1880 Republican National Convention
The 1880 Republican National Convention convened from June 2 to June 8, 1880, at the Interstate Exposition Building in Chicago, United States, nominated Representative James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New York as the official candidates of the Republican Party for President and Vice President in the 1880 presidential election. Of the 14 men in contention for the Republican nomination, the three strongest candidates leading up to the convention were Ulysses S. Grant, James G. Blaine, John Sherman. Grant had served two terms as President from 1869 to 1877, was seeking an unprecedented third term in office, he was backed by the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party, which supported political machines and patronage. Blaine was a senator and former representative from Maine, backed by the Half-Breed faction of the Republican Party. Sherman, the brother of Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman, was serving as Secretary of the Treasury under President Rutherford B. Hayes. A former senator from Ohio, he was backed by delegates who did not support the Stalwarts or Half-Breeds.
On the first ballot, Sherman received 93 votes, while Grant and Blaine had 304 and 285, respectively. With 379 votes required to win the nomination, none of the candidates was close to victory, the balloting continued. After the thirty-fifth ballot and Sherman switched their support to a new "dark horse" candidate, James Garfield. On the next ballot, Garfield won the nomination by receiving 399 votes, 93 higher than Grant's total. Garfield's Ohio delegation chose Chester A. Arthur, a Stalwart, as Garfield's vice-presidential running mate. Arthur won the nomination by capturing 468 votes, the longest-ever Republican National Convention was subsequently adjourned; the Garfield–Arthur Republican ticket defeated Democrats Winfield Scott Hancock and William Hayden English in the close 1880 presidential election. As President of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes had caused heated tensions within the Republican Party. Hayes had moved away from party patronage by offering government jobs to Southern Democrats instead of Northern Republicans.
His actions drew heavy criticism from those inside his party, such as Roscoe Conkling of New York and James G. Blaine of Maine. Hayes had known since the dispute over the 1876 election that he was unlikely to win in 1880, had announced at his 1877 inauguration that he would not run for a second term. Without an incumbent president in the race, the rival factions within the Republican Party, the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds, eagerly anticipated the 1880 presidential election. At the close of Grant's two terms as president in 1877, the Republican-controlled Congress suggested that Grant not return to the White House for a third term. Grant did not seem to mind and told his wife Julia, "I do not want to be here another four years. I do not think I could stand it." After Grant left the White House, he and his wife decided to use their US$85,000 of savings to travel around the world. A biographer from the New York Herald, John Russell Young, traveled with the Grants and documented their journey to exotic places around the world in a book published called Around the World with General Grant.
Young saw that Grant's popularity was soaring, as he was treated with splendid receptions at his arrival in Tokyo and Peking, China. After Hayes' falling-out with the Republican Party and a perceived desire on the part of the United States' electorate for a strong man in the White House, Grant returned to the United States ahead of schedule, in hopes of seeking a third term in office. With the backing of the Stalwarts and calls for a "man of iron" to replace the "man of straw" in the White House, Grant was confident that he would receive the Republican nomination for the presidency. Roscoe Conkling, the leader of the Stalwart faction, formed a "triumvirate" with J. Donald Cameron of Pennsylvania and John A. Logan of Illinois to lead the campaign for Grant's return to the White House. With a Grant victory and other Stalwarts would have great influence in the White House. Grant knew he could count on the Stalwart leaders to solidify their respective states in order to guarantee a Grant victory.
Conkling was so confident in Grant's nomination that he said, "Nothing but an act of God could prevent Grant's nomination." An aide to the ex-president, Adam Badeau, commented that Grant had become "extremely anxious to receive the nomination" and did not think that there was any chance of failure. However, close friends of Grant saw. John Russell Young took Grant aside and told him that he would lose the election, should withdraw to avoid embarrassment. Young argued that Grant was being attacked by opponents, who were against the concept of a presidential third term. Young criticized the handling of the campaign and told Grant that if he won the election, he would be indebted to the "triumvirate". Grant felt that his Stalwart friends had been of great assistance in his election bid, they deserved political patronage in his administration. Grant, listened to Young's advice and wrote a letter to J. Donald Cameron, authorizing his name to be withdrawn from the nomination contest after consultation with his other Stalwart backers.
Upon hearing of his letter, Julia Grant was insistent that her husband should not withdraw his name from the contest. She said, "If General Grant were not nominated let it be so, but he must not withdraw his name – no, never." Young delivered the letter to the "triumvirate" in Chicago on May 31, but no action was taken to remove Grant's name. The other main contender for the Republican nomination was James G. Blaine. Blaine, a senator from Maine who had served in the United States
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Schuyler Colfax Jr. was an American journalist and politician who served as the 17th vice president of the United States from 1869 to 1873, prior to that as the 25th speaker of the House of Representatives from 1863 to 1869. A member of the Republican Party, he was the U. S. Representative for Indiana's 9th congressional district from 1855 to 1869. Colfax was known for his opposition to slavery while serving in Congress, was a founder of the Republican Party. During his first term as speaker he led the effort to pass what would become the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery; when it came before the House for a final vote in January 1865, he made the unusual choice to cast a vote, voting in the affirmative. Chosen as Ulysses S. Grant's running mate in the 1868 election, the pair won over Democratic Party nominees Horatio Seymour and Francis Preston Blair Jr.. As was typical during the 19th century, Colfax had little involvement in the Grant administration. In addition to his duties as President of the U.
S. Senate, he continued to write for the press while in office. In January 1871, Colfax encouraged a unified Italy to adopt a republican government that protected religious freedom and civil rights of its citizens. Believing Grant would only serve one term, in 1870 Colfax attempted unsuccessfully to garner support for the 1872 Republican presidential nomination by telling friends and supporters he would not seek a second vice presidential term. However, when Grant announced that he would run again, Colfax reversed himself and attempted to win the vice presidential nomination, but was defeated by Henry Wilson. An 1872–73 Congressional investigation into the Crédit Mobilier scandal identified Colfax as one of several federal government officials who in 1868 accepted payments of cash and discounted stock from the Union Pacific Railroad in exchange for favorable action during the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Though he vociferously defended himself against charges, his reputation suffered.
Colfax left the vice presidency at the end of his term in March 1873 and never again ran for office. Afterwards he became a popular lecturer and speech maker. Colfax suffered a heart attack and died in a Mankato, Minnesota railroad station on January 13, 1885, en route to a speaking engagement in Iowa. To date, he is one of only two persons to have served as both speaker of the House and vice president. Schuyler Colfax was born on March 23, 1823, in New York City to Schuyler Colfax Sr. a bank teller, Hannah Delameter Stryker, who had married on April 25, 1820. His grandfather, William Colfax, served in George Washington's Life Guard during the American Revolution, became a general in the New Jersey militia and married Hester Schuyler, a cousin of General Philip Schuyler. William was commander at Sandy Hook during the War of 1812. Colfax's father contracted tuberculosis and died on October 30, 1822, five months before Colfax was born, his sister Mary died in July 1823. Colfax's mother and grandmother ran a boarding house as their primary means of economic support.
Colfax attended school in New York City until he was 10, when family financial difficulties forced him to end his formal education and to take a job as a clerk in the store of George W. Matthews. Hannah Colfax and George Matthews were married in 1836, the family moved to New Carlisle, where Matthews ran a store which served as the village post office. There, Colfax became an avid reader of books; the family moved again in 1841, to South Bend, after Matthews became St. Joseph County Auditor, he appointed Colfax as his deputy, a post which Colfax held throughout the eight years Matthews was in office. In 1842, Colfax became the editor for the pro-Whig South Bend Free Press, owned by John D. Defrees; when Defrees moved to Indianapolis the following year and purchased the Indiana Journal, he hired Colfax to cover the Indiana Senate for the paper. In addition to covering the state senate, Colfax contributed articles on Indiana politics to the New York Tribune, leading to a friendship with its editor, Horace Greeley.
In 1845 Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and changed its name to the St. Joseph Valley Register, he owned the Register for nine years, at first in support of the Whigs shifting to the newly established Republican Party. Colfax was a delegate to the 1848 Whig National Convention, he was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1849–50. Colfax was the 1852 Whig nominee for Congress in the district which included South Bend, but narrowly lost to his Democratic opponent. In 1854 Colfax ran for Congress again, this time as a candidate of the short-lived Indiana People's Party, an anti-slavery movement which formed to oppose the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Victorious, Colfax would represent the people of Indiana's 9th congressional district for seven terms, from March 4, 1855, to March 3, 1869. In 1855 Colfax considered joining the Know Nothing Party because of the antislavery plank in its platform, he was selected, without his knowledge, to be a delegate to the party's June convention, but had mixed feelings about the party and subsequently denied having been a member.
Although he agreed with many Know Nothing policies, he disapproved of its secrecy oath and citizenship test. By the time of his 1856 campaign for re-election, the new Republican Party had become the main anti-slavery party, Colfax became an early member; when Republicans held the majority, he served as chairman of the Committee on Post Office and Post
1868 Republican National Convention
The 1868 Republican National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in Crosby's Opera House, Cook County, Illinois, on May 20 to May 21, 1868. Commanding General of the U. S. Army Ulysses S. Grant was the unanimous choice of the Republicans for President. At the convention he was chosen by acclamation on the first ballot. For Vice-President the delegates chose the Republican Speaker of the House of Representatives Schuyler Colfax, Grant's choice. In Grant's acceptance telegram he said "Let us have peace", which captured the imagination of the American people. Benjamin F. Wade John A. J. Creswell Andrew G. Curtin Reuben E. Fenton Hannibal Hamlin James Harlan William D. Kelley Samuel C. Pomeroy James Speed Henry Wilson United States presidential election, 1868 1868 Democratic National Convention History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention Presidential election, 1868.: Proceedings of the National union Republican convention, held at Chicago, May 20 and 21, 1868./ reported by Ely, Burnham & Bartlett, official reporters of the convention.
Republican Party Platform of 1868 at The American Presidency Project
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office, he was a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876; the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. Hallmarks of Harrison's administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Harrison facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891. During his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. In addition, Harrison strengthened and modernized the U. S. Navy and conducted an active foreign policy, but his proposals to secure federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement for African Americans were unsuccessful. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term; the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison returned to his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1899 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in their British Guiana boundary dispute against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to the court of Paris as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis.
He died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. Although many have praised Harrison's commitment to African Americans' voting rights and historians regard his administration as below-average, rank him in the bottom half among U. S. presidents. Historians, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to personal and official integrity. Benjamin Harrison was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, the second of Elizabeth Ramsey and John Scott Harrison's ten children, his paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison I, arrived in Jamestown, circa 1630 from England. Harrison was of English ancestry, all of his ancestors having emigrated to America during the early colonial period; the future President was a grandson of U. S. President William Henry Harrison and a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a Virginia planter who signed the Declaration of Independence and succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia.
Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, but he did not attend the inauguration. Although Harrison's family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, spent much of his farm income on his children's education. Despite the family's modest resources, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, but his parents arranged for a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. Fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, he attended the college for two years and while there met his future wife, Caroline "Carrie" Lavinia Scott, a daughter of John Witherspoon Scott, the school's science professor, a Presbyterian minister. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford and graduated in 1852, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity.
He was a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership. Classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, Whitelaw Reid, Harrison's vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop. Harrison joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. After his college graduation in 1852, Harrison studied law with Judge Bellamy Storer of Cincinnati, but before he completed his studies, he returned to Oxford, Ohio, to marry Caroline Scott on October 20, 1853. Caroline's father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony; the Harrisons had Russell Benjamin Harrison and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison. Harrison and his wife returned to live at The Point, his father's farm in southwestern Ohio, while he finished his law studies. Harrison was admitted to the Ohio bar in early 1854, the same year he sold property that he had inherited after the death of an aunt for $800, used the funds to move with Caroline to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Harrison began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray in 1854 and became a crier for the federal court in Indianapolis, for which he was paid $2.50 per day. He served as a Commissioner for the U. S. Court of Claims. Harrison bec
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t