Alice Cooper is an American singer and actor whose career spans over fifty years. With his distinctive raspy voice and a stage show that features guillotines, electric chairs, fake blood, deadly snakes, baby dolls, dueling swords, Cooper is considered by music journalists and peers alike to be "The Godfather of Shock Rock", he has drawn from horror films and garage rock to pioneer a macabre and theatrical brand of rock designed to shock people. Originating in Phoenix, Arizona, in the late 1960s after he moved to Detroit, Michigan, "Alice Cooper" was a band consisting of Furnier on vocals and harmonica, Glen Buxton on lead guitar, Michael Bruce on rhythm guitar, Dennis Dunaway on bass guitar, Neal Smith on drums; the original Alice Cooper band released its first album in 1969. They broke into the international music mainstream with the 1971 hit song "I'm Eighteen" from their third studio album Love It to Death; the band reached their commercial peak in 1973 with their sixth studio album Billion Dollar Babies.
In 2011, the original Alice Cooper band was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. Furnier adopted the band's name as his own name in the 1970s and began a solo career with the 1975 concept album Welcome to My Nightmare. Expanding from his Detroit rock roots, Cooper has experimented with a number of musical styles, including art rock, hard rock, heavy metal, new wave, glam metal, industrial rock. Cooper is known for his sociable and witty personality offstage, with The Rolling Stone Album Guide calling him the world's most "beloved heavy metal entertainer", he is credited with helping to shape the sound and look of heavy metal, has been described as the artist who "first introduced horror imagery to rock'n'roll, whose stagecraft and showmanship have permanently transformed the genre". Away from music, Cooper is a film actor, a golfing celebrity, a restaurateur, since 2004, a popular radio DJ with his classic rock show Nights with Alice Cooper. Cooper was born in Detroit, the son of Ether Moroni Furnier and his wife Ella Mae, née McCart.
His father was an Evangelist in The Church of Jesus Christ headquartered in Monongahela, Pennsylvania. He has English, Huguenot French, Irish and Sioux ancestry, he was named after his uncle, Vincent Collier Furnier, the writer Damon Runyon. His paternal grandfather, Thurman Sylvester Furnier, was an apostle in The Church of Jesus Christ and President from 1963-1965. Cooper was active in his church at the ages of 11 and 12. While growing up in Detroit, Cooper attended Washington Elementary School Nankin Mills Jr. High. Following a series of childhood illnesses, he moved with his family to Phoenix, where he attended Cortez High School. In his high school yearbook, his ambition was to be "A million record seller." In 1964, 16-year-old Furnier was eager to participate in the local annual Cortez High School Letterman's talent show, so he gathered four fellow cross-country teammates to form a group for the show: Glen Buxton, Dennis Dunaway, John Tatum and John Speer. They named themselves the Earwigs.
They dressed up in costumes and wigs to resemble the Beatles, performed several parodies of Beatles songs, with the lyrics modified to refer to the track team: in their rendition of "Please Please Me", for example, the line "Last night I said these words to my girl" was replaced with "Last night I ran four laps for my coach". Of the group, only Buxton knew how to play an instrument—the guitar—so Buxton played guitar while the rest mimed on their instruments; the group won the talent show. As a result of their positive experience, the group decided to try to turn into a real band, they acquired musical instruments from a local pawn shop, proceeded to learn how to play them, with Buxton doing most of the teaching, as well as much of the early songwriting. They soon renamed themselves the Spiders, featuring Furnier on vocals, Buxton on lead guitar, Tatum on rhythm guitar, Dunaway on bass guitar, Speer on drums. Musically, the group was inspired by artists such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Who, the Kinks, the Doors, the Yardbirds.
For the next year the band performed around the Phoenix area with a huge black spider's web as their backdrop, the group's first stage prop. In 1965, the Spiders recorded their first single, "Why Don't You Love Me", with Furnier learning the harmonica for the song; the single's B-side track was the Marvin Gaye Tamla Records hit "Hitch Hike". The single was released by local record label Mascot Records, owned by Jack Curtis, a concert promoter who owned the Stage 7 teen club, which became the VIP Club where the Spiders were the house band. In 1966, the Spiders graduated from Cortez High School, after North High School football player Michael Bruce replaced John Tatum on rhythm guitar, the band released their second single, "Don't Blow Your Mind", an original composition which became a local No. 1 hit, backed by "No Price Tag". The single was recorded at Copper State Recording Studio and issued by local micro-imprint Santa Cruz Records. By 1967, the band had begun to make regular road trips to Los Angeles to play shows.
