South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Standard Chartered PLC is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London, England. It operates a network of more than 1,200 branches and outlets across more than 70 countries and employs around 87,000 people, it is a universal bank with operations in consumer and institutional banking, treasury services. Despite its UK base, it does not conduct retail banking in the UK, around 90% of its profits come from Asia and the Middle East. Standard Chartered has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalisation of £24.4 billion as of 4 April 2017, the 28th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. It has the National Stock Exchange of India, its largest shareholder is the Government of Singapore-owned Temasek Holdings. José Viñals is the Group Chairman of Standard Chartered. Bill Winters is the current Group Chief Executive; the name Standard Chartered comes from the names of the two banks from which it was formed by merger in 1969: The Chartered Bank of India and China, Standard Bank of British South Africa.
The Chartered Bank began when Queen Victoria granted a Royal Charter to Scotsman James Wilson in 1853. Chartered opened its first branches in Mumbai and Shanghai in 1858, followed by Hong Kong and Singapore in 1859; the Bank started issuing banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar in 1862. The Standard Bank was a British bank founded in the Cape Province of South Africa in 1862 by Scot, John Paterson. Having established a considerable number of branches, Standard was prominent in financing the development of the diamond fields of Kimberley from 1867 and extended its network further north to the new town of Johannesburg when gold was discovered there in 1885. Half the output of the second largest gold field in the world passed through The Standard Bank on its way to London. Standard expanded in Africa over the years, but from 1883 to 1962 was formally known as the Standard Bank of South Africa. In 1962 the bank changed its name to Standard Bank Limited, the South African operations were formed into a separate subsidiary which took the parent bank's previous name, Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd.
Both banks spread their networks further. In 1969, the banks decided to merge and to counterbalance their network by expanding in Europe and the United States, while continuing expansion in their traditional markets in Asia and Africa. In 1986, Lloyds made a hostile takeover bid for the Group; the bid was defeated. Union Bank was sold to the Bank of Tokyo and United Bank of Arizona was sold to Citicorp. In 1987, Standard Chartered sold its remaining interests in the South African bank. In 1992, scandal broke when banking regulators charged several employees of Standard Chartered in Mumbai with illegally diverting depositors' funds to speculate in the stock market. Fines by Indian regulators and provisions for losses cost the bank ₤350 million, at that time a third of its capital. In 1994, London's Sunday Times reported that an executive in the bank's metals division had bribed officials in Malaysia and the Philippines to win business; the bank, in a statement on 18 July 1994, acknowledged that there were "discrepancies in expense claims... included gifts to individuals in certain countries to facilitate business, a practice contrary to bank rules".
In 1994, the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission found Standard Chartered's Asian investment bank to have illegally helped to artificially support the price of new shares they had underwritten for six companies from July 1991 to March 1993. The bank admitted the offence and reorganized its brokerage units; the commission banned the bank from underwriting IPOs in Hong Kong for nine months. In 1997, Standard Chartered sold Mocatta Bullion and Base Metals, its metals division, to Toronto-based Scotiabank for US$26 million. Standard Chartered's Asian investment banking operations never recovered. In 2000 the bank closed them down. In 1986, a business consortium purchased a 35% stake to fend off Lloyds. A member of this consortium was Malaysian-born property tycoon Khoo Teck Puat, who purchased 5% of the bank's shares, which he increased to 13.4%. In 2000, Standard Chartered acquired Grindlays Bank from ANZ, increasing its presence in private banking and further expanding its operations in India and Pakistan.
Standard Chartered retained Grindlays' private banking operations in London and Luxembourg, as well as the subsidiary in Jersey, all of which were integrated into its own private bank. This now serves high-net-worth customers in Hong Kong and Johannesburg under the name Standard Chartered Grindlays Offshore Financial Services. Leading to the incorporation of Standard Chartered on 1 July 2004, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong amended Legal Tender Notes Issue Ordinance; the amendment replaced Standard Chartered Bank with its newly incorporated subsidiary - Standard Chartered Bank Ltd - as one of the note-issuing banks in Hong Kong. The same year, Standard Chartered Bank and Astra International took over PermataBank and in 2006, both shareholders increased their joint ownership to 89.01%. With 276 branches and 549 ATMs in 55 cities throughout Indonesia, PermataBank has the second largest branch network in Standard Chartered organization. On 15 April 2005, the
Seoul Subway Line 2
Seoul Subway Line 2 known as the Circle Line, is a circular line of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. The line running clockwise is called the "inner circle line" and the counter-clockwise line is called the "outer circle line"; this is Seoul's most used line, consists of the main loop, the Seongsu Branch and the Sinjeong Branch for a total line length of 60.2 km. The Line 2 loop is the second longest subway loop in the world after Beijing Subway Line 10. Headways on the line vary from 2 minutes 18 seconds on peak periods and 5–6 minutes off-peak periods; the line connects the city centre to Teheran Valley and the COEX/KWTC complex. Line 2 was built in 1978–84 together with the Seongsu Branch. Dangsan bridge was closed for reconstruction in 1996 and reopened November 22, 1999; the old steel girder bridge was replaced by a 1.3-kilometre long concrete bridge between Dangsan on the southern side of the river and Hapjeong on the northern bank. Yongdu station on the Seongsu Branch is the first station in the Seoul Subway system with operating platform screen doors.
