Wrist spin is a type of bowling in the sport of cricket. It refers to the cricket technique and specific hand movements associated with imparting a particular direction of spin to the cricket ball; the other spinning technique used to spin the ball in the opposite direction, is finger spin. Wrist spin is bowled by releasing the ball from the back of the hand, so that it passes over the little finger. Done by a right-handed bowler, this imparts an anticlockwise rotation to the ball, as seen from the bowler's perspective; the name wrist spin is something of a misnomer, as the wrist is not a vital part of the mechanism for producing the characteristic spin on the ball. A wrist spin delivery is released with the arm held in a pronated position, with the fingers on the inside of the ball. If this pronated position is maintained through the release, the fingers will cut down the side of the ball and produce an anti-clockwise spin; the great Australian leg-spinner Bill O'Reilly is famous for bowling legspin in this manner.
Additional spin many be put on the ball through two other means: the active pronation of the arm from an supinated position just before the ball is released, the extension of the wrist at the moment of release. Both techniques increase the effect of the cutting mechanism; the slower a spin bowler delivers the ball, the more he must attempt to impart spin onto it in order to maintain the same rate of revolution. Although the biomechanical details of wrist spin are the same for right and left handed bowlers, such bowlers are discussed separately, as the direction in which the ball deviates as it bounces on the cricket pitch is different: Right-handed wrist spin is more known as leg spin. Left-handed wrist spin is more known as left-arm unorthodox spin or left-arm chinaman. To grip the ball for a leg-spinning delivery, the ball is placed into the palm with the seam parallel to the palm; the first two fingers spread and grip the ball, the third and fourth fingers close together and rest against the side of the ball.
The first bend of the third finger should grasp the seam. The thumb resting against the side should impart no pressure; when the ball is bowled, the third finger will apply most of the spin. The wrist is cocked as it comes down by the hip, the wrist moves from right to left as the ball is released, adding more spin; the ball is tossed up to provide flight. The batsman will see the hand with the palm facing towards them. A googly is a type of delivery bowled by a wrist spin bowler, it is referred to as a Bosie, an eponym in honour of its inventor Bernard Bosanquet. While a normal leg break spins from the leg to the off side, away from a right-handed batsman, a googly spins the other way, from off to leg, into a right-handed batsman; the bowler achieves this change of spin by bending the wrist from the normal leg break delivery position. To achieve this bend requires maximal pronation of the forearm prior to delivery, as well as inward rotation of the shoulder: the tip of the elbow, which would face the right of a right-hand bowler at the point of delivery, faces upward, the back of the hand, which would face the rear of the bowler, faces the front.
When the Cricket ball rolls out of the hand, it emerges with clockwise spin. A googly may be achieved by bowling the ball as a conventional leg break, but spinning the ball further with the fingers just before it is released; the change of wrist action can be seen by a skilled batsman and the change of spin allowed for when playing a shot at the ball. Less skilled batsmen, or ones who have lost their concentration, can be deceived expecting the ball to move one direction off the pitch, only for it to move the other direction. If the batsman is expecting a leg break, he will play outside the line of the ball; this means the ball can either strike the pads for a potential LBW appeal, or may fly between the bat and the pads and hit the wicket. The googly is a major weapon in the arsenal of a leg spin bowler, can be one of the bowler's most effective wicket-taking balls, it is used infrequently, because its effectiveness comes from its surprise value. The grip is identical to that of a conventional leg-break: the only difference is the additional wrist and shoulder rotation, so that the batsman will see the back of the hand when the ball is released.
A top-spinner is a type of delivery bowled by a cricketer bowling either wrist finger spin. In either case, the bowler imparts the ball with top spin by twisting it with his or her fingers prior to delivery. In both cases, the topspinner is the halfway house between the stock delivery and the wrong'un – in the wrist spinner's case his googly, in the finger spinner's case his doosra. A topspinning cricket ball behaves to top spin shots in tennis or table tennis; the forward spinning motion impedes air travelling over the ball, but assists air travelling underneath. The difference in air pressure above and underneath the ball acts as a downward force, meaning that the ball falls earlier and faster than normal. In cricketing terms, this means that the ball drops shorter, falls faster and bounces higher than might otherwise be anticipated by the batsman; these properties are summed up in cricketing terms as a "looping" or "loopy" delivery. The ball travels straight on, as compared to a wrist spin or finger spin stock delivery that breaks to the left or righ
A referee or ref is the person of authority in a variety of sports, responsible for presiding over the game from a neutral point of view and making on-the-fly decisions that enforce the rules of the sport, including sportsmanship decisions such as ejection. The official tasked with this job may be known, in addition to referee, by a variety of other titles as well, including umpire, arbiter, linesman, timekeeper, touch judge or Technical Official; the term "referee" originated in association football. The team captains would consult with each other in order to resolve any dispute on the pitch; this role was delegated to an umpire. Each team would bring their own partisan umpire allowing the team captains to concentrate on the game; the referee, a third "neutral" official was added. The referee did not take his place on the pitch until 1891. Today, in many amateur football matches, each side will still supply their own partisan assistant referees to assist the neutral referee appointed by the governing football association if one or both assistant referees are not provided.
In this case, the role of the linesmen is limited to indicating out of play and cannot decide off side. An umpire is an official in the sport of Australian rules football. Games are overseen by one to three field umpires, two to four boundary umpires, two goal umpires. A game of bandy is officiated by a referee, the authority and enforcer of the rules, whose decisions are final; the referee may be assisted by two assistant referees. In baseball and softball, there is a head umpire, in charge of calling balls and strikes from behind the plate, assisted by one, three, or five field umpires who make calls on their specific bases. On any question, the head umpire has the final call. In international basketball and in college basketball, the referee is the lead official in a game, is assisted by either one or two umpires. In the National Basketball Association, the lead official is referred to by the term crew chief and the two other officials are referees. All of the officials in a basketball game are accepted to have the same authority as the lead official and therefore they are collectively known as the officials or referees.
In boxing a referee is the person. He gives instructions to the fighters and stops the count when a competitor is down, makes the determination to stop a fight when a competitor cannot continue without endangering his health. In cricket, the match referee is an off-field official who makes judgements concerning the reputable conduct of the game and hands out penalties for breaches of the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct. On-field decisions relevant to the play and outcome of the game itself are handled by two on-field umpires, although an off-field third umpire may help with certain decisions. In cue sports, such as billiards and snooker, matches are presided over by a referee; the referee will determine all matters of fact relating to the rules, maintain fair playing conditions, call fouls, take other action as required by these rules. A commissaire is an official in competitive cycling. A fencing match is presided over by a referee. An umpire in field hockey is a person with the authority to make decisions on a hockey field in accordance with the laws of the game.
Each match is controlled by two such umpires, where it is typical for umpires to aid one another and correct each other when necessary. A referee in figure skating sits in the middle of the judges panel and manages and has full control over the entire event; the referee represents the International Skating Union at international events. Referees for international events are trained by the International Skating Union. There are two levels of referee, International Referee and ISU Referee, with ISU Referees ranking higher. In Synchronized Ice Skating, there are two Referees. One, sits with the Judges as with ordinary competition and operates a touch screen computer, inputing deductions and marking the skaters; the other, known as the Assistant Referee — Ice, stands by the barrier where the teams enter the ice. The ARI communicates with the event Referee and supervises teams. A floorball game is controlled by two referees with equal power. An American football referee is responsible for the general supervision of the game and has the final authority on all rulings.
The referee is assisted by up to six other officials on the field. These officials are referred to as "referees" but each has a title based on position and responsibilities during the game: referee, head linesman, line judge, back judge, side judge, field judge. An association football match is presided over by a referee, whom the Laws of the Game give "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed"; the referee is oftentimes assisted by two assistant referees, sometimes by a fourth official. In UEFA football 2 additional assistant referees are used, each one standing next to a goal post and directly behind the goal line, to watch for fouls occurring within the penalty area and to see if the ball enters the goal. There are 7 officials in Gaelic football. A main referee follows the play around the field and has the final authority on decisions such as fouls
Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution. Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, to a lesser extent other parts of India. Outside India, several other languages are recognized as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri; such languages include Fiji Hindi, official in Fiji, Caribbean Hindustani, a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani; as a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin and English.
Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. The term Hindī was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus, it was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī, meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India". The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa, which emerged in the 7th century A. D. Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal period, underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.
In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard. After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. Standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script; the form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Notwithstanding anything in clause, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. Article 351 of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directi
In the sport of cricket, a bouncer is a type of delivery bowled by a fast bowler. Bouncers are used to drive the batsman back on to his back foot if he has been playing front foot scoring shots, such as drives. To this end, bouncers are directed more or less at the line of the batsman's body. Aiming at the batsman is legal provided the ball bounces on the pitch. Aiming at the batsman's head without bouncing on the pitch, known as a beamer, is illegal. A batsman may play a bouncer in an attacking way. If the batsman plays it defensively he aims to avoid getting out, secondarily to avoid being hit by the ball. For a head-high bouncer, these goals are achieved most by ducking under the ball. If the ball is at chest height, the batsman's best defence is to move on to his back foot, raise his bat vertically to chest height, attempt to block the ball and direct it downwards to the pitch so as to avoid presenting a catch to a fielder. Sometimes the batsman will need to jump into the air to gain the necessary height to defend with the bat.
He may sway out of the way. Given these approaches, the bowler can hope to both intimidate the batsman somewhat, have the ball deflect off the bat at an awkward angle and produce a catch for a nearby fielder. A bouncer ball is not valid if the ball is above the marks height before touching ground that's mean when the bowler is bowling the ball the bowl should not exceed the 8 feet of height before touching ground, if it is above the mark level the ball will be declared No ball and the rule may change if the bowler height is above 6ft 5inch it will be increase 1/2 feet as height increase and the ball release as high intentionally it would be categorized as unfair delivery; that may be concern as objectionable delivery. The bowler that throw convective delivery as bouncer may lead to match fine or can be temporary ban for not obeying the cricket rule and tried to unfollow the rules. Conversely, the bouncer can be a productive ball for the batsman, if he plays it in an attacking manner; the shot, used to attack the bouncer is the hook shot.
To play the hook shot the batsman moves his back foot backwards and towards the off side as the ball is being delivered. As the ball approaches, the batsman swivels from facing the off side to facing the leg side, while holding the bat horizontally; the batsman's aim is to hit the ball at high speed into or over the leg side boundary. However, despite their run-scoring potential, shots lead to wickets falling through balls hitting the top edge of the bat and being caught by leg side fielders. However, if the bouncer is misdirected by the bowler, reaches the batsman on the off side of his wicket, the cut, uppercut or late cut can be played, either with the intention of guiding the ball along the ground, through a gap in the field setting, or over the infield for four or six. There is an unspoken agreement in the time before the widespread use of batting helmets, that fast bowlers will not bowl bouncers at each other, because less skilled batsmen are less to defend and therefore more to be struck.
Breaking of this rule can lead to'bouncer wars' – that is, the targeted bowler engaging in retaliatory hostile short-pitched bowling at his opponent during the following innings. Because of the potential danger to batsmen of being hit and to stop bowlers bowling bouncers all the time, there are Laws in the Laws of Cricket governing how a bowler may bowl bouncers, as well as how many fielders may field backward of square leg; these laws take into account the relative skill of the batsmen. During the 1970s to 1980s, bouncers were used as part of a team's intimidatory tactics by the West Indies team. In 1991, the International Cricket Council introduced a "one bouncer per batsman per over" rule in an attempt to discourage use of intimidation. However, the ruling was not well received by players and umpires alike, with English umpire Dickie Bird describing it as "farcical" as he felt that calling intimidatory tactics should be left to the umpire; the ICC changed it to two bouncers per over in 1994, with a two-run no-ball penalty if the bowler exceeded two bouncers an over.
One Day International cricket allowed one bouncer per over in 2001. On 29 October 2012 the ICC increased the number of bouncers that could be bowled during a One Day International to two; the number of bouncers per over allowed in T20s was kept to one. Fast leg theory, the deliberate and sustained bowling of bouncers aimed at the body, coupled with a cordon of legside catching fieldsmen to catch deflections, was a tactic used by England against Australia in 1932/33, dubbed the Bodyline series by the Australians; this controversial tactic caused the Laws of Cricket to be reformed to prevent any recurrence. In 1954–55 in Sydney, England fast bowler Frank Tyson bowled bouncers at Australian Ray Lindwall, who returned the favour by hospitalising Tyson with one of his own. An angry Tyson returned with a large lump on his head and took 6/85 in the second innings to give England a 38-run victory. In 1994 at the Oval Devon Malcolm was hit on the helmet by a bouncer from Fanie de Villiers; the incensed Malcolm told the South Africans "You guys are history" and took apart their second innings with 9/57.
The bouncer is an aggressive delivery and the nature of the delivery by a fast bowler and aimed at the head can lead to batsmen being hit in the chest, neck or head. In 1962, Indian captain Nari Contractor was hit above his right ear by a Charlie Griffith bouncer whi
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch; the Laws of Cricket govern. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide. There are different types of bowlers, from fast bowlers, whose primary weapon is pace, through swing and seam bowlers who try to make the ball deviate in its course through the air or when it bounces, to slow bowlers, who will attempt to deceive the batsmen with a variety of flight and spin.
A spin bowler delivers the ball quite and puts spin on the ball, causing it to turn at an angle while bouncing off the pitch. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the only method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket. One suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold. A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a'cricket' in England, which from the side looked like the long, low wicket used in the early days of the game. There is a reference to'criquet' in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game, he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a "milk-white" bail perched on two stumps.
They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the scorers sat on a mound making notches. The first written "Laws of Cricket" were drawn up in 1744, they stated, "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches; the ball must be between 5 & 6 ounces, the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart". There were no limits on the size of the bat, it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a big score due to the bowlers bowling at shins unprotected by pads. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club was founded in 1787. During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground; this innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. It opened new possibilities for spin and swerve. In response, batters had to master shot selection.
One immediate consequence was the replacement of the curving bat with the straight one. All of this lessened the influence of rough ground and brute force, it was in the 1770s. The weight of the ball was limited to between five and a half and five and three-quarter ounces, the width of the bat to four inches; the latter ruling followed an innings by a batter called Thomas "Daddy" White, who appeared with a bat the width of the wicket. In 1774, the first leg before law was published. Around this time, a third stump became commonplace. By 1780, the duration of a first-class cricket match was three days, this year saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. In 1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws, which prohibited charging down an opponent and provided for mowing and covering the wicket in order to standardise conditions; the desire for standardisation reflected the massive increase in the popularity of cricket during the 18th century. Between 1730 and 1740, 150 cricket matches were recorded in the papers of the time.
Between 1750 and 1760, this figure rose to 230, between 1770 and 1790 over 500. The 19th century saw a series of significant changes. Wide deliveries were outlawed in 1811; the circumference of the ball was specified for the first time in 1838. Pads, made of cork, became available for the first time in 1841, these were further developed following the invention of vulcanised rubber, used to introduce protective gloves in 1848. In the 1870s, boundaries were introduced – all hits had to be run; the biggest change, was in how the ball was delivered by the bowler. At the start of the century, all bowlers were still delivering the ball under-arm. However, so the story goes, John Willes became the first bowler to use a "round-arm" technique after practising with his sister Christina, who had used the technique, as she was unable to bowl underarm due to her wide dress impeding her delivery of the ball; the round-arm action came to be employed in matches but was determined to be illegal and banned by the MCC
The carrom ball is a style of spin bowling delivery used in cricket. The ball is released by flicking it between the thumb and a bent middle finger in order to impart spin. Though the delivery was first brought in use in early 1940s, it was re-introduced by Ajantha Mendis in 2008 as well as by Indian spinner Ravichandran Ashwin later; the first bowler known to have used this style of delivery was the Australian Jack Iverson from Victoria, who used it throughout his Test cricket career in the period after the Second World War, although he did not use the name "carrom ball". Fellow countryman John Gleeson used a similar grip a decade but by the end of the 1970s the method was forgotten, it has since re-entered cricketing consciousness because of its use by Ajantha Mendis of Sri Lanka, with the new name of carrom ball. Mendis unveiled this delivery during the 2008 Asia Cup. Ravichandran Ashwin calls his variation the'sodukku ball'. In the Tamil language, sodukku means "snapping of fingers"; this is reflected in the way the ball is delivered, by a "snap" of the thumb.
Ashwin says that he first learned to bowl this type of delivery playing street cricket in Chennai, while using a tennis ball, in his childhood he perfected the delivery with a real cricket ball. He took nine wickets in his debut Test against the West Indies in November 2011 and used the carrom ball to dismiss Marlon Samuels in the second innings. New Zealander Mitchell Santner is believed to be the first left handed spin bowler to have used the method in international cricket, dismissing Pakistan opener Fakhar Zaman with a delivery in the carrom ball style during a one-day international match on January 16, 2018; the ball is held between the thumb and the middle finger and, instead of a conventional release, the ball is squeezed out and flicked by the fingers like a carrom player flicking the disc on a carrom board. It is different from wrist-bowled deliveries. Traditional leg-spin is bowled with anti-clockwise wrist movement for a right-armed bowler, while Muttiah Muralitharan's special type of off-spin is bowled with clockwise wrist movement.
A finger-bowled delivery such as traditional off-spin is bowled with a clockwise finger movement. Carrom spin can be considered a third category of spin bowling after leg spin and off spin, as the middle finger and thumb flick or squeeze the ball out of the hand, like a carrom player flicking a striker in the indoor game of carrom; when the centre finger is gripped towards the leg side, the ball spins from leg to off. Depending on the degree the ball is gripped towards the leg side, the carrom ball could travel straight; the carrom ball can therefore travel straight. Doosra Googly Leg spin Off spin Wrist spin
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c