Fatal Frame, titled Zero in Japan and Project Zero in Europe, is a survival horror video game series created and developed by Koei Tecmo, co-owned by Koei Tecmo and Nintendo. Debuting in 2001 with the first entry in the series for the PlayStation 2, the series consists of five main entries; the series is set in 1980s Japan, with each entry focusing on a location beset by hostile supernatural events. In each scenario, the characters involved in the present investigation use Camera Obscura, objects created by Dr. Kunihiko Asou that can capture and pacify spirits; the series draws on staple elements of Japanese horror, is noted for its frequent use of female protagonists. The series was conceived by Keisuke Kikuchi. After being introduced to the PlayStation 2 hardware and after the success of the Silent Hill series, the pair decided to develop a horror series inspired by Shibata's own spiritual experiences and popular Japanese horror films of the time, their main goal was to make the most frightening game experience possible.
Installments have refined the gameplay mechanics while adding more complex narrative elements. The series has received critical acclaim, being ranked alongside other horror series including Resident Evil and Silent Hill series, while individual games have been ranked among the best survival horror games in existence. While the sales of individual games have never been high, the series as a whole has sold over one million copies worldwide as of April 2014. Multiple Japanese media adaptations have been made; as of 2014, the series consists of five mainline video games, not counting remakes, re-releases and spin-offs. The only main Fatal Frame title yet to be released in the west is the fourth entry. While a European release was planned, it was cancelled, no North American release was planned. A fan translation of the fourth game was released in 2010, which enabled the game to be played on any Wii system. Outside their international releases, the Fatal Frame games are not numbered; this was due to the series' creators considering each entry to be a standalone game, with minimal connections to previous titles.
The Fatal Frame IP is co-owned by Koei Tecmo and Nintendo, resulting in series titles since the fourth game only appearing on Nintendo consoles. The titular first entry in the series was released on the PlayStation 2 in 2001 in Japan and 2002 in North America and Europe; the second game, Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly, was released again for PlayStation 2 in 2003 in Japan and North America, 2004 in Europe. Fatal Frame III: The Tormented released for the PlayStation 2 in 2005 for Japan and North America, 2006 in Europe. In 2008, Fatal Frame: Mask of the Lunar Eclipse released in Japan for the Wii, has not been released overseas; the fifth title, Fatal Frame: Maiden of Black Water, was released for the Wii U in 2014 in Japan and 2015 in North America and Australia. The first two titles have received expanded re-releases. An expanded port of the original game was released for the Xbox in 2002 in Japan and 2003 in Western territories, it featured gameplay refinements and a new difficulty setting.
For Crimson Butterfly, a "Director's Cut" for the Xbox was released in 2004 in Japan and North America, 2005 in Europe. A new expanded remake for the Wii was released in Japan and Europe in 2012. A mobile title, Real Zero, was released in 2004 for DoCoMo mobile devices; the game involves users taking pictures of their environments and superimposing ghost images somewhere in the frame. Seventy different ghosts were available to collect, with each new ghost triggering the sending of an email to provide clues for finding the next ghost or other messages; the game's service was terminated in 2011. A spin-off for the Nintendo 3DS, Spirit Camera, was released in all regions in 2012; the story follows a girl named Maya, trapped in a haunted house controlled by a mysterious woman in black, seeks to escape the woman's control. To commemorate the release of Crimson Butterfly, a special interactive attraction titled Zero4D opened in 2004, it featured movie scenes designed by the same team behind the CGI movies for Crimson Butterfly.
A manga based on the series written by Shin Kibayashi, Fatal Frame: Shadow Priestess, was released in both Japanese and English through DeNA's website in July 2014. A Japanese live-action movie directed by Mari Asato for Kadokawa Pictures was released in cinemas in 2014; the novel it was based on, Fatal Frame: A Curse Affecting Only Girls by Eiji Ohtsuka, was released a few months prior to the movie. A Hollywood film adaptation of the first game, Fatal Frame, was announced in 2003. Robert Fyvolent and Mark R. Brinker were hired as the project's writers, John Rogers was hired as its producer; the title was being produced by DreamWorks. That year, it was announced that Steven Spielberg was helping Rogers to polish the game's script, that sessions to find a director and cast the movie would follow. In 2014 alongside the formal announcement of Maiden of Black Water, it was confirmed that the Hollywood film was still planned. Now produced by Samuel Hadida, it is set to begin production after the completion and release of the game.
The gameplay has remained consistent through the series' lifetime. Each environment is filled with ghosts, with separate games having different attack behaviors for them. While navigating these environments, the main character's only means of defense is the Camera Obscura, which can be used to damage ghosts, capturing them on film and pacifying them; when using the camera, the view switches from a third-person to a first-person perspective. The camera locks onto a ghost, with the amount of damage dealt depending on how much of a focus the
PlayStation is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3, 1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation in Japan; the original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history; the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, the PlayStation Portable or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013.
Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17, 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, had sold over 4 million units by January 2013. PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a digital video recorder, integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a Sony Bravia television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2; the main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, a line of vibration-feedback gamepad having sold 28 million controllers as of June 28, 2008. The PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide, it comprises an online virtual market, the PlayStation Store, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as PlayStation Plus and a social gaming networking service called PlayStation Home, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015.
PlayStation Mobile is a software framework. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the Android operating system, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 would only target PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently.7th generation PlayStation products use the XrossMediaBar, an award-winning graphical user interface. A touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles featured support for Linux-based operating systems; the series has been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" commercials in the United States. The series has a strong line-up of first-party titles due to Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a group of fifteen first-party developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment which are dedicated to developing first-party games for the series.
In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of titles by Sony with different names for each region. In October 2018, Sony President Kenichiro Yoshida stated the necessity of the new PlayStation console. Yoshida said, it has become "necessary to have a next-generation hardware" to replace the PlayStation 4, now 5 years old. PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who had just finished managing one of the company's hardware engineering divisions at that time and would be dubbed as "The Father of the PlayStation"; the console's origins date back to 1988 where it was a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. Although Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive, that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1991. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology.
The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips; this proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi, facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a pro
Gallop Racer is a series of horse racing video games, created by Tecmo. For the Arcades, it is available on the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PC platforms, thus far, there have been eight editions released in six in North America and two in Europe. The six games released in North America thus far are: Gallop Racer Gallop Racer 2001 Gallop Racer 2003 Gallop Racer 2004 Gallop Racer 2006 Champion Jockey: G1 Jockey & Gallop Racer Gallop Racer is an open-ended game. You buy horses to train and breed. Most of the Gallop Racer franchise revolves around this theme. Gallop Racer 2004 puts more emphasis on the jockey than on the horses; the basic theme returned with Gallop Racer 2006. Horses are classified into four leg types; the four leg types are: Front Runner Preceder Mid-Runner CloserIn order to gain the maximum stamina/spirit during the race, the horse should be ridden in its proper leg type. There are two basic divisions in the Gallop Racer series - turf; this represents the preferred surface of the horse.
Some horses can run well on both dirt. They are several horses that can be bought during the game. Most of these horses have real-life counterparts. Games in the series include some major champions including the eleven US Triple Crown winners. Races in Gallop Racer are divided into four classes, depending on the quality of the horses in the race, the type of race: Open Grade III Grade II Grade IMost of the major tracks in the United States and Europe are featured; the races do not however go by their official names. For example, the three races in the US Triple Crown are known as The Louisville Derby, The Baltimore Derby, The New York Derby. Elite Grade I races like the US Triple Crown, the Dubai World Cup must be unlocked by winning certain races, meeting certain requirements. Races can range in distance from 5 furlongs to 20 furlongs, all race distances are the same as their real life counterparts; the games are bestsellers in Japan, replacing games such as Gran Turismo 2. Gallop Racer 2006 at the Tecmo web site.
