Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith
Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith is a 2005 American epic space-opera film written and directed by George Lucas. It is the sixth entry in the Star Wars film series and stars Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Hayden Christensen, Ian McDiarmid, Samuel L. Jackson, Christopher Lee, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Frank Oz, it is the third and final installment in the Star Wars prequel trilogy, following The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones. The film begins three years after the onset of the Clone Wars; the Jedi Knights are spread across the galaxy. The Jedi Council dispatches Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi to eliminate the notorious General Grievous, the leader of the Separatist Army. Meanwhile, Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker grows close to Palpatine, the Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic and, secretly, a Sith Lord known as Darth Sidious, their deepening friendship threatens the Jedi Order, the Republic, Anakin's best interest. Lucas began writing the script. Production of Revenge of the Sith started in September 2003, filming took place in Australia with additional locations in Thailand, China and the United Kingdom.
Revenge of the Sith premiered on May 15, 2005, at the Cannes Film Festival released worldwide on May 19, 2005. The film received favorable reviews from critics in contrast to the mixed reviews of the previous two prequels: praise was directed towards its action sequences, mature themes, musical score, visual effects, the performances of McGregor, McDiarmid, Oz, Jimmy Smits. Revenge of the Sith broke several box office records during its opening week and went on to earn over $848 million worldwide, making it, at the time, the third-highest-grossing film in the Star Wars franchise, unadjusted for inflation, it was the highest-grossing film in the U. S. in 2005 and the second-highest grossing film worldwide. The film holds the record for the highest opening day gross on a Thursday, making $50 million. Three years after the beginning of the Clone Wars, Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi and Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker lead a mission to rescue the kidnapped Supreme Chancellor Palpatine from the cyborg Separatist commander, General Grievous, during a space battle over Coruscant.
After infiltrating Grievous's flagship, the Jedi battle Count Dooku, whom Anakin executes at Palpatine's urging. Grievous escapes the battle-torn ship. There, Anakin reunites with Padmé Amidala, who reveals that she is pregnant. While excited, Anakin begins to have prophetic visions of Padmé dying in childbirth. Palpatine appoints Anakin to the Jedi Council as his representative and informant, but the Council declines to grant Anakin the rank of Jedi Master, orders him to spy on Palpatine, diminishing Anakin's faith in the Jedi. Palpatine tempts Anakin with his knowledge of the dark side of the Force, including the power to prevent death. Meanwhile, Obi-Wan travels to Utapau, where he kills Grievous, Yoda travels to the Wookiee homeworld of Kashyyyk to defend it from invasion. Palpatine reveals to Anakin that he is the Sith Lord Darth Sidious and that he knows how to save Padmé. Anakin reports Palpatine's treachery to Mace Windu, who confronts and subdues the Sith Lord, disfiguring his face. However, fearing that he will lose Padmé, Anakin severs Windu's hand, allowing Palpatine to cast him out the window to his death.
Anakin pledges himself to Sidious. As the Supreme Chancellor, Palpatine issues an order that causes the clone troopers to betray and kill their commanding Jedi officers. Vader kills the remaining Jedi in the temple including the child younglings travels to the volcanic planet of Mustafar to slaughter the Separatist leaders. Palpatine declares himself Emperor before the Galactic Senate, transforming the Republic into the Galactic Empire. Having survived the chaos, Obi-Wan and Yoda return to learn of Vader's betrayal. Padmé implores Vader to return to the light side. Vader sees Obi-Wan on Padmé's ship, thinking they have conspired to kill him, angrily chokes Padmé. Obi-Wan engages Vader in a lightsaber duel, after gaining the higher ground, warns his former pupil to stand down; when Vader attacks, Obi-Wan severs his legs and arm, leaving him at the bank of a lava flow burned. On Coruscant, Yoda battles Palpatine. Yoda flees with Bail Organa while Palpatine, sensing that his apprentice is in danger, travels to Mustafar.
Obi-Wan regroups with Yoda on the asteroid Polis Massa, where Padmé gives birth to a boy and girl, whom she names Luke and Leia before dying. On Mustafar, Palpatine finds Vader still alive and brings him to Coruscant, where his mutilated body is treated and covered in a black armored suit. Meanwhile, Obi-Wan and Yoda conceal the twins from the Sith. Yoda exiles himself to the planet Dagobah, while Vader and the Emperor oversee the construction of the Death Star. Bail Organa adopts Leia and takes her to Alderaan, while Obi-Wan delivers Luke to his step-family and Beru Lars, on Tatooine. Ewan McGregor as Obi-Wan Kenobi: a Jedi Master and general for the Galactic Republic Natalie Portman as Padmé Amidala: a senator of Naboo, secretly Anakin Skywalker's wife Hayden Christensen as Anakin Skywalker / Darth Vader: a Jedi Knight and hero of the Clone Wars who turns to the dark side of the Force and becomes the Sith lord Darth Vader Ian McDiarmid as Chancellor Palpatine / Darth Sidious: the Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic, secretly a Sith Lord, the founder, commander
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
Michael John Douglas, known professionally as Michael Keaton, is an American actor and director. He first rose to fame for his roles on the CBS sitcoms All's Fair and The Mary Tyler Moore Hour and his comedic film roles in Night Shift, Mr. Mom, Johnny Dangerously, Beetlejuice, he earned further acclaim for his dramatic portrayal of the title character in Tim Burton's Batman and Batman Returns. Since he has appeared in a variety of films ranging from dramas and romantic comedies to thriller and action films, such as Clean and Sober, The Dream Team, Pacific Heights, Much Ado About Nothing, My Life, The Paper, Jackie Brown, Herbie: Fully Loaded, The Other Guys, Need for Speed, The Founder, Spider-Man: Homecoming, has provided voices for characters in animated films such as Cars, Toy Story 3, Minions. Keaton's lead performance in Birdman or earned him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy, the Critics' Choice Award for Best Actor and Best Actor in a Comedy, nominations for the Screen Actors Guild Award, British Academy Film Award, Academy Award for Best Actor.
He received a Golden Globe Award nomination for his performance in Live from Baghdad and a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination for The Company. Keaton was awarded a Career Achievement Award from the Hollywood Film Festival. On January 18, 2016, he was named Officer of Order of Letters in France, he is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Mellon University. Michael John Douglas, the youngest of seven children, was born at Ohio Valley Hospital in Kennedy Township, Pennsylvania, on September 5, 1951, he was raised between Pennsylvania. His father, George A. Douglas, worked as a civil engineer and surveyor, his mother, Leona Elizabeth, a homemaker, came from McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania. Keaton was raised in a Roman Catholic family, is of half Irish descent through his mother, his father was of English, German and Scotch-Irish descent and was from a Protestant family. He attended Montour High School in Robinson Township and studied speech for two years at Kent State University, where he appeared in plays, before dropping out and returning to Pennsylvania.
Keaton first appeared on TV in the Pittsburgh public television programs Where the Heart Is and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. For Mister Rogers he played one of the "Flying Zookeeni Brothers" and served as a full-time production assistant. Keaton worked as an actor in Pittsburgh theatre, he performed stand-up comedy during his early years in order to supplement his income. Keaton moved to Los Angeles to begin auditioning for various TV parts, he popped up in various popular TV shows including The Mary Tyler Moore Hour. He decided to use a stage name to satisfy SAG rules, as there was an actor and daytime host with the same or similar names; the claim that Keaton selected his new surname due to an attraction to actress Diane Keaton is incorrect. Keaton's film debut came in a small non-speaking role in the Joan Rivers film Rabbit Test, his next break was working alongside Jim Belushi in the short-lived comedy series Working Stiffs, which showcased his comedic talent and led to a co-starring role in the comedy Night Shift directed by Ron Howard.
His role as the fast-talking schemer Bill "Blaze" Blazejowski earned Keaton some critical acclaim, he scored leads in the subsequent comedy hits Mr. Mom, Johnny Dangerously and Gung Ho, he played the title character in Tim Burton's 1988 horror-comedy Beetlejuice, earning Keaton widespread acclaim and boosting him to Hollywood's A list. He turned down the role reconsidered like most of the cast, he now considers Beetlejuice his favorite of his own films. That same year, he gave an acclaimed dramatic performance as a drug-addicted realtor in Clean and Sober. Keaton's career was given another major boost when he was again cast by Tim Burton, this time as the title comic book superhero of 1989's Batman. Warner Bros. received thousands of letters of complaint by fans who believed Keaton was the wrong choice to portray Batman. However, Keaton's performance in the role earned widespread acclaim from both critics and audiences, Batman became one of the most successful films of 1989. According to Les Daniels's reference book Batman: The Complete History, Keaton was not surprised when he was first considered as Batman as he believed the film would be similar to the 1960s television series starring Adam West.
It was only after he was introduced to Frank Miller's comic book miniseries, The Dark Knight Returns, that Keaton understood the dark and brooding side of Batman that he portrayed to much fan approval. Keaton reprised the role for the sequel Batman Returns, another critically acclaimed success, he was set to reprise the role again for a third Batman film going as far as to show up for costume fitting. However, when Burton was dropped as director of the film, Keaton left the franchise as well, he was dissatisfied with the screenplay approved by the new director, Joel Schu
A trailer is a commercial advertisement for a feature film that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema, the result of creative and technical work. The term "trailer" dates back to the distribution of movies on reels of film; the reels were always distributed un-rewound. Therefore, the end of the movie was the most accessible part, to which previews were spliced, "trailing" the film. Movie trailers have now become popular on DVDs and Blu-ray discs, as well as on the Internet and mobile devices. Of some 10 billion videos watched online annually, film trailers rank third, after news and user-created video; the trailer format has been adopted as a promotional tool for television shows, video games and theatrical events/concerts. The first trailer shown in an American film theater was in November 1913, when Nils Granlund, the advertising manager for the Marcus Loew theater chain, produced a short promotional film for the musical The Pleasure Seekers, opening at the Winter Garden Theatre on Broadway.
As reported in a wire service story carried by the Lincoln, Nebraska Daily Star, the practice which Loew adopted was described as "an new and unique stunt", that "moving pictures of the rehearsals and other incidents connected with the production will be sent out in advance of the show, to be presented to the Loew's picture houses and will take the place of much of the bill board advertising". Granlund was first to introduce trailer material for an upcoming motion picture, using a slide technique to promote an upcoming film featuring Charlie Chaplin at Loew's Seventh Avenue Theatre in Harlem in 1914. Trailers were shown after, or "trailing", the feature film, this led to their being called "trailers"; the practice was found to be somewhat ineffective ignored by audiences who left after the feature. Exhibitors changed their practice so that trailers were only one part of the film program, which included cartoon shorts and serial adventure episodes. Today, more elaborate trailers and commercial advertisements have replaced other forms of pre-feature entertainment, in major multiplex chains, about the first 20 minutes after the posted showtime is devoted to trailers.
Up until the late 1950s, trailers were created by National Screen Service and consisted of various key scenes from the film being advertised augmented with large, descriptive text describing the story, an underscore pulled from studio music libraries. Most trailers had some form of narration, those that did featured stentorian voices. In the early 1960s, the face of motion picture trailers changed. Textless, montage trailers and quick-editing became popular due to the arrival of the "new Hollywood" and techniques that were becoming popular in television. Among the trend setters were Stanley Kubrick with his montage trailers for Lolita, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, 2001: A Space Odyssey. Kubrick's main inspiration for the Dr. Strangelove trailer was the short film Very Nice, Very Nice by Canadian film visionary Arthur Lipsett. Pablo Ferro, who pioneered the techniques Kubrick required as necessary elements for the success of his campaign, created the Dr. Strangelove trailer, as well as the award-winning trailer for A Clockwork Orange.
Many home videos contain trailers for other movies produced by the same company scheduled to be available shortly after the legal release of the video, so as not to spend money advertising the videos on TV. Most VHS tapes would play them at the beginning of the tape, but some VHS tapes contained previews at the end of the film or at both ends of the tape. VHS tapes that contained trailers at the end reminded the viewer to "Stay tuned after the feature for more previews." With DVDs and Blu-rays, trailers can operate as a bonus feature instead of having to watch through the trailers before the film. Trailers consist of a series selected shots from the film being advertised. Since the purpose of the trailer is to attract an audience to the film, these excerpts are drawn from the most exciting, funny, or otherwise noteworthy parts of the film but in abbreviated form and without producing spoilers. For this purpose the scenes are not in the order in which they appear in the film. A trailer has to achieve that in less than 2 minutes and 30 seconds, the maximum length allowed by the MPAA.
Each studio or distributor is allowed to exceed this time limit once a year, if they feel it is necessary for a particular film. In January 2014, the movie theater trade group National Association of Theatre Owners issued an industry guideline asking that film distributors supply trailers that run no longer than 2 minutes, 30 second shorter than the prior norm; the guideline is not mandatory, allows for limited exceptions of a select few movies having longer trailers. Film distributors reacted coolly to the announcement. There had been no visible disputes on trailer running time prior to the guideline, which surprised many; some trailers use "special shoot" footage, material, created for advertising purposes and does not appear in the actual film. The most notable film to use this technique was Terminator 2: Judgment Day, whose trailer featured an elaborate special effect scene of a T-800 Terminator being assembled in a factory, never intended to be in the film itself. Dimension Films shot extra scenes for their 2006 horror remake, Black Christmas - these scenes were used in promotional footage for the film
Fan convention, a term that antedates 1942, is an event in which fans of a particular film, television series, comic book, actor, or an entire genre of entertainment, such as science fiction or anime and manga, gather to participate and hold programs and other events, to meet experts, famous personalities, each other. Some incorporate commercial activity. Fan conventions are traditionally organized by fans on a not-for-profit basis, though some events catering to fans are run by commercial interests for profit. Many conventions have award presentations relating to their genre. At commercial events, performers give out autographs to the fans, sometimes in exchange for a flat appearance fee, sometimes may perform songs that have no relevance to the shows or otherwise entertain the fans. Commercial conventions are quite expensive and are hosted in hotels. There is tight security for the celebrities to protect against fanatic fans; such features are not common at traditional science-fiction conventions, which are more oriented toward science fiction as a mode of literature, rather than toward visual media, do not include any paid appearances by famous personalities, maintain a less caste-like differentiation between professional and fan.
Anime conventions, gaming conventions, filk-music conventions, furry conventions may all be considered derivatives of science-fiction conventions, which began in the late 1930s. While the wearing of costumes—and a costume competition —has been an occasional feature of traditional science-fiction conventions since Forrest J Ackerman wore one during the First World Science Fiction Convention in 1939, this has never been the dominant feature of such events. From press coverage of comic book and anime conventions has arisen the widespread image of fans' tendency to dress up as their favorite characters in elaborate costumes that are time-consuming and/or expensive to assemble. Different conventions, use different methods, to count their attendance, thus leading to a confusion of actual convention size. Fan conventions for various genres of entertainment extend to the first conventions held in the 1930s. However, while a few conventions were created in various parts of the world within the period between 1935-1960, the number of convention establishments increased in the 1960s and increased in the 1970s, with many of the largest conventions in the modern era being established during the latter decade.
Impeti for further establishment of local fan conventions include: The return of superhero characters and franchises during the Silver Age of Comic Books. Science fiction adaptations for television serials in the 1960s-1970s; the growth of role-playing as a genre of tabletop, live-action and video/computer gaming, which not only inspired roleplay of favorite characters in full-body costumes but inspired existing franchises to adapt their themes for said methods of gaming. The growth in home taping of television broadcasts, including popular serials; the growth of computerized communication, including the Internet and Internet-dependent applications in the 1980s and 1990s. Science fiction fandom Fantasy fandom List of fan conventions by date of founding List of anime conventions List of comic book conventions List of furry conventions List of gaming conventions List of multi-genre conventions List of professional wrestling conventions List of science-fiction conventions Piposh, a franchise, revived due to its fans carrying its legacy through fan conventions
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per