As of 2008 platform screen doors are operating at all stations along Line 2. New rolling stock has progressively came on line, replacing older vehicles. October 31, 1980: Sinseol-dong – Sports Complex section opened December 23, 1982: Sports Complex – Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Education section opened September 16, 1983: Euljiro 1-ga – Seongsu section opened. It averaged 2.56 times more than the other 14 subway lines fitted with WiFi service zones. In 2011, retailer Home plus opened the world's first virtual supermarket at Seolleung station, where smartphone users can photograph the bar code of life-size pictures, on the walls and platform screen doors, of 500 items of food, electronics etc. for delivery within the same day. There is a possible extension in the conception stage to extend the Sinjeong Branch to 3.7 km to Gayang Station on Line 9. The path would include a new station named Gangseo-gu Office in between Gayang. Subways in South Korea List of Korea-related topics Seoul Metropolitan Subway Seoul Metro Map and route finder
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
The Gangnam District is one of the 25 local government districts which make up the city of Seoul, South Korea. Gangnam means "South of the River"; as of the 2017 census, Gangnam District had a population of 561,052. Gangnam District is the third largest district in Seoul, with an area of 39.5 km2. Gangnam is one of three gu that make up the Greater Gangnam Area along with neighboring Seocho District and Songpa District. Combined, these three gu cover 120 km2 of land and had a population of 1,567,881 as of 2010, making up 20% of the area and 15% of the population of Seoul; the Gangnam District office has designated two smoke-free zones within the district. The first is the section of Gangnam Boulevard between exit No. 2 of Gangnam Station of Seoul Subway Line 2 and exit No. 5 of Sinnonhyeon Station of Line 9. Gangnam District is composed of 26 dong: Apgujeong Cheongdam 1 Cheongdam 2 Daechi 1 Daechi 2 Daechi 3 Daechi 4 Dogok 1 Dogok 2 Gaepo 1 Gaepo 2 Gaepo 3 Irwon 1 Irwon 2 Irwon bon Nonhyeon 1 Nonhyeon 2 Samseong 1 Samseong 2 Segok Sinsa Suseo Yeoksam 1 Yeoksam 2 Both the Greater Gangnam Area and Gangnam itself are known for its concentrated wealth and high standard of living, compared to cities such as Beverly Hills, California.
The most significant indicator is its expensive real estate. Seoul as a whole is known for its expensive housing prices—as of 2011, its average apartment cost US$5,500 per m2—but the average price in Gangnam is twice as high US$10,000 per m2, 3.5 times the nationwide average. As for land value, the mere 40 km2 land of Gangnam district rivals with the entire land value of the city of Busan, the second-largest city in South Korea. Combined with the neighboring districts of Seocho and Songpa, the Greater Gangnam Area accounts for 10% of the land value of the entire country. While Seoul's traditional business centers such as Central District, Jongno District, Yongsan District and Yeongdeungpo District still maintain their leading roles and its neighboring districts have fast become the new core across all areas of business over the last few decades. KOSPI 200 companies based in Gangnam district include KEPCO, GS Group, Hyundai Department Store Group, HITEJinro, Hankook Tire, GLOVIS and Korea Zinc Corporation.
Besides, POSCO operates POSCO Center in Teheran Valley, KT&G operates Kosmo Tower. Other notable companies based in Gangnam include Dongbu Fire Insurance, Young Poong Group, T'way Airlines and Hankook P&G. Gangnam is home to many IT and other internet-related companies including NC Soft and Pandora TV, is a strong hub of the country's financial and banking sectors. Many international companies operate key offices in Gangnam, including Google, IBM, AMI. Since January 2012, the area has been home to FNC Entertainment, which moved into its own company offices in Cheongdam-dong, separate from its parent company in the CJ E&M Music Performance Division Building in neighbouring Apgujeong-dong. Other entertainment companies located there include SM Entertainment, JYP Entertainment, Cube Entertainment, Pledis Entertainment, LOEN Entertainment, Source Music, Plan A Entertainment, DSP Media, MBK Entertainment, Nega Network, C-JeS Entertainment, WM Entertainment, NH Media, J. Tune Entertainment, TOP Media, Happy Face Entertainment, Dream Tea Entertainment, Polaris Entertainment, Jellyfish Entertainment, DR Music and Stardom Entertainment.