The Online Racing League World is the largest Gallop Racer series support group
Star Force, released in North America by Video Ware in the arcades as Mega Force, is a vertically scrolling shooter released in 1984 by Tehkan. In the game, the player pilots a starship called the Final Star, while shooting various enemies and destroying enemy structures for points. Unlike vertical scrolling shooters, like Toaplan's Twin Cobra, the Final Star had only two levels of weapon power, no secondary weapons like missiles and/or bombs; each stage in the game was named after a letter of the Greek alphabet. In certain versions of the game, there is an additional level called "Infinity" which occurs after Omega, after which the game repeats indefinitely. In the NES version, after defeating the Omega target, the player can see a black screen with Tecmo's logo, announcing the future release of the sequel Super Star Force. After that, the infinity target becomes available and the game repeats the same level and boss without increasing the difficulty. Super Star Force: Jikūreki no Himitsu, released in 1986 for the Japanese Nintendo Famicom.
Final Star Force, released for arcades in 1992. Star Force was ported and published in 1985 by Hudson Soft to both the MSX home computer and the Family Computer in Japan; the North American version for the Nintendo Entertainment System was published in 1987 by Tecmo. Although the NES version is the same Hudson port, released for the Famicom in Japan, Tecmo made alterations to the graphics and control, increased the difficulty of the game. Despite the U. S. arcade version being titled Mega Force, Tecmo decided to release the NES version under the original name of Star Force. Star Force was ported to the SG-1000 by Sega, X68000 by Dempa Shinbunsha and mobile phones by Tecmo. In 1995, along with two other NES shooters, the Famicom version of Star Force was remade by Hudson Soft with minimal upgrades for the Super Famicom as part of the Japan-only release of the Caravan Shooting Collection; the same version was included in Hudson's compilation of NES shooters in 2006 in Hudson Best Collection Vol. 5.
The original arcade version was added to the compilation titled Tecmo Classic Arcade, released for the Xbox. In 2009, the arcade version was made available for download on the Wii Virtual Console for 500 Wii Points as one of the four initial offerings for the "Virtual Console Arcade" category of the Wii Shop Channel. Star Force at the Killer List of Videogames Star Force at MAWS Star Force at arcade-history Mega Force at arcade-history Star Force fan page at Galaga Manix Star Force at Arcade Archives Page Star Force by Sega Tenkan at archive.org
Square Enix Holdings Co. Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer and distribution company known for its Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others. Several of them have sold over 10 million copies worldwide, with the Final Fantasy franchise alone selling over 115 million; the Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Tokyo. The company employs over 4300 employees worldwide; the original Square Enix Co. Ltd. was formed as the result of a merger between Enix Corporation and Square Co. Ltd. in April 2003, with Enix as the surviving company. Each share of Square's common stock was exchanged for 0.85 shares of Enix's common stock. At the time, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees; as part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda was named its vice president, the founder of Enix, Yasuhiro Fukushima, the largest shareholder of the combined corporation, became its honorary chairman.
In October 2008, Square Enix conducted a company split between its corporate business and video game operations. Square Enix re-branded itself as Square Enix Holdings Co. Ltd. a holding company, while its internally domestic video game operations were formed as a new subsidiary called Square Enix Co. Ltd. During the 2014 fiscal year, the company made over ¥150 billion in revenue. In addition to its flagship subsidiary, Square Enix Holdings owns the arcade gaming corporation Taito, known for games such as Space Invaders, Bubble Bobble, Darius. Square Enix owned British game publisher Eidos Interactive, absorbed into Square Enix Europe in order to publish Eidos Interactive titles such as Tomb Raider, Deus Ex and Hitman under the Square Enix brand. Enix was founded on September 22, 1975, as Eidansha Boshu Service Center by Japanese architect-turned-entrepreneur Yasuhiro Fukushima. Enix focused on publishing games by companies who partnered with the company, is most famous for publishing the Dragon Quest series of console games developed by Chunsoft.
Key members of the developer's staff consisted of director Koichi Nakamura, writer Yuuji Horii, artist Akira Toriyama, composer Koichi Sugiyama, among others. The first game in the Famicom-based RPG series was released in 1986, would sell 1.5 million copies in Japan, establishing Dragon Quest as the company's most profitable franchise. Despite the announcement that Enix's long-time competitor Square would develop for Sony PlayStation, Enix announced in January 1997 that it would release games for both Nintendo and Sony consoles; this caused a significant rise in stock for both Sony. By November 1999, Enix was listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange's 1st section, indicating it as a "large company". Square was started in October 1983 by Masafumi Miyamoto as a computer game software division of Den-Yu-Sha, a power line construction company owned by his father. While at the time game development was conducted by only one programmer, Miyamoto believed that it would be more efficient to have graphic designers and professional story writers working together on common projects.
In September 1986, the division was spun off into an independent company led by Miyamoto named Square Co. Ltd. After releasing several unsuccessful games for the Famicom, Square relocated to Ueno, Tokyo in 1987 and developed a role-playing video game titled Final Fantasy, inspired by Enix's success in the genre with the 1986 Dragon Quest. Final Fantasy was a success with over 400,000 copies sold, it became Square's main franchise, spawning dozens of games in a series that continues to the present. Buoyed by the success of their Final Fantasy franchise, Square developed many other known games such as Chrono Trigger, Chrono Cross, Secret of Mana, Legend of Mana, Brave Fencer Musashi, Parasite Eve, Saga Frontier, Romancing Saga, Vagrant Story, Kingdom Hearts, Super Mario RPG. By late 1994 they had developed a reputation as a producer of high quality role-playing video games. Square was one of the many companies that had planned to develop and publish their games for the Nintendo 64, but with the cheaper costs associated with developing games on CD-based consoles such as the Sega Saturn and the Sony PlayStation, Square decided to develop titles for the latter system.
Final Fantasy VII was one of these games, it sold 9.8 million copies, making it the second-best-selling game for the PlayStation. A merger between Square and Enix was in consideration since at least 2000. With the company facing its second year of financial losses, Square approached Sony for a capital injection and on October 8, 2001, Sony Corp purchased 18.6% stake in Square. Following the success of both Final Fantasy X and Kingdom Hearts, the company's finances stabilized, it recorded the highest operating margin in its history in fiscal year 2002, it was announced on November 25, 2002, that Square and Enix's previous plans to merge were to proceed, with the goal to mutually decrease development costs and to compete with foreign developers. As described by Yoichi Wada, Square's president and CEO: "Square has fully recovered, meaning this merger is occurring at a time when both companies are at their height."Some shareholders expressed concerns about the merger, notably Square's original founder and largest shareholder Miyamoto, who would find himself holding a signific
Pleiads is an arcade game from 1981, produced by Tehkan and licensed to Centuri. The name on the cabinet of the Centuri version is Pleiades; the title comes from the seven daughters of the titan Atlas. Pleiads is a multi-stage space shoot'em up in which enemy ships fly at the player in waves in a similar fashion to games like Galaxian and Phoenix. Ships emerge from a mothership at the top of the screen and swoop downwards in a series of patterns which players must anticipate as they shoot the ships and avoid being obliterated by the Martian onslaught. There are four stages in the game. In the first stage the Earth space ship must defend the space station from Martian invaders who have the ability to transform from flying invaders, to walking invaders who build walls across the Earth city. At the end of stage one the Earth space ship flies to the top of the screen to prepare to meet stage two. In the second stage the player encounters eight space monsters who must be hit directly on center to be destroyed before moving onto stage three.
In this stage invaders emerge form a space ship at the top of the screen and swoop down on the player in sweeping attacks. In the final wave the player has to navigate through parked spaceships to dock on a landing pad as the screen scrolls downwards. Extra points can be gained in this stage by collecting flags as the player moves towards the landing corridor. Pleiades is included in the Tecmo Hit Parade collection for the PlayStation 2 which includes seven classic arcade games from the publisher's past, as well as the eleven game compilation Tecmo Classic Arcade for the Xbox. Pleiads was featured in the 1983 horror film, Nightmares" in the vignette "Bishop of Battle." Pleiads made a cameo appearance in the 1984 Coen Brothers film Blood Simple. Richie Knucklez holds the official Guinness World Record for this game with 279,090 points recorded on June 4, 2011 at the Annual Classic Video Game and Pinball Tournament at Funspot in Weirs Beach, New Hampshire
Video game development
Video game development is the process of creating a video game. The effort is undertaken by a developer, ranging from a single person to an international team dispersed across the globe. Development of traditional commercial PC and console games is funded by a publisher, can take several years to reach completion. Indie games take less time and money and can be produced by individuals and smaller developers; the independent game industry has been on the rise, facilitated by the growth of new online distribution systems such as Steam and Uplay, as well as the mobile game market for Android and iOS devices. The first video games, developed in the 1960s, were noncommercial, they were not available to the general public. Commercial game development began in the'70s with the advent of first-generation video game consoles and early home computers like the Apple I. At that time, owing to low costs and low capabilities of computers, a lone programmer could develop a full and complete game. However, in the late'80s and'90s, ever-increasing computer processing power and heightened expectations from gamers made it difficult for a single person to produce a mainstream console or PC game.
The average cost of producing a triple-A video game rose, from US$1–4 million in 2000, to over $5 million in 2006 to over $20 million by 2010. Mainstream commercial PC and console games are developed in phases: first, in pre-production, pitches and game design documents are written; the development of a complete game involves a team of 20–100 individuals with various responsibilities, including designers, artists and testers. Games are produced through the software development process. Games are developed as a creative outlet. Development is funded by a publisher. Well-made games bring profit more readily. However, it is important to estimate a game's financial requirements, such as development costs of individual features. Failing to provide clear implications of game's expectations may result in exceeding allocated budget. In fact, the majority of commercial games do not produce profit. Most developers cannot afford changing development schedule and require estimating their capabilities with available resources before production.
The game industry requires innovations, as publishers cannot profit from constant release of repetitive sequels and imitations. Every year new independent development companies open and some manage to develop hit titles. Many developers close down because they cannot find a publishing contract or their production is not profitable, it is difficult to start a new company due to high initial investment required. Growth of casual and mobile game market has allowed developers with smaller teams to enter the market. Once the companies become financially stable, they may expand to develop larger games. Most developers start small and expand their business. A developer receiving profit from a successful title may store up capital to expand and re-factor their company, as well as tolerate more failed deadlines. An average development budget for a multiplatform game is US$18-28M, with high-profile games exceeding $40M. In the early era of home computers and video game consoles in the early 1980s, a single programmer could handle all the tasks of developing a game — programming, graphical design, sound effects, etc.
It could take as little as six weeks to develop a game. However, the high user expectations and requirements of modern commercial games far exceed the capabilities of a single developer and require the splitting of responsibilities. A team of over a hundred people can be employed full-time for a single project. Game development, production, or design is a process that starts from an concept; the idea is based on a modification of an existing game concept. The game idea may fall within one or several genres. Designers experiment with different combinations of genres. A game designer writes an initial game proposal document, that describes the basic concept, feature list and story, target audience and schedule, staff and budget estimates. Different companies have different formal procedures and philosophies regarding game design and development. There is no standardized development method. A game developer may range from a single individual to a large multinational company. There are both publisher-owned studios.
Independent developers rely on financial support from a game publisher. They have to develop a game from concept to prototype without external funding; the formal game proposal is submitted to publishers, who may finance the game development from several months to years. The publisher would retain exclusive rights to distribute and market the game and would own the intellectual property rights for the game franchise. Publisher's company may own the developer's company, or it may have internal development studio; the publisher is the one who owns the game's intellectual property rights. All but the smallest developer companies work on several titles at once; this is necessary because of the time taken between shipping a game and receiving royalty payments, which may be between 6 and 18 months. Small companies may structure contracts, ask for advances on royalties, use shareware distribution, employ part-time workers and use other methods to meet payroll demands. Console manufacturers, such as Microsoft, Nintendo, or Sony, have a standard set of technical requirements that a game must conform to in order to be approved.
Additionally, the gam