The Thames Barrier prevents the floodplain of most of Greater London from being flooded by exceptionally high tides and storm surges moving up from the North Sea. It has been operational since 1982; when needed, it is closed during high tide. Built 3 km due east of the Isle of Dogs, its northern bank is in Silvertown in the London Borough of Newham and its southern bank is in the New Charlton area of the Royal Borough of Greenwich; the report of Sir Hermann Bondi on the North Sea flood of 1953 affecting parts of the Thames Estuary and parts of London was a big factor in the planning of the barrier. The concept of the rotating gates was devised by Charles Draper. In 1969, from his parents' house in Pellatt Grove, Wood Green, London, he constructed a working model; the novel rotating cylinders were based on the design of the taps on his gas cooker. The barrier was designed by Rendel and Tritton for the Greater London Council and tested at the Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford; the site at New Charlton was chosen because of the relative straightness of the banks, because the underlying river chalk was strong enough to support the barrier.
Work began at the barrier site in 1974 and construction, undertaken by a Costain/Hollandsche Beton Maatschappij/Tarmac Construction consortium, was complete by 1982. The gates of the barrier were made by Cleveland Bridge UK Ltd at Dent's Wharf on the River Tees. In addition to the barrier, the flood defences for 11 miles down river were strengthened; the barrier was opened on 8 May 1984 by Queen Elizabeth II. Total construction cost was around £534 million with an additional £100 million for river defences. Built across a 520-metre wide stretch of the river, the barrier divides the river into four 61-metre and two 30 metre navigable spans. There are four smaller non-navigable channels between nine concrete piers and two abutments; the flood gates across the openings are circular segments in cross section, they operate by rotating, raised to allow "underspill" to allow operators to control upstream levels and a complete 180 degree rotation for maintenance. All the gates are hollow and made of steel up to 40 millimetres thick.
The gates are filled with water when empty as they emerge from the river. The four large central gates weigh 3,700 tonnes each. Four radial gates by the riverbanks about 30 metres wide, can be lowered; these gate openings, unlike the main six, are non-navigable. A Thames Barrier flood defence closure is triggered when a combination of high tides forecast in the North Sea and high river flows at the tidal limit at Teddington weir indicate that water levels would exceed 4.87 metres in central London. Though Teddington marks the Normal Tidal Limit, in periods of high fluvial flow the tidal influence can be seen as far upstream as East Molesey on the Thames. During the barrier's entire history up to April 2019, there have been 184 flood defence closures; the barrier was closed twice on 9 November 2007 after a storm surge in the North Sea, compared to the one in 1953. The main danger of flooding from the surge was on the coast above the Thames Barrier, where evacuations took place, but the winds abated a little and, at the Thames Barrier, the 9 November 2007 storm surge did not coincide with high tide.
On 20 August 1989, hours after the Marchioness disaster, the barrier was closed against a spring tide for 16 hours "to assist the diving and salvage operations". The barrier has survived 15 boat collisions without serious damage. On 27 October 1997, the barrier was damaged when the dredger MV Sand Kite, operating in thick fog, hit one of the Thames Barrier's piers; as the ship started to sink she dumped her 3,300 tonne load of aggregate sinking by the bow on top of one of the barrier's gates where she lay for several days. The gate could not be closed as it was covered in a thick layer of gravel. A longer term problem was the premature loss of paint on the flat side of the gate caused by abrasion; the vessel was refloated in mid-November 1997. The annual full test closure in 2012 was scheduled for 3 June to coincide with the Thames pageant celebrating Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. Flood risk manager Andy Batchelor said the pageant gave the Environment Agency "a unique opportunity to test its design for a longer period than we would be able to", that the more stable tidal conditions in central London that resulted would help the vessels taking part.