The Korean subdidiary of American Megatrends, AMI Korea, is headquartered in Daechidong, Gangnam District. Until the early 1980s Gangnam and its neighboring areas had remained the least developed in Seoul, but prodigious development over the last 30 years has earned it a reputation of being one of the most affluent and influential areas in both Seoul and South Korea as a whole. In addition, the COEX Convention & Exhibition Center in Gangnam hosted several international conferences such as the 2010 G-20 summit and the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. South Korea is known for its high standard of education and intense competition for university entrance, Gangnam is considered the national capital of education, one of the decisive factors to make Gangnam the most attractive destination in South Korea. In 2010 6% of the successful candidates to Seoul National University, considered the best university in South Korea, were from Gangnam district, while Gangnam's population makes up only 1% of the country's population.
In 2008, 22.7 out of 1,000 students in Gangnam district went abroad to study, while the nation's average ratio in the same time frame was only 3.6 per 1,000 students. Following the substantial raising of the profile of the Gangnam district internationally, the area has become a popular destination for international students seeking Korean language lessons, marking the rise of Korea as a'study tourism' destination. Both long-standing locally owned schools such as the Seoul Korean Academy, more recent foreign-owned entities such as Lexis Korea report a significant increase in interest in the location. International schools: Korea International School Seoul Academy International School Former schools Japanese School in Seoul The important business district around Teheranno runs east-west from Gangnam Station to Samseong Station and the COEX Convention & Exhibition Center-Korean World Trade Center complex. Several popular shopping and entertainment
Gholam-Reza Nikpey Nikpay was deputy prime minister of Iran and Mayor of Tehran. He became Mayor of Tehran in 1969. Prior to that, he had served as Iran's Minister of Housing from 1966 to 1969. During his tenure as the Housing Minister, an earthquake rocked the Province of Khorasan, causing mass destruction, he was in charge of rebuilding. It turned out to be one of the best rebuilding projects in the country's history. In 1977, he was appointed to Iranian Senate by the Shah, he was executed on 11 April 1979 on the orders of a revolutionary tribunal, without legal representation or it appears a chance to defend himself. His execution appears to have been politically motivated. Nikpay is one of the victims listed in the 13 March 1980 Amnesty International report. International human rights organizations have drawn attention to reports indicating that the Islamic Republic's authorities executed individuals on trumped up charges. Nikpey was born in 1927 in Isfahan to Azizullah Nikpey, his father called Ezazolmalek, studied in the US and was governor of province of Kermanshah during Reza Shah reign.
Azizullah became Minister of post and Telegraph. Nikpey's maternal grandfather Zalolsoltan was from Qajar royal family and was the son of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar and at one point was set to succeed his father as king, however Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar became king instead of him. Gholamreza entered Tehran University to study law, he went to England to continue his studies and obtained his PhD in 1335 A. H. from London returned to Iran. After his return, he was employed in Iranian National Oil Company, he went on to become VP to prime minister Hassan Ali Mansur. He was the director of Kaakh Javanan, he became the mayor of Tehran in 1346 AH. After his tenure as mayor, he went to become the representative of Isfahan in Iranian senate, he was arrested during political arrests that year. During the Iranian revolution Nikpey was freed by the revolutionaries, he was arrested shortly after the success of the revolution. He was charged with dubious charges such as collaborating with imperialists, collaborating with Pahlavi regime, not doing enough work as mayor and not fixing traffic problems, taking bribes, changing comprehensive plan for the city of Tehran and other non specific charges and was sentenced to death.
He was executed in March 1979. Nikpey made many improvements during his reign as mayor, some of his actions include:Construction of highways and parks, Comprehensive plan of Tehran,Urban tax, tax for non-rental buses and cars, Building parking facilities, limit privacy of Capital zone, Recycling waste into fertilizer, Establishment of Soil Mechanics Laboratory, Creating Development Organization and renovation of Abbas Abad, Change "Sweeper name" to civil service worker, Established The development of public revenues, Establishment of the Directorate General of Budget, improvement in Buses, Allocation of funds to build the building and maintenance of children with disabilities. Modification of the capital's mayor Department, Allocation of funds for the construction of West Tehran Flood, Reconstruction of shops in the city that existed before the adoption of the comprehensive plan, built Niavaran Park,Creating Inspection Agency, Establishing DMV,Change the slaughterhouse and morgue of Tehran, review of Urban Planning Department and Urban Areas, Street parking in the southern area of Persepolis St.
The development of public housing and apartment building for municipal staff, Park construction and building artificial lake in the south right Azadi Tower, Plans to establish public housing capital DMV staff police and public housing projects, establishing three-bed nursing homes for the elderly in Kahrizak. Gholamreza Nikpey travelled to Seoul on 27 June 1977. Seoul Metropolitan Government suggested that the city of Seoul and Tehran for exchanging the names of streets on the occasion of the visit to Korea of Gholamreza Nikpay, Mayor of Tehran; the following year, Samneungno street was renamed Teheran, which ran through a underdeveloped area annexed to Seoul. Boroumand Foundation file on Mr. Nikpay
Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. Due to some circular ownership, it is the flagship company of the Samsung chaebol, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 308,745 people, it is the world's largest manufacturer of consumer semiconductors by revenue. As of June 2018, Samsung Electronics' market cap stood at US$325.9 billion. Samsung is a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia, it is the world's largest manufacturer of Mobile phones and Smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is a major vendor of tablet computers its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, regarded for developing the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices.
It has developed 5G capable smartphones and foldable phones. Samsung has been the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011, it is the world's largest memory chips manufacturer. In July 2017, Samsung Electronics overtook Intel as the largest semiconductor chip maker in the world. Samsung has been criticized for low dividend payouts and other governance practices that favor controlling shareholders at the expense of ordinary investors. In 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun was appointed the company's CEO but announced in October 2017 that he would resign in March 2018, citing an "unprecedented crisis". Samsung Electric Industries was established as an industry part of Samsung Group in 1969 in Suwon, South Korea. While the group didn't have enough technology nor resources because it stepped into the industry even than the competitors within the country, although it attracted considerable amount of criticism from them for cooperating with the Japanese firms, Samsung Electric managed to establish a joint venture named Saumsung-Sanyo Electric with Sanyo and Sumitomo Corporation of Japan in the same year it entered into business.
Its early products were electronic and electrical appliances including televisions, Refrigerators, air conditioners and washing machines. In 1970, Samsung Group established another subsidiary, Samsung-NEC, jointly with Japan's NEC Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation to manufacture home appliances and audiovisual devices. In 1974, the group expanded into the semiconductor business by acquiring Korea Semiconductor, one of the first chip-making facilities in the country at the time; the acquisition of Korea Telecommunications, an electronic switching system producer, was completed at the start of the next decade in 1980. By 1981, Samsung Electric Industries had manufactured over 10 million black-and-white televisions. In February 1983, Samsung's founder, Lee Byung-chull, along with the board of the Samsung industry and corporation agreement and help by sponsoring the event, made an announcement dubbed the "Tokyo declaration", in which he declared that Samsung intended to become a dynamic random-access memory vendor.
One year Samsung announced that it developed a 64 kb DRAM. In the process, Samsung used technologies imported from Micron Technology of the U. S for a development of DRAM and Sharp of Japan for its SRAM and ROM. In 1988, Samsung Electric Industries merged with Samsung Semiconductor & Communications to form Samsung Electronics, as before that, they had not been one company and had not been a leading corporation together, but they were not rivals, as they had been in talks for a time, until they merged. Samsung Electronics launched its first mobile phone in the South Korean market. Sales were poor and by the early 1990s, Motorola held a market share of over 60 percent in the country's mobile phone market compared to just 10 percent for Samsung. Samsung's mobile phone division struggled with poor quality and inferior products until the mid-1990s and exit from the sector was a frequent topic of discussion within the company. Lee Kun-Hee decided; the company shelved the production of many under-selling product lines and instead pursued a process of designing and manufacturing components and investing in new technologies for other companies.
In addition, Samsung outlined a 10-year plan to shrug off its image as a "budget brand" and to challenge Sony as the world's largest consumer electronics manufacturer. It was hoped in this way Samsung would gain an understanding of how products are made and give a technological lead sometime in the future; this patient vertical integration strategy of manufacturing components has borne fruit for Samsung in the late-2000s. As Samsung shifted away from consumer markets, the company devised a plan to sponsor major sporting events. One such sponsorship was for the 1998 Winter Olympics held in Japan; as a chaebol, Samsung Group wielded wealth that allowed the company to invest and develop new technology rather than build products at a level which would not have a detrimental impact on Samsung's finances. Samsung had a number of technological breakthroughs in the field of memory which are commonplace in most electrical products today; this includes the world's first 64MB DRAM in 1992, 256 MB DRAM in 1994, 1GB DRAM in 1996.
In 2004, Samsung developed the world's first 8GB NAND flash memory chip and a manufacturing deal was struck with Apple in 2005. A deal to supply Apple with memory chips was sealed in 2005 and, as of October 2013, Sams