1994 in video gaming
1994 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Super Metroid, Donkey Kong Country and Sonic & Knuckles. Nintendo proclaims "1994: The Year of the Cartridge". Nintendo Australia Pty. Ltd, the Australian subsidiary of Nintendo Co. Ltd is established and opened by Hiroshi Yamauchi and ends Mattel Australia's distribution of Nintendo's products throughout Australia. "Project Reality" is renamed the Nintendo Ultra 64. The console's design is revealed to the public for the first time in spring 1994. April — Interactive Digital Software Association founded. June 24 — The Computer Game Developers Association is formed by Ernest W. Adams. November — Game Zero magazine drops their print format and becomes the first video game news magazine on the web. November 10 — William Higinbotham, creator of Tennis for Two, dies at 84. January - Mega Man X is released in the US. February 2 — Sonic the Hedgehog 3, introduces Knuckles the Echidna. February 23 - Super Street Fighter II Turbo, introduces Akuma.
March 15 - Mega Man 6 is released in the US. March 19 — Super Metroid, distributed on a 24-megabit cartridge. Super Metroid was called the "best game of all time" by Electronic Gaming Monthly in 2002. March 25 — Bethesda releases The Elder Scrolls: Arena March 27 - Origin releases Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger, based both around space simulation gameplay and an interactive movie with big-name actors. It's one of the most expensive games developed, with a budget of US$4 million. April 2 - Square Co. releases Final Fantasy VI for the SNES on April 2 in Japan and October 11 in North America. April 3 - Accolade releases Bubsy II on GameBoy, Sega Genesis, SNES. May 3 — Epic MegaGames releases Jazz Jackrabbit, a console-style "animal with attitude" platformer. June 2 - Sir-Tech releases turn-based tactics game Jagged Alliance, the first installment of Jagged Alliance series. June 14 - Nintendo releases Donkey Kong 94 for the Game Boy, it featured remakes of the first four stages of the original game plus adding 96 puzzle based levels.
Mario is much more versatile in this version, as he can handstand, spin on wires. It became a Game Boy fan favorite and classic. July — LucasArts releases TIE Fighter. July 5 — Capcom releases Darkstalkers. July 15 — Acclaim Entertainment and Mirage releases the fighting game Rise of the Robots. August 2 — Shiny Entertainment releases Earthworm Jim. August 25 — SNK Playmore releases The King of Fighters. August 27 — Nintendo releases Mother 2 for the Super Famicom in Japan, released a year in North America on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System as EarthBound. EarthBound introduces Ness. August 31 - Electronic Arts releases The Need for Speed for the 3DO, which begins the most successful racing game franchise of all time. September - MicroProse releases Master of Magic. September 9 — The Super NES version of Mortal Kombat 2 is released with all blood and fatalities left intact, the first major release on any Nintendo console at that point to have such content. September 22 — Origin Systems releases Looking Glass Studios' System Shock.
October — Killer Instinct, the first arcade machine with an internal hard disk. October 10 — id Software releases Doom II and Dave D. Taylor creates a Linux port of the original Doom, becoming the first major game for the new operating system. October 17 — Sonic & Knuckles is released, it allows a player to connect previous Sonic games to the cartridge, making Knuckles playable in them. October 25 — MicroProse releases UFO: Enemy Unknown and the Strategy Game of the Year Master of Orion. October 29 - Konami releases Castlevania: Rondo of Blood in Japan. November — Sega releases the 32X add-on in Europe and the US alongside Doom and Star Wars Arcade. November 21 — Nintendo releases Rare's Donkey Kong Country, featuring 3D pre-rendered graphics, it introduces Diddy Kong and King K. Rool. November 23 — Blizzard Entertainment releases the real-time strategy game Warcraft, which spawns a franchise and influences many games. November 23 — Sierra On-Line releases the computer adventure game King's Quest VII: The Princeless Bride, the first in the series to use "SVGA" graphics.
December 9 — Namco releases its first 3D fighting game Tekken to arcades. December 10 — Nintendo releases Wario's Woods, the last official game to be released on the Nintendo Entertainment System in North America before Nintendo would discontinue production of the console. December 16 - Mega Man X2 is released in Japan. December 21 — Bungie releases Marathon, one of the earliest original first-person shooters for the Macintosh. December 24 — Heretic is released by id Software, it the first in Raven Software's Heretic/Hexen series and the first game bundled with DWANGO, one of the earliest online multiplayer services Maxis releases SimCity 2000, sequel to the popular SimCity. Sega releases the Daytona USA racing game in arcades. Sensible Software releases Sensible World of Soccer, regarded as the best Amiga game of all time by British Amiga magazine Amiga Power. Namco releases Point Blank in arcades. Aiwa releases the Aiwa Mega-CD multimedia home console in Japan only. Bandai releases the Playdia multimedia home console.
NEC releases the PC-FX multimedia home console. Sega: introduces the North American cable TV Sega Channel in cooperation with Time Warner.
Tecmo Super Bowl
Tecmo Super Bowl is an American football video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System, released in December, 1991. Developed by Tecmo, it was the first sports video game, licensed by both the National Football League and the National Football League Players Association, thus allowing the game to use both the names and attributes of real NFL teams and real NFL players. Prior games used the real players, but not both simultaneously. Although the game was released in late 1991, all team rosters and player attributes were based on the prior 1990–91 NFL season, which meant that no rookies taken in the 1991 NFL Draft and no player team changes executed before the start of the 1991 season were added; the original game utilized the 1991 NFL schedule only. The game was a major success, resulting in several follow-ups for newer systems and, although more than 25 years old, it has maintained an extensive cult following. After the initial success of the NES version of Tecmo Bowl in 1989, Tecmo followed up with the release of Tecmo Super Bowl in 1991 in both North America and Japan.
The original NES version of Tecmo Bowl was licensed by the National Football League Players Association, but was unable to obtain an NFL team license because another NES football game, NFL, had an exclusive licensing agreement with the NFL. The sequel, Tecmo Super Bowl, acquired an NFL license, making it the first NES game to feature real NFL teams and players. Unlike the original Tecmo Bowl for the NES, which consisted of twelve teams, a truncated roster and limited play selection, Tecmo Super Bowl featured the complete league of 28 teams, expanded rosters, expanded playbooks, statistics tracking and many other improvements. Subsequent games in the series would build on this foundation. In the original NES Tecmo Bowl, each team had at least twenty players on its roster, with nine players for offense, nine players for defense, a kicker and a punter. In Tecmo Super Bowl, each roster has thirty different players; each team has eleven defensive players who can be neither injured. Each team has seventeen offensive players, which includes six substitutes.
At any given time, eleven players are on the field for each team, consistent with American football rules. A kicker and a punter are on the roster. In addition to using real teams and players, Tecmo Super Bowl incorporates the full-length 1991 NFL regular season schedule; the playoff format, including the Super Bowl and the post-season Pro Bowl game, is featured. Tecmo Super Bowl retains the arcade-style football gameplay of the original, which included no penalties and the ability to break tackles. However, the game adds new features, such as the coin toss, five-minute quarters, timeouts to avoid ten-second runoffs, stat tracking, single season NFL records and editable playbooks, the ability to substitute players, varying health conditions of players and player injuries; as it had the game uses cut scenes for important events like touchdowns and halftime shows. Tecmo Super Bowl adds cut scenes when injuries or big plays occurred; as part of the gameplay, players can adjust offensive plays and substitute players for each NFL team and for the two Pro Bowl teams.
The Pro Bowl team's roster can be edited as well. Offensive and special-teams players may be viewed as individual "player cards" with statistics and status, which can improve or decrease, making the player better or worse; the game has multiple modes, including regular season and Pro Bowl. In regular-season mode, a player controls a team through the entire NFL season. Multiple teams may be controlled. In addition, players can choose three styles of play in any of the game modes: "MAN", "COA" and "COM". In all game modes, unless the user edits the team beforehand, the default team depth chart and play selection is used. In preseason and Pro Bowl modes, statistics are not kept and the computer AI is easier than in season games. In 1997, both Electronic Gaming Monthly and IGN publications named Tecmo Super Bowl as one of the top 100 video games of all time. IGN ranked Tecmo Super Bowl number 53 in its top 100 NES games of all time. GamesRadar included it in its list of the best NES games made, at number 22).
The staff commented. PC Magazine ranked the game number 10 in its list of the ten most-influential video games of all time. ESPN named Tecmo Super Bowl the greatest sports video game of all time. Tecmo produced several direct sequels to Tecmo Super Bowl as well as other games that had origins in the original Tecmo Bowl engine. 16-bit versions of Tecmo Super Bowl for the Super NES and Genesis systems were released in 1993, which fixed many bugs and added some new features. Those new features include: sound. Accelerated fifteen-minute and ten-minute quarters can only be used for Exhib
GameFAQs is a website that hosts FAQs and walkthroughs for video games. It was created in November 1995 by Jeff Veasey and was bought by CNET Networks in May 2003, it is owned by CBS Interactive. The site has a database of video game information, cheat codes, game saves, box art images and screenshots all of, submitted by volunteer contributors; the systems covered include the 8-bit Atari platform through modern consoles, as well as computer games and mobile games. Submissions made to the site are reviewed by Allen "SBAllen" Tyner. GameFAQs hosts an active message board community, which has a separate discussion board for each game in the site's database, along with a variety of other boards. From 2004 till 2012, most of the game-specific boards were shared between GameFAQs and GameSpot, another CBS Interactive website. However, on March 23, 2012, it was announced. On May 7, 2012 the shared GameFAQs run; the site runs a daily opinion poll and tournament contests, as well as an annual Character Battle.
