Sun contributed significantly to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, and virtualized computing. Sun was founded on February 24,1982, at its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California, on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center. On January 27,2010, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun by for US$7.4 billion, other technologies include the Java platform, MySQL, and NFS. Sun was a proponent of open systems in general and Unix in particular, the initial design for what became Suns first Unix workstation, the Sun-1, was conceived by Andy Bechtolsheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Bechtolsheim originally designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation and it was designed around the Motorola 68000 processor with an advanced memory management unit to support the Unix operating system with virtual memory support.
He built the first ones from spare parts obtained from Stanfords Department of Computer Science, on February 24,1982, Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim, and Scott McNealy, all Stanford graduate students, founded Sun Microsystems. Bill Joy of Berkeley, a developer of the Berkeley Software Distribution. The Sun name is derived from the initials of the Stanford University Network, Sun was profitable from its first quarter in July 1982. By 1983 Sun was known for producing 68000-based systems with high-quality graphics that were the only computers other than DECs VAX to run 4. 2BSD and it licensed the computer design to other manufacturers, which typically used it to build Multibus-based systems running Unix from UniSoft. Suns initial public offering was in 1986 under the stock symbol SUNW, the symbol was changed in 2007 to JAVA, Sun stated that the brand awareness associated with its Java platform better represented the companys current strategy. Suns logo, which features four interleaved copies of the sun in the form of a rotationally symmetric ambigram, was designed by professor Vaughan Pratt.
The initial version of the logo was orange and had the sides oriented horizontally and vertically, but it was rotated to stand on one corner and re-colored purple. In the dot-com bubble, Sun began making more money. It began spending more, hiring workers and building itself out. Some of this was because of demand, but much was from web start-up companies anticipating business that would never happen. Sales in Suns important hardware division went into free-fall as customers closed shop, several quarters of steep losses led to executive departures, rounds of layoffs, and other cost cutting. In December 2001, the fell to the 1998, pre-bubble level of about $100. But it kept falling, faster than many other tech companies, a year it had dipped below $10 but bounced back to $20
GNU General Public License
The GNU General Public License is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study and modify the software. The license was written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation for the GNU Project. The GPL is a license, which means that derivative work can only be distributed under the same license terms. This is in distinction to permissive free licenses, of which the BSD licenses. GPL was the first copyleft license for general use, the GPL license family has been one of the most popular software licenses in the free and open-source software domain. Prominent free software licensed under the GPL include the Linux kernel. In 2007, the version of the license was released to address some perceived problems with the second version that were discovered during its long-time usage. To keep the license up to date, the GPL license includes an optional any version clause, developers can omit it when licensing their software, for instance the Linux kernel is licensed under GPLv2 without the any version clause.
The GPL was written by Richard Stallman in 1989, for use with programs released as part of the GNU project, the original GPL was based on a unification of similar licenses used for early versions of GNU Emacs, the GNU Debugger and the GNU C Compiler. These licenses contained similar provisions to the modern GPL, but were specific to each program, rendering them incompatible, Stallmans goal was to produce one license that could be used for any project, thus making it possible for many projects to share code. The second version of the license, version 2, was released in 1991, version 3 was developed to attempt to address these concerns and was officially released on 29 June 2007. Version 1 of the GNU GPL, released on 25 February 1989, the first problem was that distributors may publish binary files only—executable, but not readable or modifiable by humans. To prevent this, GPLv1 stated that any vendor distributing binaries must make the source code available under the same licensing terms. The second problem was that distributors might add restrictions, either to the license, the union of two sets of restrictions would apply to the combined work, thus adding unacceptable restrictions.
To prevent this, GPLv1 stated that modified versions, as a whole, had to be distributed under the terms in GPLv1. Therefore, software distributed under the terms of GPLv1 could be combined with software under more permissive terms, according to Richard Stallman, the major change in GPLv2 was the Liberty or Death clause, as he calls it – Section 7. The section says that licensees may distribute a GPL-covered work only if they can all of the licenses obligations. In other words, the obligations of the license may not be severed due to conflicting obligations and this provision is intended to discourage any party from using a patent infringement claim or other litigation to impair users freedom under the license
Oracle Corporation is a multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. In 2015 Oracle was the second-largest software maker by revenue, after Microsoft, larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems named A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks and he heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates. Also derived from Codds theories, Ellison wanted to make Oracles product compatible with System R, SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc in 1979, again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982, to align itself more closely with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the senior programmer. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation, officially named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, part of Oracle Corporations early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products.
This eased porting to different operating systems, many of the products have been added to Oracles portfolio through acquisitions. Oracles E-delivery service provides generic downloadable Oracle software and documentation, Oracle Database Release 10, In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g as the latest version of Oracle Database. Release 11, Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007, Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009. This version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, the licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that are considered complex. The Enterprise Edition, the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions —, Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition and Standard Edition One with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. Release 12, Release 12c became available on July 1,2013, Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation.