They soon renamed themselves Nazz and released the single "Wonder Who's Lovin' Her Now", backed with future Alice Cooper track "Lay Down and Die, Goodbye". Around this time, drummer John Speer was replaced by Neal Smith. By the end of the year, the band had relocated to Los Angeles. In 1968, the band learned that Todd Rundgren had a band called Nazz, found themselves in need of another stage name. Furnier believed that the group needed a gimmick
Matthew William Sorum is an American drummer and percussionist. He is best known as both a former member of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he recorded three studio albums, as a member of the supergroup Velvet Revolver. Sorum is a member of the touring project, Kings of Chaos, is a former member of both the Cult and Y Kant Tori Read. Sorum was a member of Guns N' Roses side-projects, Slash's Snakepit and Neurotic Outsiders, has released two solo albums, Hollywood Zen and Stratosphere, he has been the drummer for the supergroup Hollywood Vampires since 2015. After performing on synthpop band Y Kant Tori Read's sole album, Sorum joined the Cult in 1989 to tour in support of their fourth studio album, Sonic Temple. During the tour, Sorum was spotted by Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash and subsequently replaced their drummer Steven Adler in 1990. Remaining in the band for seven years, Sorum recorded the albums, Use Your Illusion I, Use Your Illusion II, "The Spaghetti Incident?", before departing in 1997 following an argument with Axl Rose.
In 2001, Sorum rejoined The Cult to perform on their reunion album, Beyond Good and Evil, its subsequent tour and subsequently co-founded the hard rock supergroup Velvet Revolver, alongside former Guns N' Roses bandmates and Duff McKagan. The band, which included guitarist Dave Kushner and Stone Temple Pilots frontman Scott Weiland, released two successful studio albums and Libertad, before entering an extended hiatus following Weiland's departure. Sorum has been a permanent member of hard rock cover band Camp Freddy since 2003, alongside Jane's Addiction members Dave Navarro and Chris Chaney, assisted in hosting its radio show and podcast on Indie 103.1. In 2012, Sorum founded a touring project, entitled Kings of Chaos, featuring members of Guns N' Roses, Deep Purple, Def Leppard, Aerosmith, ZZ Top, Cheap Trick and Slipknot. In 2012, Sorum was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Guns N' Roses. Sorum was born Matthew William Sorum on November 19, 1960, in an unincorporated area of Orange County, California that became the city of Mission Viejo.
He started to play drums after watching Ringo Starr with The Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964. He was influenced by Ian Paice, Keith Moon, Neil Peart, Ginger Baker, John Bonham, Roger Taylor, Buddy Rich and Bill Ward. In his first couple of years in high school, Sorum was part of the Mission Viejo Marching Bands drum section. Sorum started out in Mission Viejo as a local hot musician in 1975. Wearing trademark "Union Flag" shorts and nothing else, he used to pound a huge acrylic drumset and overpower his first band "Prophecy," which consisted of him and lead singer / guitarist Jeff Harris, bass player David Pagan. Prophecy played many gigs ranging from high schools to concerts, all the way to the Hollywood scene, where they played clubs like Gazzarri's in 1977. A local songwriter, Stephen Douglas, pulled Sorum from the band and joined him with other talented musicians, Scott Andrews on guitar and Jay Fullmer on bass, in the area to form Chateau, a wall-of-sound band with grandiose themes and sounds in their songs.
They recorded their first tracks at Doug Moody's Mystic Studios in Hollywood, famous as the site where Led Zeppelin's'Lemon Song' was recorded. Chateau played the Hollywood circuit, appearing at Gazzarri's and getting into a fight with the original members of the band Ratt, which at the time was known as Mickey Ratt. Sorum's work with Chateau produced a four-song set, covered by local radio stations for a short time, but the music scene changed from grandiose rock to punk and alternative new wave music. Sorum left and went to Hollywood to play with a series of bands, including Population Five, with bassist Prescott Niles from The Knack, he left on a tour around the country with a blues guitarist, playing nightclubs and bars. In 1988, he was recruited to play on the debut album of Y Kant Tori Read, a band fronted by a unknown Tori Amos. In the wake of that project, he joined The Cult as their live drummer for the 1989 tour in support of Sonic Temple. In 1989, Slash saw Sorum live with The Cult on the Sonic Temple tour and, shortly after, Sorum joined Guns N' Roses as Steven Adler's replacement.
Sorum with Guns N' Roses can be heard on Use Your Illusion I, Use Your Illusion II, "The Spaghetti Incident?", the 1994 cover of The Rolling Stones track "Sympathy for the Devil" and the majority of Live Era:'87-'93. Sorum featured on the lengthy Use Your Illusion Tour, drumming on all of the 194 shows, 9 legs and to over 7 million fans. In 1995, Sorum formed Slash's Snakepit with Slash and Gilby Clarke and drummed on their debut album It's Five O'Clock Somewhere. Sorum lent his drumming skills in the theme song for the 1995 20th Century Fox film, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie; that same year, Sorum formed the supergroup Neurotic Outsiders, which featured bandmate Duff McKagan. In 1996 they released the self-titled Neurotic Outsiders. John Taylor and Steve Jones participated on this album, toured behind it. Early performances featured guest spots by Simon Le Bon and Billy Idol. In 1997, Sorum was fired from Guns N' Roses by Axl Rose after an argument with Rose over the inclusion of Paul Tobias in the band.
In 1998, he released his first and only drum instructional video demonstrating his techniques. In 2001 Matt joined The Cult once again and featured on their album, Beyond Good And Evil, which he spent most of 2001 touring in
Sir Michael Philip Jagger is an English singer, songwriter and film producer who gained fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll", his distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards' guitar style have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, was portrayed as a countercultural figure. Jagger grew up in Dartford, Kent, he studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films, to a mixed reception, he began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009.
Relationships with the Stones' members Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects. In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones; as member of the Stones, as solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music. Jagger has been married once, has had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women, he has five grandchildren, became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million. Michael Philip Jagger was born into a middle-class family in Kent, his father, Basil Fanshawe "Joe" Jagger, grandfather, David Ernest Jagger, were both teachers. His mother, Eva Ensley Mary, born in Sydney, Australia, of English descent, was a hairdresser and an active member of the Conservative Party.
Jagger's younger brother, Chris, is a musician. The two have performed together. Although brought up to follow his father's career path, Jagger "was always a singer" as he stated in According to the Rolling Stones. "I always sang as a child. I was one of those kids; some kids sing in choirs. I was in the church choir and I loved listening to singers on the radio–the BBC or Radio Luxembourg–or watching them on TV and in the movies."In September 1950, Keith Richards and Jagger were classmates at Wentworth Primary School, Dartford. In 1954, Jagger passed the eleven-plus and went to Dartford Grammar School, which now has the Mick Jagger Centre, named after its most famous alumnus, installed within the school's site. Jagger and Richards lost contact with each other when they went to different schools, but after a chance encounter on platform two at Dartford railway station in July 1960, resumed their friendship and discovered their shared love of rhythm and blues, which for Jagger had begun with Little Richard.
Jagger left school in 1961 after passing three A-levels. With Richards, he moved into a flat in Edith Grove, London, with guitarist Brian Jones. While Richards and Jones planned to start their own rhythm and blues group, Blues Incorporated, Jagger continued to study business on a government grant as an undergraduate student at the London School of Economics, had considered becoming either a journalist or a politician, comparing the latter to a pop star. Brian Jones, using the name Elmo Lewis, began working at the Ealing Club — where a "loosely knit version" of Blues Incorporated began with Richards. Jagger began to jam with the group becoming featured singer. Soon, Richards and Jagger began to practise on their own, laying the foundation for what would become The Rolling Stones. In their earliest days, the Rolling Stones played for no money in the interval of Alexis Korner's gigs at a basement club opposite Ealing Broadway tube station. At the time, the group had little equipment and needed to borrow Korner's gear to play.