The barrier was commissioned by the Greater London Council under the guidance of Ray Horner. After the 1986 abolition of the GLC it was operated successively by Thames Water Authority and the National Rivers Authority until April 1996 when it passed to the Environment Agency; the barrier was designed to protect London against a high flood level up to the year 2030, after which the protection would decrease, while remaining within acceptable limits. At the time of its construction, the barrier was expected to be used 2–3 times per year, it is now being used 6–7 times per year. This defence level included long-term changes in land levels as understood at that time. Despite global warming and a greater predicted rate of sea level rise, recent analysis extended the working life of the barrier until around 2060–2070. From 1982 until 19 March 2007, the barrier was raised one hundred times to prevent flooding, it is raised monthly for testing, with a full test closure over high tide once
Teddington is an affluent area of South West London, England. In Middlesex, it has been part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since 1965. Teddington is on the north bank of the Thames, just after the start of a long meander, between Hampton Wick and Strawberry Hill, Twickenham. Residential, it stretches from the Thames to Bushy Park with a long high street of upmarket shops and pubs culminating in a pedestrian suspension bridge over the lowest non-tidal lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock. At Teddington's centre is a mid-rise urban development, containing offices and apartments. Teddington is bisected by an continuous road of shops and other facilities running from the river to Bushy Park. There are two clusters of offices on this route. Around Teddington station and the town centre are a number of offices in industries such as direct marketing and IT, which include Tearfund and BMT Limited. Several riverside businesses and houses were redeveloped in the last quarter of the 20th century as blocks of riverside flats.
As of 2016 the riverside site of the former Teddington Studios is being developed to provide modern apartment blocks and other smaller houses. The lowermost lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock, just within Ham's boundary, is accessible via the Teddington Lock Footbridges. In 2001 the Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened the Teddington Lifeboat Station, one of four Thames lifeboat stations, below the lock on the Teddington side; the station is the only volunteer station on the river. The name "Teddington" comes from the name of Tuda; the place was known in Norman times as Todyngton and Tutington. There have been isolated findings of flint and bone tools from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in Bushy Park and some unauthenticated evidence of Roman occupation. However, the first permanent settlement in Teddington was in Saxon times. Teddington was not mentioned in Domesday Book. Teddington Manor was first owned by Benedictine monks in Staines and it is believed they built a chapel dedicated to St. Mary on the same site as today's St. Mary's Church.
In 971, a charter gave the land in Teddington to the Abbey of Westminster. By the 14th century Teddington had a population of 100–200; the Hampton Court gardens were laid out in 1500 in preparation for the planned rebuilding of a 14th-century manor to form Hampton Court Palace in 1521 and were to serve as hunting grounds for Cardinal Wolsey and Henry VIII and his family. In 1540 some common land of Teddington was enclosed to form Bushy Park and acted as more hunting grounds. Bushy House was built in 1663, its notable residents included British Prime Minister Lord North who lived there for over twenty years. A large minority of the parish lay in communal open fields, restricted in the Middle Ages to certain villagers; these were inclosed in two phases, in 1800 and 1818. Shortly afterwards, the future William IV of the United Kingdom lived there with his mistress Dorothy Jordan before acceding to the throne, with his Queen Consort, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; the facilities were converted into the National Physical Laboratory.
In subsequent centuries, Teddington enjoyed a prosperous life due to the proximity of royalty, by 1800 had grown significantly. But the "Little Ice Age" had made farming much less profitable and residents were forced to find other work; this change resulted in great economic change in the 19th century. The first major event was the construction of Teddington Lock in 1811 with its weir across the river; this was the first of five locks built at the time by the City of London Corporation. In 1889 Teddington Lock Footbridge, consisting of a suspension bridge section and a girder bridge section, was completed, linking Teddington to Ham, it was funded by local business and public subscription. After the railway was built in 1863, easy travel to Twickenham, Richmond and London was possible and Teddington experienced a population boom, rising from 1,183 in 1861 to 6,599 in 1881 and 14,037 in 1901. Many roads and houses were built, continuing into the 20th century, forming the close-knit network of Victorian and Edwardian streets present today.
In 1867, a local board was established and an urban district council in 1895. In 1864 a group of Christians left the Anglican Church of St. Mary's and formed their own independent and Reformed, Protestant-style, congregation at Christ Church, their original church building stood on. The Victorians attempted to build St. Alban's, based on the Notre Dame de Paris. In 1993 the temporary wall was replaced with a permanent one as part of a refurbishment that converted St Alban's Church into the Landmark Arts Centre, a venue for concerts and exhibitions. A new cemetery, Teddington Cemetery, opened at Shacklegate Lane in 1879. Several schools were built in Teddington in the late 19th century in response to the 1870 Education Act, putting over 2,000 children in schools by 1899, transforming the illiterate village. On 26 April 1913 a train was destroyed in Teddington after an arson attack by suffragettes. Great change took place around the turn of the 20th century in Teddington. Many new
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Teddington Lock is a complex of three locks and a weir on the River Thames in England between Ham and Teddington in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It was first built in 1810; the limit of legal powers between the Port of London Authority, the navigation authority downstream to the North Sea and that upstream to small headwaters of the river, the Environment Agency, is marked nearby by an obelisk on the "Surrey" bank. The weir named Teddington Weir is the lowest on the Thames; this lock is the lowest full-tide lock and second lowest of all-tide locks on the Thames. The complex of civil engineering or infrastructure in essence consists of a large long weir and three locks: a conventional launch lock in regular use large barge lock and a small skiff lock; the barge lock was made to accommodate long barges, steamers or passenger ferries and has an additional set of gates half-way to operate more for shorter craft. The staggered structures incorporate two reinforced narrow islands; the upper island is traversed by and accessible by Teddington Lock Footbridge.
The greater lock is against the general south bank of the river, for 500 m north-east here. The river downstream of the lock is the Richmond and Twickenham reach of the Tideway, a 3.2-mile reach of semi-tidal river due to the fact the Richmond Lock and half-tide barrages limits the fall of water thereby maintaining a head of water to aid navigability at and around low tide. Though the weir at Teddington Weir marks the managed river's usual tidal limit, after prolonged rainfall causing high fluvial flow at high tide, a higher limit of slack water causes eddies to arise as far upstream as the top of this reach, the next lock; the large, bow-shaped Teddington Weir is against the opposite bank. A series of two footbridges at differing heights make up a structure which crosses the locks, the middle island that has the lock keeper's cabin and the weir pool, Teddington Lock Footbridge; the Navigation Act obtained in April 1771 by the Thames Navigation Commission did not allow them to build locks below Maidenhead Bridge, but from 1802, several plans for locks in the First District of the Thames, stretching from Staines to Teddington, were drawn up.
Stephen Leach took over the post of Clerk of Works for the First District in 1802, following the retirement of Charles Truss at the age of 82. Just before his retirement, Truss proposed locks at Molesey and Teddington, each having a weir with long tumbling bays, similar to modern practice. John Rennie had suggested a series of long cuts in 1794, Truss adopted the same idea. Rennie and William Jessop again proposed four long cuts in 1805, each about 1.5 miles, but the Navigation Committee were thwarted by strong opposition from landowners. Zacchary Allnutt, by Surveyor for the Second and Third Districts, stretching from Staines to Mapledurham near Reading, suggested locks at Chertsey and Teddington in 1805. Rennie submitted new proposals in 1809 for nine locks between Twickenham. Leach drafted plans in 1810, which he suggested were "at once practicable and expedient, the least expensive, the most to pass through Parliament without opposition and yet calculated to remedy the most prominent evils complained of."
An Act of Parliament was obtained by the City of London Corporation in June 1810, which authorised construction of locks and weirs at Chertsey, Shepperton and Teddington. Each would be 150 by 20 feet with the associated weirs having ample capacity for flood conditions. Rennie and the Navigation Committee visited the sites in July, to finalise the positioning of the lock. Leach took charge of the work, undertaken by contractors Joseph Kimber and John Dows who built Sunbury Lock. Work at Teddington started in September 1810, but there were delays caused by flooding in November and December, Leach awarded the contractors an extra £500; the lock was finished and opened in June 1811. The cofferdam protecting the works would need to be removed as river levels rose in the winter, which would have delayed completion until the following July, so again Leach stepped in, awarding advance payments to the contractors, which enabled them to finish on time; the lock was further upstream than the present lock complex at the point where the footbridge now crosses.
