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Olaus Færden

Olaus Færden was a Norwegian farmer and politician. He was born at Færden farm at Haugsbygd in Norway, he was a son of Anne O. Lagesen, he was uncle of Wilhelm Hansen Færden and Anders Færden. In October 1847 in Norderhov he married farmer's daughter Maren K. Hverven, they had no children. He became a farmer himself, after graduating from Asker Teachers' Seminary in 1844, he owned Hverven farm from 1847. In 1854 he was elected as a member of Norderhov municipal council, he served as mayor 1856-1865, 1872-1875 and 1892-1893. He was elected to the Parliament of Norway in 1859, he was re-elected in 1862, 1865, 1868 and 1873, representing the constituency of Buskeruds Amt. He was a deputy representative in 1857, 1871–1873 and 1877–1879, he held numerous posts in public committees, was an elector and arbitrator, local savings bank director. He was a proponent of the construction of the Randsfjord Line, but had a conservative political outlook, he voted against the introduction of annual parliamentary sessions, the possibility of summoning government ministers to Parliament

Mohave Valley, Arizona

Mohave Valley is a census-designated place in Mohave County, United States. The population was 13,694 at the 2000 census, it is geographically connected to Needles, Fort Mohave and Bullhead City, Arizona. The first recorded European to come through Mohave Valley was Melchor Díaz, he documented his travels in northwestern Mohave County in 1540. He recounts meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the shortened name "Mojave". While Mohave Valley and Mohave County use the modern English spelling, the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave". Both are correct, both are pronounced "Moh-hah-vee". Mohave Valley is located at 34°57′25″N 114°35′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 45.4 square miles, of which, 45.3 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,694 people, 5,217 households, 3,850 families residing in the CDP.

The population density was 302.6 people per square mile. There were 6,672 housing units at an average density of 147.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.79% White, 0.45% Black or African American, 2.34% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.26% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races. 11.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,217 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 2.94. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.9 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,321, the median income for a family was $38,897. Males had a median income of $29,719 versus $21,271 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,287. About 7.9% of families and 11.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture constitutes a major portion of Mohave Valley's economy. Main crops are alfalfa. Children from Mohave Valley attend Mohave Valley Elementary School District. High school students attend River Valley High School in the Colorado River Union High School District and have the option to attend the Academy of Building Industries Public Charter High School located in Fort Mohave, Arizona, or the Aha Macav High School on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation. Bullhead City, Arizona Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport Laughlin, Nevada Mohave people Fort Mohave, Arizona Needles, California Oatman, Arizona

Triple A (Spain)

The Alianza Apostólica Anticomunista was a Spanish far-right paramilitary organisation active from 1976 to 1983 in the southern Basque Country but in the French Basque Country and Barcelona. A June 2010 report by the Office for Victims of Terrorism of the Basque Government attributed eight murders with 66 deathly victims to the group and linked it to the National Police Corps, SECED and the Civil Guard; the group attacked the satirical magazine El Papus in Barcelona, killing one person and injuring 17. Attacks claimed by the Anti-Communist Apostolic Alliance: 27 July 1976: The group claimed responsibility for kidnapping ETA political-military leader Pertur; the Batallón Vasco Español claimed responsibility for kidnapping and murdering Pertur. 16 December 1976: The group threatened Catalan singer Lluis Llach, attacking with machine guns at one of his concerts. 25 January 1977: Triple A claimed responsibility for the Atocha massacre and the bombing of the Pub Santa Bárbara. 7 February 1977: The Sala Villaroel in Barcelona was bombed during a performance of an Alfonso Sastre play.

17 February 1977: The Triple A Francisco Franco Command sent death threats to journalists and Basque activists. 21 February 1977: A death threat was sent to José Luis Martín, dean of arts at the University of Salamanca. 24 February 1977: A death threat was sent to Adolfo Suárez, accusing him of treason against the National Movement. 27 May 1977: A bomb threat was made against an Aranjuez cinema if a People's Socialist Party event scheduled to be held there was not canceled. 20 September 1977: A bomb exploded at the satirical magazine El Papus office in Barcelona. Juan Peñalver Sandoval was killed, 17 people were injured; the group threatened to attack the newspapers Cambio 16 and Mundo Diario and the magazine Por Favor. 6 October 1977: A bomb destroyed the offices of the magazine Punto y Hora de Euskal Herria in Pamplona. 7 October 1977: Taxi driver David Salvador Bernardo was murdered in Andoain, Gipuzkoa. Triple A claimed responsibility for Salvador Bernardo's murder, accusing him of being an ETA collaborator.

5 November 1977: Triple A attacked and robbed the headquarters of Comisiones Obreras in Bilbao. 6 June 1978: Death threats were sent to Diario 16 manager Miguel Ángel Aguilar. 1 July 1978: A bomb destroyed the Circulo Catalán de Madrid building, killing one person. 2 July 1978: Rosario Arregui Letamendi, the wife of former ETA military leader Juan José Etxabe, was murdered in Donibane Lohizune, France. The couple was shot. Etxabe's family had been attacked several times, his brother was murdered three years before. Responsibility was claimed by the Triple A, in "retaliation for the latest developments in Euskadi". Five unknown assailants opened fire at Letamendi's funeral. 13 September 1978: The PSOE offices in Avilés were attacked with guns, the group stole a statue of Francisco Franco. 10 November 1978: A Molotov cocktail was used to attack Comisiones Obreras headquarters in Madrid. 5 May 1979: Triple A announced a boycott of the Basque Country. 6 May 1979: 17-year-old José Ramón Ansa Echevarria of Andoain, was kidnapped and murdered at dawn as he returned home on foot after attending local festivities with friends.

Ansa Echevarria was found with a bullet in his forehead in a roadside ditch between Andoain and Urnieta. Responsibility for his murder was claimed by Triple A, who accused him of being a member of ETA. 11 May 1979: A bomb destroyed the Socialist Party of Andalusia building in Seville. 12 June 1979: A bomb destroyed the UCD building in Granada. 23 April 1980: Basque painter and Euskadiko Ezkerra member Javier Aguirre Unamuno was injured in an attack. 23 July 1980: A 2-kilogram Goma-2 bomb exploded in the Ametzola neighborhood of Bilbao. In the explosion, two Roma died at the scene: Maria Contreras Gabarra, 17 and her brother, 12-year-old Antonio Contreras Gabarra. 59-year-old Anastasio Leal Terradillos of Cabezuela del Valle, an employee of the municipal cleaning service, was fatally injured. After the attack, there was speculation about whether the intended target was a nearby nursery owned by a councillor of Herri Batasuna or the local Batzoki. 27 August 1980: Jesús Maria Etxebeste was murdered in Irun.

19 December 1980: A bar in Lekeitio was attacked. 26 November 1981: El Diario de Barcelona was attacked. Death threats against Xavier Vinader. 2 January 1982: Pablo Garayalde was murdered in Leitza. 14 June 1982: Four bombs in Madrid and attacks on two buses in Torremolinos. 5 February 1983: A grenade attack on the US Embassy in Madrid. 11 February 1983: Attacks on, threats against, left-wing students in the University of Barcelona

History of penicillin

The history of penicillin follows a number of observations and discoveries of apparent evidence of antibiotic activity in molds before the modern isolation of the chemical penicillin in 1928. There are anecdotes about ancient societies using molds to treat infections, in the following centuries many people observed the inhibition of bacterial growth by various molds. However, it is unknown if the species involved were Penicillium species or if the antimicrobial substances produced were penicillin; the Scottish physician Alexander Fleming was the first to suggest that a Penicillium mold must secrete an antibacterial substance, the first to concentrate the active substance involved, which he named penicillin, in 1928. Penicillin was the first modern antibiotic. During the next twelve years Fleming grew and studied the original mold, determined to be a rare variant of Penicillium notatum. Many scientists were involved in the stabilization and mass production of penicillin and in the search for more productive strains of Penicillium.

Important contributors include Ernst Chain, Howard Florey, Norman Heatley, Edward Abraham. Shortly after the discovery of penicillin, scientists found that some disease-causing pathogens display antibiotic resistance to penicillin. Research that aims to develop more effective strains and to study the causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance continues today. Many ancient cultures, including those in Egypt and India, independently discovered the useful properties of fungi and plants in treating infection; these treatments worked because many organisms, including many species of mold produce antibiotic substances. However, ancient practitioners could not identify or isolate the active components in these organisms. In 17th-century Poland, wet bread was mixed with spider webs to treat wounds; the technique was mentioned by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his 1884 book With Sword. In England in 1640, the idea of using mold as a form of medical treatment was recorded by apothecaries such as John Parkinson, King's Herbarian, who advocated the use of mold in his book on pharmacology.

NB In the early stages of penicillin research, most species of Penicillium were referred to as Penicillium glaucum, so we cannot identify the actual strains used. Thus, it is difficult to tell whether it was penicillin preventing bacterial growth; the modern history of penicillin research begins in the United Kingdom. Sir John Scott Burdon-Sanderson, who started out at St. Mary's Hospital and worked there as a lecturer, observed that culture fluid covered with mold would produce no bacterial growth. Burdon-Sanderson's discovery prompted Joseph Lister, an English surgeon and the father of modern antisepsis, to discover in 1871 that urine samples contaminated with mold did not permit the growth of bacteria. Lister described the antibacterial action on human tissue of a species of mold he called Penicillium glaucum. A nurse at King's College Hospital whose wounds did not respond to any traditional antiseptic was given another substance that cured her, Lister's registrar informed her that it was called Penicillium.

In 1874, the Welsh physician William Roberts, who coined the term "enzyme", observed that bacterial contamination is absent in laboratory cultures of Penicillium glaucum. John Tyndall followed up on Burdon-Sanderson's work and demonstrated to the Royal Society in 1875 the antibacterial action of the Penicillium fungus. By this time, Bacillus anthracis had been shown to cause anthrax, the first demonstration that a specific bacterium caused a specific disease. In 1877, French biologists Louis Pasteur and Jules Francois Joubert observed that cultures of the anthrax bacilli, when contaminated with molds, could be inhibited; some references say. However, Paul de Kruif's 1926 Microbe Hunters describes this incident as contamination by other bacteria rather than by mold. In 1887, Garré found similar results. In 1895, Vincenzo Tiberio, an Italian physician at the University of Naples, published research about molds found in a water well in Arzano. Two years Ernest Duchesne at École du Service de Santé Militaire in Lyon independently discovered the healing properties of a Penicillium glaucum mold curing infected guinea pigs of typhoid.

He published a dissertation in 1897 but it was ignored by the Institut Pasteur. Duchesne was himself using a discovery made earlier by Arab stable boys, who used molds to cure sores on horses, he did not claim that the mold contained any antibacterial substance, only that the mold somehow protected the animals. The penicillin isolated by Fleming does not cure typhoid and so it remains unknown which substance might have been responsible for Duchesne's cure. In Belgium in 1920, Andre Gratia and Sara Dath observed a fungal contamination in one of their Staphylococcus aureus cultures, inhibiting the growth of the bacterium, they identified the fungus as a species of Penicillium and presented their observations as a paper, but it received little attention. An Institut Pasteur scientist, Costa Rican Clodomiro Picado Twight recorded the antibiotic effect of Penicillium in 1923. In 1928, Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming noticed a halo of inhibition of bacterial growth around a contaminant blue-green mold on a Staphylococcus plate culture.

He concluded that the mold was releasing a substance, inhibiting bacterial growth. He grew a pure culture of the mold and subsequently co

Motion in the Ocean

Motion in the Ocean is the third studio album released by English pop rock band McFly. The album was released in the United Kingdom on 6 November 2006; the album has sold more than 300,000 copies in the UK since its release. The tour edition of the album was released on 14 May 2007. Alongside the addition of bonus track "Baby's Coming Back", the album was accompanied by a DVD of the Motion in the Ocean Tour 2006, recorded live at Wembley Arena; the album was a limited edition. This version of the album reached number fourteen on the official album chart, selling 11,256 copies; the album was recorded in the infamous Grouse Lodge recording studio in Ireland. The album's first song, first featured as a demo B-side to the single Star Girl; this version is different, with stronger piano riffs. Please Please contains obvious references to actress Lindsay Lohan, who drummer Harry Judd met on the set of Lohan's movie Just My Luck, in which McFly made an appearance. Lohan is not mentioned but the woman featured in the video for the song has green eyes, red hair, is named Lindsay.

The name tag on her nurse's uniform says "Lindsay Allbright" – Lohan's character in Just My Luck was named "Ashley Allbright." The band's official position, as stated in the album notes, is. The double A-side of "Don't Stop Me Now/Please, Please" was released as the album's lead single on 17 July 2006, it charted at number one on the UK Singles Chart. The single became the official single for Sport Relief 2006. "Star Girl" was released as the album's second single on 23 October 2006. It went to number one on the UK Singles Chart, selling more than 58,000 copies in its first week; the double A-side of "Sorry's Not Good Enough/Friday Night" was released as the album's third single on 18 December 2006. It reached number three on the Christmas charts; the double A-side of "Baby's Coming Back/Transylvania" was released as the album's fourth and final single on 7 May 2007. It reached number one on the UK Singles Chart