversing it, turned abruptly northeast over the mountains to Venafro, thus giving a direct communication with the interior of Samnium by roads to Isernia and Telese.
After the disorders of the civil wars, the via Latina was repaired by a group of prominent Romans, including Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus. In times, there was in all probability a shortcut by Rufrae along the line taken by the modern highroad and railway; the two lines rejoined near the present railway station of Caianiello, the road ran to Teanum and Cales, so to Casilinum, where there was the crossing of the Volturno and the junction with the Via Appia. The distance from Rome to Casilinum was 129 Roman miles by the Via Appia, 135 Roman miles by the old Via Latina through Venafrum, 126 Roman miles by the shortcut past Rufrae. Considerable remains of the road exist in the neighborhood of Rome; the Tombs of Via Latina are tombs over a short stretch of the road just outside Rome. Above ground they are reconstructed, but the underground chambers survived, they are now in an "archaeological park". They are not to be confused with the small Christian Via Latina Catacomb, only rediscovered in 1955, with many paintings.
It is unknown whether the catacombs were built if it was built in stages. The catacombs consist of many separate rooms all connected by a series of corridors. To organize the excavation, each room was given a letter to symbolize where it was located and what art work was depicted inside; the excavation of the catacombs took place in four stages starting with the stairways and finishing with the 3 corridors and their adjoining rooms. The Catacombs of Via Latina compared to other Roman catacombs, were discovered; the artwork within the catacombs is from the Medieval period. The art in the tomb is dated back to the 4th century; these particular catacombs in Rome, Italy depict images of Christian artwork. It is unknown whether this tomb belonged to a fraternity; the art fills every room in the catacombs. The catacombs were excavated in 1955 and published in 1962; each room inside the catacombs has a different subject depicted on the walls. Christian stories from the Old Testament and the New Testament fill the vast majority of rooms.
Pagan art the hero Hercules, are included within specific rooms to, one of the reasons why the Via Latina catacombs are special. Every room is denoted with a letter to help with organization of the different rooms and artworks. Room N is decorated of paintings of the pagan hero Hercules The paintings show Hercules as a hero or savior. There is said to be a focus on the after-life and life after death in Room N. For many of the other rooms, the subject matter is Christian art, depicting images of both the Old Testament and the New Testament. Notable art scenes depicted are the Flood Scene, Abraham's vision of the Three Angels under the Oak of Mamre, Crossing of the Red Sea, the Ascension of Elijah and the Good Shepherd; the photo on the right, the Resurrection of Lazarus, is one of the many religious stories told on the walls of the catacombs. Viewers can see the figure assumed to be Jesus raising a man from the dead as his disciples watch with intent. Viewers may notice Moses in the background receiving a message from above.
The style of the art work is similar throughout every room in the catacombs, meaning that all of the artworks were produced by one person or a group of people who used the same style and technique. Valle Latina Catacombs of Rome Early Christian art and architecture Berg, Beverly. 1994. "Alcestis and Hercules in the Catacomb of Via Latina." Vigiliae Christianae: A Review of Early Christian Life and Language 48, no.3: 219–34. Dulaey, Martine. 2011. "Imagery and the Fathers of the Church: About the Cubiculum F in the Via Latina Catacomb." Antiquité Tardive 19: 47–62. Ferrua, Antonio. 1991. The Unknown Catacomb: A Unique Discovery of Early Christian Art. New Lanark, Scotland: Geddes & Grosset. Snyder, H. Gregory. 2011. A Second-Century Christian Inscription from the Via Latina." Journal of Early Christian Studies 19, no. 2: 157–95. Tronzo, William. 1986. The Via Latina Catacomb: Imitation and Discontinuity in Fourth-Century Roman Painting. University Park: Pennsylvania S
Cales was an ancient city of Campania, in today's comune of Calvi Risorta in southern Italy, belonging to the Aurunci/Ausoni, on the Via Latina. The Romans established a colony with Latin rights of 2,500 citizens. Cales was the centre of the Roman dominion in Campania. To the period after 335 belong numerous silver and bronze coins with the inscription Caleno, it was an important base in the war against Hannibal, at last refused further contributions for the war. Before 184 BC more settlers were sent there. After the Social War it became a municipium; the fertility of its territory and its manufacture of black glazed pottery, exported to Etruria, made it prosperous. At the end of the 3rd century BC it appears as a colony, in the 5th century it became an episcopal see, which it still is, though it is now a mere village; the cathedral, of the 12th century, has a carved portal and three apses decorated with small arches and pilasters, contains a fine pulpit and episcopal throne in marble mosaic. Near it are two grottos, which have been used for Christian worship and contain frescoes of the 10th and 11th centuries.
Inscriptions name six gates of the town: and there are considerable remains of antiquity of an amphitheatre and theatre, of a supposed temple, other edifices. A number of tombs belonging to the Roman necropolis were discovered in 1883. Aurunca, another city of the Ausones/Aurunci Ausona, another city of the Ausones/Aurunci Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ashby, Thomas. "Cales". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press
Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture; the capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture in regard to gastronomy, architecture and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Oplontis, Aeclanum and Velia; the name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it important in the tourism industry along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri; the original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, part of the Italic family.
During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area, one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War; the major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, when the town was captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while aligned with Rome.
The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside, its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious, they renamed the city Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage; the rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls. Capua was starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, the Romans were victorious; the rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.
As part of the Roman Empire, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia. In ancient times Misenum, at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet, it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri, it was during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, there were several martyrs during this time; the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples, it was during this period that elements of Spanish and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king. Charles moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic architec