It comprised three pairs of gates as stipulated in the act. Total cost for lock, weir and ground was £22,035 10s. 7 1⁄2d. of which the land from Lord Dysart's estate cost £282 10s. 5d.. The lock was, at first unpopular with the local fishermen and bargemen. After attempts to smash it, the lock keeper was granted permission to keep "a blunderbuss with bayonet attached thereto" to ward off attacks. By 1827 the timber lock needed considerable repair and in 1829 the weir was destroyed by an accumulation of ice, it is noted. At that time steam vessels were limited to travel as far as Richmond; as built, the lock had timber sides up to normal head water level, turf above that. The crest of the weir was 3.5 feet above low water level at Teddington, but following the removal of the piers of old London Bridge in 1832, the drop increased
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension bridges, which lack vertical suspenders, have a long history in many mountainous parts of the world; this type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to arc upward for additional clearance. Like other suspension bridge types, this type is constructed without falsework; the suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge, since any load applied to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables. The main cables continue beyond the pillars to deck-level supports, further continue to connections with anchors in the ground; the roadway is supported by called hangers. In some circumstances, the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span, otherwise the bridge will have two smaller spans, running between either pair of pillars and the highway, which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection.
In the latter case there will be little arc in the outboard main cables. The earliest suspension bridges were ropes slung across a chasm, with a deck at the same level or hung below the ropes such that the rope had a catenary shape; the Tibetan saint and bridge-builder Thangtong Gyalpo originated the use of iron chains in his version of simple suspension bridges. In 1433, Gyalpo built eight bridges in eastern Bhutan; the last surviving chain-linked bridge of Gyalpo's was the Thangtong Gyalpo Bridge in Duksum en route to Trashi Yangtse, washed away in 2004. Gyalpo's iron chain bridges did not include a suspended deck bridge, the standard on all modern suspension bridges today. Instead, both the railing and the walking layer of Gyalpo's bridges used wires; the stress points. Before the use of iron chains it is thought that Gyalpo used ropes from twisted willows or yak skins, he may have used bound cloth. The first iron chain suspension bridge in the Western world was the Jacob's Creek Bridge in Westmoreland County, designed by inventor James Finley.
Finley's bridge was the first to incorporate all of the necessary components of a modern suspension bridge, including a suspended deck which hung by trusses. Finley patented his design in 1808, published it in the Philadelphia journal, The Port Folio, in 1810. Early British chain bridges included the Dryburgh Abbey Bridge and 137 m Union Bridge, with spans increasing to 176 m with the Menai Bridge, "the first important modern suspension bridge"; the first chain bridge on the German speaking territories was the Chain Bridge in Nuremberg. The Clifton Suspension Bridge is one of the longest of the parabolic arc chain type; the current Marlow suspension bridge was designed by William Tierney Clark and was built between 1829 and 1832, replacing a wooden bridge further downstream which collapsed in 1828. It is the only suspension bridge across the non-tidal Thames; the Széchenyi Chain Bridge, spanning the River Danube in Budapest, was designed by William Clark and it is a larger scale version of Marlow bridge.
An interesting variation is Thornewill and Warham's Ferry Bridge in Burton-on-Trent, where the chains are not attached to abutments as is usual, but instead are attached to the main girders, which are thus in compression. Here, the chains are made from flat wrought iron plates, eight inches wide by an inch and a half thick, rivetted together; the first wire-cable suspension bridge was the Spider Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill, a modest and temporary footbridge built following the collapse of James Finley's nearby Chain Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill. The footbridge's span was 124 m. Development of wire-cable suspension bridges dates to the temporary simple suspension bridge at Annonay built by Marc Seguin and his brothers in 1822, it spanned only 18 m. The first permanent wire cable suspension bridge was Guillaume Henri Dufour's Saint Antoine Bridge in Geneva of 1823, with two 40 m spans; the first with cables assembled in mid-air in the modern method was Joseph Chaley's Grand Pont Suspendu in Fribourg, in 1834.
In the United States, the first major wire-cable suspension bridge was the Wire Bridge at Fairmount in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Designed by Charles Ellet, Jr. and completed in 1842, it had a span of 109 m. Ellet's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge was abandoned before completion, it was used as scaffolding for John A. Roebling's double decker railroad and carriage bridge; the Otto Beit Bridge was the first modern suspension bridge outside the United States built with parallel wire cables. The main forces in a suspension bridge of any type are tension in the cables and compression in the pillars. Since all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are stabilized by the main cables, the pillars can be made quite slender, as on the Severn Bridge, on the Wales-England border. In a suspended deck bridge, cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck; the weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, which in turn transfer the weight to the ground. Assuming a negligible weight as compared to the weight of the deck and vehicles being supported, the main cables of a suspension bridge will form a parabola (very similar
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc