The Cacapon River, located in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle region, is an 81.0-mile-long river known for its fishing, boating and scenery. As part of the Potomac River watershed, it is an American Heritage River; the Cacapon River Watershed is made up of three major river segments and many smaller stream watersheds. The headwaters of the Cacapon River, known as the Lost River, is 31.1 miles long and receives water from a watershed covering 178 square miles. The largest tributary of the Cacapon is the North River, which drains 206 square miles, an area comparable to that of the Lost River. Overall, the Cacapon River watershed includes the Lost and North River watersheds, those of many smaller streams for a total of 680 square miles; the Cacapon watershed is itself part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In recent years the Cacapon River and its watershed have become threatened by development, industrial and agricultural growth. Concern about these issues led to the establishment of the Cacapon Institute in 1985.
The Cacapon River emerges from underground in a gap in Sandy Ridge west of Wardensville. It is the reemergence of the Lost River, which sinks into an underground channel east of McCauley near the entrance to Camp Pinnacle. From its emergence, the Cacapon River creates a horseshoe bend shaped gap through Sandy Ridge and flows east paralleling West Virginia Route 55/West Virginia Route 259 to its north. At Wardensville, the river is joined by Trout Run and curves northeastward where it meanders through an expansive valley plain. Here, it is fed by Slate Rock Run and Moores Run further north. Waites Run, a tributary draining some of the western slopes of Great North Mountain enters the Cacapon River near the bridge on Rt. 55, north of Wardensville. Shortly after its confluence with Sine Run, the Cacapon River continues north into Hampshire County. From the county line, the river is bounded to its east by the George Washington National Forest and to its west by Baker Mountain. Throughout this stretch, the Cacapon River is joined by sections of the old Winchester and Western Railroad grade.
It continues its meandering course northeastward, flowing past the community of Intermont and Hebron Church. At Capon Lake, the river is joined by Capon Springs Run and is the site of the historic Capon Lake Whipple Truss Bridge. West Virginia Route 259 parallels the Cacapon River to its west along the eastern flank of Baker Mountain until the road turns east across the Kenneth Seldon Bridge at Yellow Spring. From Yellow Spring Gap, the river is fed by a run whose source is the "Yellow Spring"; the Cacapon River moves north along the eastern flank of Cacapon Mountain with Cacapon River Road paralleling it to its west. From Yellow Spring, the river flows by Camps Rim White Mountain. After another immense horseshoe bend, the Cacapon River moves past the communities of Hooks Mills and Bubbling Spring and is joined by Old Man Run and Kale Hollow's run; the river's stretch through Bubbling Spring is a popular location for summer river camps which consist of cottages and campers on narrow river lots.
This stretch of the Cacapon River is the scene for numerous old plantation houses including the Captain David Pugh House at Hooks Mills, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. North of Kale Hollow, the Cacapon River is joined to its west by Dillons Mountain. To its east, the river is paralleled by Christian Church Road, on, located the 18th century Capon Chapel. After its confluence with Mill Branch, the Cacapon River bends through the small historic town of Capon Bridge, it is met by Dillons Run from its west and traversed by a bridge of the Northwestern Turnpike, from which Capon Bridge takes its name. From Capon Bridge, the Cacapon River is bounded to its east by Bear Garden Mountain, it is joined by Edwards Run and Cold Stream near the community of Cold Stream. The river meanders north around Darbys Nose, flanked to its east by Leith Mountain; the stretch of the Cacapon River between Cold Stream and Forks of Cacapon is mountainous and forested with little development. It meanders through a series of mountain ridges, on one of which, Castle Mountain, sits the Caudy's Castle rock outcrop.
Bloomery Pike passes over the river. North of Bloomery Pike lies the actual "Forks of Cacapon" where the Cacapon and North Rivers converge. From Forks of Cacapon to Largent, the river creates a number of horseshoe bends between Sideling Hill and Little Mountain; this stretch of the Cacapon River is mostly undeveloped and forested with the exception of a gated community, The Crossings, located between the WV 127 bridge and Largent. The Cacapon River meanders into Morgan County at Largent where Cacapon Road passes over it and the river is met by Stony Creek, it continues its meandering course northeast between Sideling Hill and Little Mountain until Fisher's Bridge where it is joined to its east by the western flanks of Cacapon Mountain. Tonoloway Ridge bounds the Cacapon River to its west until it reaches the railroad hamlet of Great Cacapon. After passing under the WV 9 and old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridges, the Cacapon River joins the Potomac. Cacapon is a name derived from the Shawnee language meaning "medicine water".
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
North River (Cacapon River)
The North River is a tributary of the Cacapon River, belonging to the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay watersheds. The river is located in Hampshire and Hardy counties in the U. S. state of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The mouth of the North River into the Cacapon is located at Forks of Cacapon. From its headwaters to its mouth, the North River spans 52.4 miles in length. The North River's headwaters comprise two streams that converge in the southeastern hollows of South Branch Mountain in Hardy County. From its source, the river flows east through the communities of Inkerman and Rock Oak along North River Road where it is joined by Grassy Lick Run; the North River continues to flow east as a shallow stony stream and after it passes through a gap in Short Mountain, it acts as the border between Hardy and Hampshire counties. It is in this stretch that the river is home to the Rio Turtle, a large turtle-shaped rock painted to resemble a turtle; the river enters into Hampshire County where it meets the community of Rio and Sperry Run, which flows in from the south.