GameFAQs has been positively reviewed by The Entertainment Weekly. In 2009, GameFAQs.com was one of the 300 highest-trafficked English-language websites according to Alexa. GameFAQs was started as the Video Game FAQ Archive on November 5, 1995, by gamer and programmer Jeff Veasey, who says he wanted to collect the numerous online guides and FAQs into one centralized location. Hosted on America Online, it served as a mirror of Andy Eddy's FTP FAQ archive; the initial version of the site had 10 pages and 100 FAQs. In 1996, the site changed its name to GameFAQs. At this time, GameFAQs was updated on an irregular basis. During the following months, the site grew in design. Two key features of the site—the game search engine and the contributor recognition pages—were planned at this time. On February 6, 2018, the site changed its domain from gamefaqs.com to gamefaqs.gamespot.com. In 1997, GameFAQs became an independent affiliate of the Imagine Games Network, leading to the placement of affiliate links on the home page.
User contests were introduced during this period. GameFAQs went through several design changes, including a pink color scheme, before arriving at the blue-colored layout, used until 2004. In November 1999, several changes occurred in rapid succession. On November 5, a search box was added to every page, at which time the site was celebrating its fourth anniversary. On November 7, the message boards opened in a beta testing mode; the "Poll of the Day" was introduced at the end of the month. These changes marked Veasey's increased concentration on the site, it was around this time that GameFAQs became his full-time job; until this time, he had been working as a programmer. On August 9, 2000, the site received one million hits in a single day for the first time. By 2001, the "GameFAQs Chat" had been launched. On January 9, 2001, GameFAQs ended its association with IGN. To continue generating revenue, an advertising banner sold to non-profit organizations was placed on the top of each page; this lasted.
In September 2002, the ad was moved from the horizontal header to the vertical sidebar. This led to changes to the links on the side, as well as the creation of navigational links at the top of the screen. Contributions to GameFAQs continued to increase, Veasey, as sole operator and administrator of the site, dedicated significant portions of his time to ensure that GameFAQs remained updated and successful. On April 1, 2002, Veasey changed GameFAQs to "GameFAX" as an April Fools' joke; the site's colors were changed to green and black to imitate those of the Xbox, with the intention of making users believe that GameFAQs was now dedicated to the Xbox, "the only system that matters." After clicking on any link on the main page, users were directed to the real GameFAQs home page. Veasey reported receiving hate mail from users. On March 2, 2002, Veasey participated in a radio interview with WXBH AM-1190 on their program called "The Gaming Files" During this interview Veasey was drilled with questions from current and former users of GameFAQs as well as discussed his time on GameFAQs and how the site came to be.
On May 6, 2003, CNET Networks acquired GameFAQs. The amount paid for GameFAQs and two other unrelated websites was US$2.2 million. On June 3, 2003, Veasey announced the merger to the users of the site, he clarified that the user-submitted content remained under the ownership of the authors and was not sold to CNET. He assured users that GameFAQs would undergo no major administrative change and said, "The GameFAQs you see today is the one you'll see tomorrow." This was true to a certain extent, as the only visible change over the next few months was the addition of a CNET footer to the bottom of every page. Additional changes included moving the site to servers in California. From 2004 to 2006, GameFAQs witnessed further changes. On April 28, GameFAQs implemented a large visual redesign, the boards merged with the GameSpot boards to allow both communities to share the
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Tecmo Bowl: Kickoff
Tecmo Bowl: Kickoff is an American football video game developed by Polygon Magic and published by Tecmo for the Nintendo DS. A remake of Tecmo Super Bowl, the game was released on November 18, 2008. A Wii version was announced, but was cancelled and retooled into a new game called Family Fun Football. Due to EA Games acquiring the exclusive NFL/NFLPA license for their Madden NFL game series in 2004, the game does not have an NFL license, use generic names and rosters. However, the game features team cities identical to the NFL; the only difference is a Los Angeles team instead of the New York Giants. You can edit the team names and players to your liking. East Buffalo Bullhorns Miami Fangs New England Gunners New York HardknockersNorth Baltimore Bulldozers Cincinnati Sinisters Cleveland T-Rexes Pittsburgh PoisonsSouth Houston Heatwaves Indianapolis Narwhals Jacksonville Immortals Tennessee TarbendersWest Denver Spearheads Kansas City Clashers Oakland Leviathans San Diego Supernovas East Dallas Harriers Los Angeles Supercocks Philadelphia Vengeance Washington VolcanicsNorth Chicago Chinooks Detroit Dynamites Green Bay Barrage Minnesota YetisSouth Atlanta Crossfires Carolina Carnage New Orleans Zombies Tampa Bay WarheadsWest Phoenix Horntoads St. Louis Cannons San Francisco Zephyrs Seattle Chavaliers The game features the following improvements and changes to the original game: Customizable teams: players are now able to choose team colors, player names, team cities and abilities Super abilities: players can use power-ups during the game Customizable playbook: players are able to choose the plays for each team's playbook Cutscenes: certain plays cause cinematic representations of the playThe game features Wi-Fi and wireless multiplayer, utilizes the touch screen and stylus.
The game has updated music and sound effects. The game received a 7.7 rating from IGN. It was a nominee for Best Online Multiplayer Game at IGN's 2008 video game awards. Tecmo Bowl Throwback Official website
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis was the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, followed by North America as the Genesis in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and the Super Aladdin Boy. Designed by an R&D team supervised by Hideki Sato and Masami Ishikawa, the Genesis was adapted from Sega's System 16 arcade board, centered on a Motorola 68000 processor as the CPU, a Zilog Z80 as a sound controller, a video system supporting hardware sprites and scrolling, it plays a library of more than 900 games created by Sega and a wide array of third-party publishers and delivered on ROM-based cartridges. Several add-ons were released, including a Power Base Converter to play Master System games.
It was released in several different versions, some created by third parties. Sega created two network services to support the Genesis: Sega Channel. In Japan, the Mega Drive fared poorly against its two main competitors, Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC Engine, but it achieved considerable success in North America and Europe. Contributing to its success were its library of arcade game ports, the popularity of Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog series, several popular sports franchises, aggressive youth marketing that positioned the system as the cool console for adolescents; the release of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System two years after the Genesis resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe, termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence.
Controversy surrounding violent games such as Night Trap and Mortal Kombat led Sega to create the Videogame Rating Council, a predecessor to the Entertainment Software Rating Board. 30.75 million first-party Genesis units were sold worldwide. In addition, Tec Toy sold an estimated three million licensed variants in Brazil, Majesco projected it would sell 1.5 million licensed variants of the system in the United States, much smaller numbers were sold by Samsung in South Korea. By the mid-2010s, licensed third-party Genesis rereleases were still being sold by AtGames in North America and Europe. Many games have been rereleased in compilations or on online services such as the Nintendo Virtual Console, Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, Steam; the Genesis was succeeded in 1994 by the Sega Saturn. In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc. a subsidiary of Gulf & Western, was one of the top five arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, as company revenues surpassed $200 million between July 1981 and June 1982.
A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 hurt the company, leading Gulf & Western to sell its North American arcade manufacturing organization and the licensing rights for its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing. The company retained Sega's North American R&D operation, as well as its Japanese subsidiary, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. With its arcade business in decline, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. president Hayao Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise to move into the home console market in Japan, in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed with this project, leading to the release of Sega's first home video game system, the SG-1000, in July 1983; the SG-1000 was not successful. Sega estimated; the SG-1000 was replaced by the Sega Mark III within two years. In the meantime, Gulf & Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company.
Nakayama was installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. In 1986, Sega redesigned the Mark III for release in North America as the Sega Master System; this was followed by a European release the next year. Although the Master System was a success in Europe, in Brazil, it failed to ignite significant interest in the Japanese or North American markets, which, by the mid-to-late 1980s, were both dominated by Nintendo. With Sega continuing to have difficulty penetrating the home market, Sega's console R&D team, led by Masami Ishikawa and supervised by Hideki Sato, began work on a successor to the Master System immediately after that console launched. In 1987, Sega faced another threat to its console business when Japanese computer giant NEC released the PC Engine amid great publicity. To remain competitive against the two more established consumer electronics companies and his team decided they needed to incorporate a 16-bit microprocessor into their new system to make an impact in the marketplace and once again turned to Sega's strengths in the arcade industry to adapt the successful Sega System 16 arcade board into architecture for a home console.
The decision to use a Motorola 68000 as the system's main CPU was made late in development, while a Zilog Z80 was used as a secondary CPU to handle the sound due to f