Oracle has since made many enhancements to product and development continues as of 2008. Released in 2008, the Oracle Beehive collaboration software provides team workspaces, calendar, instant messaging, customers can use Beehive as licensed software or as software as a service. Oracle sells a suite of business applications, users can access these facilities through a browser interface over the Internet or via a corporate intranet. The Social Engagement and Monitoring cloud provides the most effective and efficient responses across social, SEM is able to route correct responses to the right team, member, or customer-experience channel to ensure the best customer service. The analysis helps vendors to understand what is important to customers and it identifies trends and anomalies to make real-time course corrections. It can identify brand advocates, the SEM cloud identifies customer intention and interests by analyzing the common ways customers talk about a product or a service
A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the systems of a mobile phone operator. Most modern mobile telephone services use a network architecture, therefore. Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to seven billion, penetrating 100% of the global population. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone manufacturers were Samsung, Apple, a handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone.
Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships, the race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.4.4 lbs. The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and this was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology, in 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard.
This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators, ten years later, in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3. 5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have data transfer speeds. By 2009, it had become clear that, at point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies
Java (software platform)
Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones to enterprise servers and supercomputers. While they are less common than standalone Java applications, Java applets run in secure, sandboxed environments to provide many features of native applications, in addition, several languages have been designed to run natively on the JVM, including Scala and Apache Groovy. Java syntax borrows heavily from C and C++, but object-oriented features are modeled after Smalltalk, Java eschews certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a very simple memory model where every object is allocated on the heap and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the JVM, on November 13,2006, Sun Microsystems made the bulk of its implementation of Java available under the GNU General Public License. The latest version is Java 8, the only supported version as of 2016, Oracle has announced that using older versions of their JVM implementation presents serious risks due to unresolved security issues.
The Java platform is a suite of programs that facilitate developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. A Java platform will include an engine, a compiler. Java ME, Specifies several different sets of libraries for devices with limited storage, display and it is often used to develop applications for mobile devices, PDAs, TV set-top boxes, and printers. Java SE, For general-purpose use on desktop PCs, Java EE, Java SE plus various APIs which are useful for multi-tier client–server enterprise applications. The Java platform consists of programs, each of which provides a portion of its overall capabilities. For example, the Java compiler, which converts Java source code into Java bytecode, is provided as part of the Java Development Kit, the Java Runtime Environment, complementing the JVM with a just-in-time compiler, converts intermediate bytecode into native machine code on the fly. The Java platform includes a set of libraries. The heart of the Java platform is the concept of a machine that executes Java bytecode programs.
This bytecode is the same no matter what hardware or operating system the program is running under, there is a JIT compiler within the Java Virtual Machine, or JVM. The JIT compiler translates the Java bytecode into native processor instructions at run-time, the use of bytecode as an intermediate language permits Java programs to run on any platform that has a virtual machine available. Since JRE version 1.2, Suns JVM implementation has included a just-in-time compiler instead of an interpreter, although Java programs are cross-platform or platform independent, the code of the Java Virtual Machines that execute these programs is not. Every supported operating platform has its own JVM, in most modern operating systems, a large body of reusable code is provided to simplify the programmers job. This code is provided as a set of dynamically loadable libraries that applications can call at runtime
OpenJDK is a free and open source implementation of the Java Platform, Standard Edition. It is the result of an effort Sun Microsystems began in 2006, the implementation is licensed under the GNU General Public License version 2 with a linking exception. Were it not for the GPL linking exception, components that linked to the Java class library would be subject to the terms of the GPL license, OpenJDK is the official reference implementation of Java SE since version 7. The OpenJDK project produces a number of components, most importantly the virtual machine, the Java Class Library, the web-browser plugin and Web Start, which form part of Oracle Java, are not included in OpenJDK. Sun previously indicated that they would try to open-source these components, the only currently available free plugin and Web Start implementations as of 2016 are those provided by IcedTea. In September 2016, an Oracle employee detailed plans to add AOT compilation to the OpenJDK using the Graal compiler, OpenJDK was initially based only on the JDK7 version of the Java platform.
There are several separate OpenJDK projects, The OpenJDK9 project, the OpenJDK8 project, which is the basis for JDK8, was released on 18 March 2014. The OpenJDK 8u project, which is based on JDK8, the OpenJDK 7u project, which is based on JDK7 and produces updates to the existing Java 7 releases. The OpenJDK6 project, which is based on JDK7, in order to bundle OpenJDK in Fedora and other free GNU/Linux distributions, OpenJDK needed to be buildable using only free software components. Due to the components in the class library and implicit assumptions within the build system that the JDK being used to build OpenJDK was a Sun JDK. To achieve openness, Red Hat started the IcedTea project in June 2007 and it began life as an OpenJDK/GNU Classpath hybrid that could be used to bootstrap OpenJDK, replacing the encumbrances with code from GNU Classpath. On November 5,2007, Red Hat signed both the Sun Contributor Agreement and the OpenJDK Community TCK License, IcedTea provided free software alternatives for the few remaining proprietary sections in the OpenJDK project.