At Rio, the North River makes a ninety-degree bend and flows north into the wide fertile North River Valley along North River Mountain. Beginning at Rio, the North River parallels West Virginia Route 29. On its journey northward, the river is fed from the west by Deep Run and Mick Run, which drain off of Short Mountain. Further north along WV 29, the river passes through the communities of Delray and Sedan at Pearl Ridge. Departing from Sedan, the North River flows under the Northwestern Turnpike at Hanging Rock and winds its way northward around North River Mountain. Pine Draft Run and Tearcoat Creek join the river south of Hoy before the river bends yet again and joins Gibbons Run. Flowing through the historic village of North River Mills, the river is joined by Hiett's Run, which flows from the eastern side of Ice Mountain. After North River Mills, the river makes a sharp linear curve around the Devil's Backbone and commences its movement northward along Pine Mountain; the North River crosses under the Bloomery Pike and is joined from the west by Crooked Run before flowing under Gaston Road's one-lane bridge and arriving at its confluence with the Cacapon River at Forks of Cacapon.
Since the early settlement of Hampshire County, the North River had been considered unnavigable by locals and experts alike. While groups of Native Americans used the river to transport meat to Ice Mountain, the first known African-American party to float it did so under the direction of the renowned forester and naturalist Paul Bogdan, his group of men, who hailed from nearby New Creek, began their journey at RiverBend Farms and made it to the river's confluence with the Cacapon. Inspired by their feat, one member of Bogdan's crew wrote "Floated from North River Road ford just before the road joins Springfield Grade Road to Rt. 127 on May 24, 2008 when the water level in the Cacapon River was at 4.0 - 3.5 feet. Wonderful scenery little development, Ice Mountain nature preserve borders the river for about a mile. Not sure of the climbing possibilities of Ice Mountain, but it does appear to be white/gray Tuscarora quartzite same as Seneca Rocks/The Narrows with some pink quartzite boulders in the water as you float."
Tributary streams are listed in order from south to north. Skaggs Run Pot Lick Run Horn Camp Run Waterlick Run Grassy Lick Run Meadow Run Sperry Run Deep Run Lick Run Elkhorn Run Hanging Rock Run Stuart Hollow Run Henderson Hollow Run Pine Draft Run Tearcoat Creek Turkeyfoot Run Bearwallow Creek Gibbons Run Maple Run Hiett Run Riggs Hollow Run Crooked Run Castle Run Delray Forks of Cacapon Hanging Rock Hoy Inkerman North River Mills Rio Rock Oak Sedan List of rivers of West Virginia Media related to North River at Wikimedia Commons
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a river's gradient increases enough to generate so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a bubbly or aerated and unstable current. The term is loosely used to refer to less turbulent, but still agitated, flows; the term "whitewater" has a broader meaning, applying to any river or creek itself that has a significant number of rapids. The term is used as an adjective describing boating on such rivers, such as whitewater canoeing or whitewater kayaking. Four factors, separately or in combination, can create rapids: gradient, constriction and flow rate. Gradient and obstruction are streambed topography factors and are consistent. Flow rate is dependent upon both seasonal variation in precipitation and snowmelt and upon release rates of upstream dams. Streambed topography is the primary factor in creating rapids, is consistent over time. Increased flow, as during a flood or high rainfall season can make permanent changes to the streambed by displacing rocks and boulders, by deposition of alluvium or by creating new channels for flowing water.
The gradient of a river is the rate at which it loses elevation along its course. This loss determines the river's slope, to a large extent its rate of flow. Shallow gradients produce gentle, slow rivers while steep gradients are associated with raging torrents. Constrictions can form a rapid when a river's flow is forced into a narrower channel; this pressure causes the water to flow more and to react differently to riverbed events. A boulder or ledge in the middle of a river or near the side can obstruct the flow of the river, can create a "pillow". If the flow passes next to the obstruction, an eddy may form behind the obstruction; as with hydraulics, the power of eddies increases with the flow rate. In large rivers with high flow rates next to an obstruction, "eddy walls" can occur. An eddy wall is formed when the height of the river is higher than the level of the water in the eddy behind the obstruction; this can make it difficult for a boater, who has stopped in that particular eddy, to reenter the river due to a wall of water that can be several feet high at the point at which the eddy meets the river flow.
A marked increase or decrease in flow can create a rapid, "wash out" a rapid or make safe passage through previously-navigable rapids more difficult or impossible. Flow rate is measured in cubic metres per second, or in cubic feet per second, depending on the country; the most used grading system is the International Scale of River Difficulty, where whitewater is classed in six categories from class I to class VI. The grade reflects both the technical difficulty and the danger associated with a rapid, with grade I referring to flat or slow moving water with few hazards, grade VI referring to the hardest rapids which are dangerous for expert paddlers, are run. Grade-VI rapids are sometimes downgraded to grade-V or V+ if they have been run successfully. Harder rapids are portaged, a French term for carrying. A portaged rapid is where the boater lands and carries the boat around the hazard. A rapid's grade is not fixed, since it may vary depending on the water depth and speed of flow. Although some rapids may be easier at high flows because features are covered or "washed-out", high water makes rapids more difficult and dangerous.
At flood stage rapids which are easy can contain lethal and unpredictable hazards. Class 1: Very small rough areas, requires no maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, small drops, might require maneuvering. Class 3: Medium waves, maybe a 3–5 ft drop, but not much considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, large waves, long rapids, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, continuous rapids, large rocks and hazards, maybe a large drop, precise maneuvering. Characterized by "must make" moves, i.e. failure to execute a specific maneuver at a specific point may result in serious injury or death. Class 5 is sometimes expanded to Class 5+ that describes the most extreme, runnable rapids Class 6: While there is some debate over the term "Class 6", in practice it refers to rapids that are not passable and any attempt to do so would result in serious injury, near drowning or death. If a rapid is run, once thought to be impassible, it is reclassified as Class 5.
On any given rapid there can be a multitude of diff
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe