Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Glenn County, California
Glenn County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,122; the county seat is Willows. It is located in the northern part of the California Central Valley. Glenn County was formed in 1891 from parts of Colusa County, it was named for Hugh J. Glenn, who came to be the largest wheat farmer in the state during his lifetime and a man of great prominence in political and commercial life in California. Peter Herman Clark William H. Sale Jack A. Bailey Newt Collins Roy D. Heard Lawrence Atherton Braden Roy D. Heard Hal Singleton - Killed in Car Crash Ben Karanig Roger Roberts Richard "Rick" Weaver Louis K. Donnelley Robert "Bob" Shadley - Resigned Larry Jones Richard L. Warren Jr. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,327 square miles, of which 1,314 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Colusa County - south Lake County - southwest Mendocino County - west Tehama County - north Butte County - east Mendocino National Forest Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that Glenn County had a population of 28,122.
The racial makeup of Glenn County was 19,990 White, 231 African American, 619 Native American, 722 Asian, 24 Pacific Islander, 5,522 from other races, 1,014 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,539 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,453 people, 9,172 households, 6,732 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,982 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 2.1% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 18.2% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. 29.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 10.8% were of German, 9.4% American, 6.2% English and 5.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 69.5 % spoke 27.0 % Spanish and 2.1 % Hmong as their first language. There were 9,172 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families.
22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,107, the median income for a family was $37,023. Males had a median income of $29,480 versus $21,766 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,069. About 12.5% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Glenn is a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964.
Glenn County is split between California's 1st and 3rd congressional districts, represented by Doug LaMalfa and John Garamendi, respectively. In the State Assembly, Glenn County is in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. In the State Senate, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen. On November 4, 2008 Glenn County voted 73.3% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Interstate 5 State Route 32 State Route 45 State Route 162 Glenn Ride runs buses from Willows to Hamilton City, on into Chico; the nearest Amtrak station is in Chico. Willows-Glenn County Airport and Haigh Field are both general aviation airports. California Northern Railroad shortline serves Willows; the main line runs north to Tehama and south to Davis, where the railroad interchanges with the Union Pacific Railroad.
Prior to the line being leased to the California Northern, the route was operated by Southern Pacific and was known as the West Side Line. The railroad first reached Willows on December 1879, from Davis. In 1882 the extension from Willows to Tehama was completed. In 1884 the West Side and Mendocino Railroad constructed a line east from Willows to Fruto. Orland Willows Artois Elk Creek Hamilton City Butte City Fruto The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Glenn County.† county seat Hiking trails in Glenn County National Register of Historic Places listings in Glenn County, California Orland Buttes Thomas D. Harp, mentions formation of the county Official website Glenn County Resource Guide
State Theatre (Red Bluff, California)
The State Theatre is a Moderne style cinema in Red Bluff, California, USA. It was built in 1945-46 to a design by architects Alexander A. and Mackenzie A. Cantin, replacing a theater that had burned two years before, it provided the only public stage in Tehama County until 1991, was the only cinema until 1993. It is notable as one of the few theaters to be built in the United States during World War II; the State Theatre was built as a replacement of a building, first built in 1908 as the Orpheum Theatre, or the Opera House. After a 1928 renovation, the theater was renamed the State Theatre; this building burned in 1944, a replacement was deemed vital for morale. Construction was delayed by wartime materials shortages; the new theater opened on May 1946, complete with air conditioning. The front of the theater was not completed as designed, with a more elaborate marquee and facade deferred and cancelled. In 1980 the house was divided for two screens subdivided again in 1992, it closed in 1993, superseded by a newer multiplex cinema.
It was purchased in 1998 for redevelopment as a community arts center. It was renovated and reopened as the State Theatre for the Arts with seating for about 750; the one story State Theatre occupies a corner lot at Oak Street and Washington Street, with the theater entrance and a tenant space fronting on Oak Street. The theater is built of cast-in-place concrete with a two-story plain concrete facade. Original plans called for a larger marquee, which were never built. A freestanding box office stands in a recessed exterior lobby area, surrounded by a terrazzo floor. Four pairs of doors give access to the inner lobby; the inner lobby has been altered. The auditorium was designed for more the 900 patrons in three areas; the orchestra seats in front of the stage are separated from a loge by half-walls, while a balcony-like area is a sloped stadium-style seating area at the rear. The house features elaborate murals of horses that are its most distinctive feature. There are basements under the lobby.
The State Theatre was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 17, 2002. National Register of Historic Places listings in Tehama County, California State Theatre website
Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and even much earlier, successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis; the 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are of historical, inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish
Trinity County, California
Trinity County is a county in the northwestern part of the state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,786, making it the fourth least-populous county in California; the county seat and largest community is Weaverville. Weaverville has the distinction of housing some of California's oldest buildings; the courthouse, built in 1856, is the second oldest in the state, the Weaverville Drug Store has been filling prescriptions since 1852. The Joss House is a historic Taoist temple built in 1873. Trinity County is rugged, mountainous forested, lies along the Trinity River within the Salmon and Klamath Mountains, it is one of three counties in California with no incorporated cities. The county takes its name from the Trinity River, named in 1845 by Major Pierson B. Reading, under the mistaken impression that the river emptied into Trinidad Bay. Trinity is the English translation of Trinidad. Trinity County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to Klamath County in 1852 and to Humboldt County in 1853. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,208 square miles, of which 3,179 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water; the county contains a significant portion of Shasta-Trinity National Forest, home to the Trinity Alps. The county hosts many visitors during summer months, for camping, boating on the lakes, rafting/kayaking on the rivers and fishing; the summers tend to be clear, sunny and dry, with little rain from June to September except for some mountain thunderstorms in the highest elevations. The winters tend to have copious precipitation, falling as rain under 1000m/3300 ft in the valley bottoms, as snow over 1000m/3300 ft on the mountainsides. December and February are the wettest. There is an extensive wild river and stream system, the terrain is quite rugged and forested, with the highest point at Mount Eddy, over 9,000 ft; the Klamath Mountains occupy the vast portion of the county.
Siskiyou County - north Shasta County - east Tehama County - southeast Mendocino County - south Humboldt County - west Shasta-Trinity National Forest Six Rivers National Forest Mendocino National Forest Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area Trinity Alps Wilderness Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness Trinity was a Republican-leaning county in Presidential and congressional elections until recently. No Democrat had won the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976 until Barack Obama defeated John McCain by a 4% margin in 2008. In 2012, the county narrowly. Voter registration reflects this trend, with Democratic and Republican registration in a near dead heat. Third-party candidates tend to do rather well in Trinity County: George Wallace got over 13% of the county's vote in 1968, it was the only California county carried by Ross Perot in 1992, it was Perot's best performance in the state in 1996, although he didn't carry it again. John Anderson did well in 1980, as did third-party candidates in 2016. Trinity County is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman.
In the state legislature Trinity is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. In 2010, Trinity County voted against Proposition 19, which would have taxed and regulated marijuana. In 2016 Trinity County residents were asked again to vote on legalization of state-level recreational marijuana, facilitated by the Adult Use of Marijuana Act known as California Proposition 64; the measure passed with 50.1% in favor of legalization. Statewide, the measure passed with 57.1% of the vote. State Route 299 State Route 3 State Route 36 Trinity Transit provides weekday intercity bus service on State Routes 3 and 299, with connecting service in Willow Creek and Redding. Service is provided from Weaverville to Lewiston and Hayfork; the county owns five general aviation airports: Trinity Center Airport, Weaverville Airport, Hayfork Airport, Hyampom Airport and Ruth Airport. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinity County had a population of 13,786. The racial makeup of Trinity County was 12,033 White, 59 African American, 655 Native American, 94 Asian, 16 Pacific Islander, 217 from other races, 712 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 959 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,022 people, 5,587 households, 3,625 families residing in the county. The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 7,980 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.9% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 4.9% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. 4.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.1% were of German, 13.4% English, 12.1% Irish and 9.5% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.3% spoke English and 1.8% Spanish as their first language. There were 5,587 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families.
29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average hou
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont or Fremont was an American explorer and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led five expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. During the Mexican–American War, Frémont, a major in the U. S. Army, took control of California from the California Republic in 1846. Frémont was convicted in court-martial for mutiny and insubordination over a conflict of, the rightful military governor of California. After his sentence was commuted and he was reinstated by President Polk, Frémont resigned from the Army. Frémont led a private fourth expedition, which cost ten lives, seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849. Afterwards, Frémont settled in California at Monterey while buying cheap land in the Sierra foothills; when gold was found on his Mariposa ranch, Frémont became a wealthy man during the California Gold Rush, but he was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims, between the dispossession of various land owners during the Mexican–American War and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the Rush.
These cases were settled by the U. S. Supreme Court allowing Frémont to keep his property. Frémont's fifth and final funded expedition, between 1853 and 1854, surveyed a route for a transcontinental railroad. Frémont became one of the first two U. S. senators elected from the new state of California in 1850. Frémont was the first presidential candidate of the new Republican Party, carrying most of the North, he lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrat James Buchanan. Democrats warned. During the American Civil War, he was given command of Department of the West by President Abraham Lincoln. Although Frémont had successes during his brief tenure as Commander of the Western Armies, he ran his department autocratically, made hasty decisions without consulting Washington D. C. or President Lincoln. After Frémont's emancipation edict that freed slaves in his district, he was relieved of his command by President Lincoln for insubordination. In 1861, Frémont was the first commanding Union general who recognized in Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant an "iron will" to fight and promoted him commander at the strategic base near Cairo, Illinois.
Defeating the Confederates at Springfield, Frémont was the only Union General in the West to have a Union victory for 1861. After a brief service tenure in the Mountain Department in 1862, Frémont resided in New York, retiring from the Army in 1864; the same year Frémont was a presidential candidate for the Radical Democracy Party, but he resigned before the election. After the Civil War, Frémont's wealth declined after investing and purchasing an unsuccessful Pacific Railroad in 1866, lost much of his wealth during the Panic of 1873. Frémont served as Governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881 appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Frémont retired from politics and died destitute in New York City in 1890. Historians portray Frémont as controversial and contradictory; some scholars regard him as a military hero of significant accomplishment, while others view him as a failure who defeated his own best purposes. The keys to Frémont's character and personality may lie in his being born illegitimately, his ambitious drive for success, self-justification, passive-aggressive behavior.
Frémont's published reports and maps produced from his explorations contributed to massive American emigration overland into the West starting in the 1840s. In June 1846, Frémont's and his army expedition's return to California, spurred the formation of the California Battalion, his military advice led to the capture of Sonoma, the formation of the Bear Flag Republic. Many people during his lifetime believed his court martial by General Kearny in 1848 was unjustified, his biographer Allan Nevins in 1939 believed that Frémont lived a dramatic lifestyle, one of remarkable successes, one of dismal failures. John Charles Frémont was born on January 21, 1813, the son of Charles Frémon, a French-Canadian immigrant school-teacher, Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter of prominent Virginia planter Col. Thomas Whiting. At age 17, Anne married a wealthy Richmond resident in his early 60s. In 1810, Pryor hired Frémon to tutor his young wife Anne. Pryor confronted Anne when he found out she was having an affair with Frémon.
Anne and Frémon fled to Williamsburg on July 10, 1811 settling in Norfolk, taking with them household slaves Anne had inherited. The couple settled in Savannah, where she gave birth to their son Frémont out of wedlock. Pryor published a divorce petition in the Virginia Patriot, charged that his wife had "for some time past indulged in criminal intercourse"; when the Virginia House of Delegates refused Anne's divorce petition, it was impossible for the couple to marry. In Savannah, Anne took in boarders while Frémon taught dancing. A woman enslaved in the household, Black Hannah, helped raise young John. On December 8, 1818, Frémont's father Frémon died in Norfolk, leaving Anne a widow to take care of John and several young children alone on a limited inherited income. Anne and her family moved to South Carolina. Frémont, knowing his origins and coming from modest means, grew up a proud, restless loner who although self-disciplined, was ready to prove himself and unwilling to play by the rules.
The young Frémont was considered to be "precious and daring," having the a
Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is an American national park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world and the southernmost volcano in the Cascade Range. Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907: Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument; the source of heat for the volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate off the Northern California coast. The area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots and hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found—plug dome, cinder cone, stratovolcano; the park is accessible via State Routes 89 and 44. SR 89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR 36 to the south and ending at SR 44 to the north. SR 89 passes adjacent to the base of Lassen Peak.
There are five vehicle entrances to the park: the north and south entrances on SR 89. The park can be accessed by trails leading in from the Caribou Wilderness to the east, as well as the Pacific Crest Trail, two smaller trails leading in from Willow Lake and Little Willow Lake to the south; the Lassen Chalet, a large lodge with concession facilities, was located near the southwest entrance, but was demolished in 2005. A new full-service visitor center in the same location opened to the public in 2008; the Lassen Ski Area was located near the lodge. Native Americans have inhabited the area since long; the natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water and thought it would one day blow itself apart. White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, who settled in Northern California in the 1830s. Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the park area and passed Cinder Cone and the Fantastic Lava Beds.
Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing "fire thrown to a terrible height" and "burning lava running down the sides" in the area of Cinder Cone. As late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700. After the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range. Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670. Recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666; the Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve. Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen.
These events created a new crater, released lava and a great deal of ash. Because of warnings, no one was killed, but several houses along area creeks were destroyed; because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, the area's stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9, 1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted. Near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, it is not unusual for 40 ft of snow to accumulate on the road near Lake Helen and for patches of snow to last into July. In October 1972, a portion of the park was designated as Lassen Volcanic Wilderness by the US Congress; the National Park Service seeks to manage the wilderness in keeping with the Wilderness Act of 1964, with minimal developed facilities and trails. The management plan of 2003 adds that, "The wilderness experience offers a moderate to high degree of challenge and adventure."In 1974, the National Park Service took the advice of the USGS and closed the visitor center and accommodations at Manzanita Lake.
The Survey stated that these buildings would be in the way of a rockslide from Chaos Crags if an earthquake or eruption occurred in the area. An aging seismograph station remains. However, a campground and museum dedicated to Benjamin F. Loomis stands near Manzanita Lake, welcoming visitors who enter the park from the northwest entrance. After the Mount St. Helens eruption, the USGS intensified its monitoring of active and active volcanoes in the Cascade Range. Monitoring of the Lassen area includes periodic measurements of ground deformation and volcanic-gas emissions and continuous transmission of data from a local network of nine seismometers to USGS offices in Menlo Park, California. Should indications of a significant increase in volcanic activity be detected, the USGS will deploy scientists and specially designed portable monitoring instruments to evaluate the threat. In addition, the National Park Service has developed an emergency response plan that would be activated to protect the public in the event of an impending eruption.
The NPS tracks visitors by counting vehicles entering the park via in-road inductive loops at all vehicle entrances. Buses and other non-reportable vehicles are subtracted from