In May 2008, the Fedora 9 and Ubuntu 8.04 distributions included IcedTea 6, based completely on free, Fedora 9 was the first version to be shipped with IcedTea6, based on the OpenJDK6 sources from Sun rather than OpenJDK7. It was the first to use OpenJDK for the name instead of IcedTea. Ubuntu first packaged IcedTea7 before moving to IcedTea6, packages for IcedTea6 were created for Debian and included in lenny. On July 12,2008, Debian accepted OpenJDK-6 in unstable, OpenJDK is available on openSUSE, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and RHEL derivatives such as CentOS. In July 2009, an IcedTea 6 binary build for Ubuntu 9.04 passed all of the compatibility tests in the Java SE6 TCK, since August 2008, OpenJDK7 is usable on Mac OS X and other BSD variants. On Android Nougat, OpenJDK replaces the now-discontinued Apache Harmony as the Java libraries in the code of the mobile operating system
The Apache License, Version 2.0 is a permissive free software license written by the Apache Software Foundation. The Apache License requires preservation of the notice and disclaimer. This makes ALv2 a FRAND-RF license, the ASF and its projects release the software they produce under the Apache License and many non-ASF projects are using the ALv2. A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient extensive rights to modify, Software using such a license is free software as conferred by the copyright holder. Free software licenses are applied to software in source code as object code form. The ASF adopted the Apache License 2.0 in January 2004, the Apache License is permissive in that it does not require a derivative work of the software, or modifications to the original, to be distributed using the same license. Modifications may have appropriate copyright notices, and may provide different license terms for the modifications, in October 2012,8,708 projects located at SourceForge.
net were available under the terms of the Apache License. In a blog post from May 2008, Google mentioned that over 25% of the nearly 100,000 projects hosted on Google Code were using the Apache License, including the Android operating system. As of 2015, according to Black Duck Software and GitHub, free software license Comparison of free and open-source software licenses Software using the Apache license Apache Licenses Quick Summary of the Apache License 2.0
Apache Harmony is a retired open source, free Java implementation, developed by the Apache Software Foundation. It was announced in early May 2005 and on October 25,2006, the Harmony project achieved 99% completeness for J2SE5.0, and 97% for Java SE6. The Android operating system has historically been a user of Harmony. On October 29,2011 a vote was started by the project lead Tim Ellison whether to retire the project, the outcome was 20 to 2 in favor, and the project was retired on November 16,2011. The Harmony project was conceived as an effort to unite all developers of the free Java implementations. Many developers expected that it would be the project above the GNU, Apache, GNU developers were invited into and participated during the initial, preparatory planning. Apache developers would write the needed classes from scratch and expect necessary large code donations from software companies. Sun released the OpenJDK in May 2007, along with a license to allow to run the TCK in the OpenJDK context for any GPL implementation deriving substantially from OpenJDK.
This does not cover Apache Harmony, which is not GPL-licensed, the virtual machine that is used in Googles Android platform, uses a subset of Harmony for the core of its Class Library. However, Dalvik does not align to Java SE nor Java ME Class Library profiles, Android 7.0 Nougat replaced Harmony with OpenJDK. Bob Sutor, IBMs head of Linux and open source, blogged that IBM will be shifting its development effort from the Apache Project Harmony to OpenJDK. On March 2011, IBMs Tim Ellison announced that he resigned as Project Management Chair for Harmony After IBMs disengagement, on October 29,2011, a poll was started on the harmony-dev mailing list by the project lead Tim Ellison whether to retire the project. The outcome on November 3, was 20 to 2 in favor of retirement, on November 16,2011, the Apache Software Foundation board of directors passed a motion to terminate the project. One director, Larry Rosen, cast a no vote, based on the rather than the merits of the proposal. The project was retired on November 16,2011, at the start, Apache Harmony received some large code contributions from several companies.
Development discussions have taken place on open mailing lists, the Apache Software foundation mentors put a lot of effort into bringing the development process more in line with the Apache way, and it seemed that their efforts were successful. Apache Harmony was accepted among the official Apache projects on October 29,2006, the Dynamic Runtime Layer virtual machine consists of the following components, The VM core, with its subcomponents concentrates most of the JVM control functions. The porting layer, hides platform-specific details from other VM components behind a single interface and is based on the Apache Portable Runtime layer, Class Library, is a Java standard library
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network