The group's first appearance, under the name the Rollin' Stones, was at the Marquee Club, a jazz club, in London on 12 July 1962. They would change their name to "the Rolling Stones" as it seemed more formal. Victor Bockris states that the band members included Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums. However, Richards states in his memoir Life that "The drummer that night was Mick Avory−not Tony Chapman, as history has mysteriously handed it down..." By autumn 1963, Jagger had left the London School of Economics in favour of his promising musical career with the Rolling Stones. The group continued to play songs by American rhythm and blues artists such as Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley, but with the strong encouragement of manager Andrew Loog Oldham and Richards soon began to write their own songs; this core songwriting partnership took some time to develop. For the Rolling Stones, the duo would write "The Last Time", the group's third No. 1 single in the UK (their first two UK No. 1
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen is an American singer-songwriter and leader of the E Street Band. Nicknamed "The Boss," he is recognized for his poetic lyrics, his Jersey Shore roots, his distinctive voice, lengthy, energetic stage performances. Springsteen has recorded more somber folk-oriented works, his most successful studio albums, Born to Run and Born in the U. S. A. find pleasures in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more than 135 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, making him one of the world's best-selling artists, he has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes, an Academy Award, a Tony Award. Springsteen was inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame in 1999, received Kennedy Center Honors in 2009, was named MusiCares person of the year in 2013, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016. Married to actress Julianne Phillips, Springsteen married musician Patti Scialfa in 1991.
Their three children are Evan James Springsteen, Jessica Rae Springsteen, Sam Ryan Springsteen. Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born on September 23, 1949, at Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, New Jersey, he was brought home from the hospital to Freehold Borough. He attended Freehold Borough High School, his father, Douglas Frederick "Dutch" Springsteen, was of Dutch and Irish ancestry, worked as a bus driver, among other jobs, but was unemployed most of the time. Springsteen said his mother, Adele Ann, a legal secretary and of Italian ancestry, was the main breadwinner, his maternal grandfather was born in a town near Naples. He has two younger sisters and Pamela. Pamela left acting to pursue still photography full-time. Douglas Springsteen, Bruce's father, suffered from mental health issues through his life which worsened in his years. Springsteen's last name is topographic and of Dutch origin translating to "jumping stone" but more meaning a kind of stone used as a stepping stone in unpaved streets or between two houses.
The Springsteens are among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland in the 1600s. Raised a Catholic, Springsteen attended the St. Rose of Lima Catholic school in Freehold Borough, where he was at odds with the nuns and rejected the strictures imposed upon him though some of his music reflects a Catholic ethos and includes a few rock-influenced, traditional Irish-Catholic hymns. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music, he noted in the interview that his faith had given him a "very active spiritual life", although he joked that this "made it difficult sexually." He added: "Once a Catholic, always a Catholic."In ninth grade, Springsteen began attending the public Freehold High School, but did not fit in there either. Former teachers have said he was a "loner, who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar." He felt so uncomfortable that he skipped the ceremony. He attended Ocean County College, but dropped out.
Springsteen grew up hearing fellow New Jersey singer Frank Sinatra on the radio. He became interested in being involved in music himself when, in 1956 and 1957, at the age of seven, he saw Elvis Presley on The Ed Sullivan Show. Soon after this his mother rented him a guitar from Mike Diehl's Music in Freehold for $6 a week but it failed to provide him with the'instant gratification' he desired. In 1964, Springsteen saw the Beatles appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show and, inspired, he bought his first guitar for $18.95 at the Western Auto Appliance Store. Thereafter he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In late 1964, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, an act he subsequently memorialized in his song "The Wish"; the following year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town. They helped, his first gig with the Castiles was at a trailer park on New Jersey Route 34.
The Castiles recorded two original songs at a public recording studio in Brick Township and played a variety of venues, including Cafe Wha? in Greenwich Village. Marion Vinyard said. Called for conscription in the United States Army when he was 18, Springsteen failed the physical examination and did not serve in the Vietnam War, he had suffered a concussion in a motorcycle accident when he was 17, this together with his "crazy" behavior at induction gave him a classification of 4F, which made him unacceptable for service. In the late-1960s, Springsteen performed in a power trio known as Earth, playing in clubs in New Jersey, with one major show at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City. Earth consisted of John Graham on bass, Mike Burke on drums. Bob Alfano was added on organ was replaced for two gigs by Frank'Flash' Craig. From 1969 through early 1971, Springsteen performed with Steel Mill, which included Danny Federici, Vini Lopez, Vinnie Roslin and Steve Van Zandt and Robbin Thompson. During this time he performed at venues on the Jersey Shore, in Richmond, Nashville, a set of gigs in California gatheri
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Perth Amboy, New Jersey
Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The City of Perth Amboy is part of the New York metropolitan area; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,814, reflecting an increase of 3,511 from the 47,303 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,336 from the 41,967 counted in the 1990 Census. Perth Amboy has a Hispanic majority population. In the 2010 census, persons of "Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin" made up 78.1% of the population, second to Union City at 84.7%. Perth Amboy is known as the "City by the Bay," referring to Raritan Bay. Perth Amboy was settled in 1683 by Scottish colonists, it was called "New Perth" after James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth, the Lenape Native Americans called the point on which the city lies "Ompoge". Perth Amboy was formed by Royal charter in 1718, the New Jersey Legislature reaffirmed its status in 1784, after independence; the city was a capital of the Province of New Jersey from 1686 to 1776.
During the mid-1800s, the Industrial Revolution and immigration grew the city, developing a variety of neighborhoods which residents from a diverse range of ethnicities lived in. The city developed into a resort town for the Raritan Bayshore near it, but the city has grown in other industries since its redevelopment starting from the 1990s. Perth Amboy borders the Arthur Kill, features a historic waterfront; the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip was once an important ferry slip in the area, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The Raritan Yacht Club, one of the oldest yacht clubs in the United States, is located in the city. Perth Amboy is connected to the Staten Island borough of New York City via the Outerbridge Crossing; the Lenape Native Americans called the point on which the city is built "Ompoge" meaning "level ground" or "standing or upright". When settled in 1684 the new city was dubbed New Perth in honor of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, one of the associates of a company of Scottish proprietaries.
The Algonquian language name persisted, corrupted to Ambo, or Point Amboy, a combination of the native and colonial names emerged appearing in South Amboy. Perth Amboy was settled by Scottish colonists around 1683, recruited to inhabit the share of the East Jersey colony owned by Robert Barclay, a Quaker who would become the absentee governor of the province. Perth Amboy was formed by Royal charter on August 4, 1718, within various townships and again by New Jersey Legislature on December 21, 1784, within Perth Amboy Township and from part of Woodbridge Township. Perth Amboy Township was formed on October 31, 1693, was enlarged during the 1720s to encompass Perth Amboy city. Perth Amboy Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships through the Township Act of 1798 on February 21, 1798; the township was replaced by Perth Amboy city on April 8, 1844. Perth Amboy served as a capital of the Province of New Jersey from 1686 until 1776. In 1684, Perth Amboy became the capital of East Jersey and remained the capital until the union of East and West Jersey in 1702, became an alternate colonial capital with Burlington until 1776.
A few of the buildings from this early period can still be seen today. Most notably, the Proprietary House, the home of William Franklin, the last Royal Governor of New Jersey and estranged son of Benjamin Franklin, still stands in the waterfront area of the city. St. Peter's Church was founded in 1718 by the first Episcopal congregation in the state, its current building, dating from 1875, is surrounded by a graveyard of early inhabitants and displays a collection of stained-glass windows with religious scenes as well as early depictions of New Jersey receiving her charter and a meeting between William Franklin and his father, Ben. Perth Amboy City Hall, first built as a courthouse in 1714, survived major fires in 1731 and 1764 and is the oldest city hall in continuous use in the United States; the Kearny Cottage, moved from its original location, is a remaining example of 18th Century vernacular architecture. During the colonial period and for a significant time thereafter, Perth Amboy was an important way-station for travelers between New York City and Philadelphia, as it was the site of a ferry that crossed the Arthur Kill to Tottenville, Staten Island.
Regular service began in 1709. This ferry became less important when the Outerbridge Crossing opened in 1928, but continued to operate until 1963. In 1998, the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip was restored to its 1904 appearance. A replica of the ticket office is used as a small museum. By the middle of the 19th century and industrialization transformed Perth Amboy. Factories such as A. Hall and Sons Terra Cotta and Sons and the Copper Works Smelting Company fueled a thriving downtown and employed many area residents. Growth was further stimulated by becoming the tidewater terminal for the Lehigh Valley Railroad and a coal shipping point. Perth Amboy developed knit and insular ethnic neighborhoods such as Budapest and Chickentown. Immigrants from Denmark, Hungary, Italy and Austria dominated the factory jobs. In 1903, the Perth Amboy Public Library, one of the first Carnegie libraries in the state, made possible through grants from Andrew Carnegie, donations of local philanthropists, opened to the public.
In 1914, Perth Amboy had a baseball team called the Pacers. In late August 1923, an estimated 6,000 persons rioted, breaking through police lines after the Ku Klux Klan attempted to organize a meeting in the city; the city was a resort town in the 19th century and early 20th century, locate