click links in text for more info

Tehran Province

Tehran Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers an area of 18,909 square kilometres and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran; the province was put as part of First Region with its secretariat located in its capital city, upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014. Tehran Province borders Mazandaran Province in the north, Qom Province in the south, Semnan Province in the east, Alborz Province in the west; the metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran. As of June 2005, this province includes 13 townships, 43 municipalities, 1358 villages. Tehran Province is the richest province of Iran as it contributes 29% of the country's GDP. Furthermore, it houses 18% of the country's population. Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; the province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778. Today, with a population of 8 million, is ranked amongst the 40 most populous metropolitan cities of the world.

The province of Tehran is Iran's most densely populated region. 86.5 percent reside in urban areas and 13.5 percent in rural areas of the province. The largest rivers of this province are Jajrood River. Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north. Environmentally, the climate of Tehran province is stable and has 4 seasons, in winter it's cold and snowy, in spring & autumn it's mild and fresh and rainy, in summer it's warm to hot and dry, but in the mountains it is cold & and semi-humid all year round, in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28 °C to 30 °C and the coldest months experience 1 °C around January–February, but at certain times in winter it can reach −20 °C. Tehran city warm to hot summers. Average annual rainfall is 200 millimetres, the maximum being during the winter season in the form of snow. On the whole, the province has a cold semi-arid, steppe climate in the south and an alpine climate in the north.

Tehran Province has several archeological sites indicating settlements dating back several thousand years. Until 300 years ago, Rey was the most prominent of the cities of the province. However, the city of Tehran rose to become the larger city and capital of Iran by 1778, since has been the political, cultural and commercial nucleus of Iran. Tehran has over 1,500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran; the oldest of these in Tehran province are the remains of two sites in Firuzkuh County that date back to the 4th millennium BCE. Tehran Province is sub-divided into fourteen Counties, listed below with their populations at the 2011 Census: Tehran County – 9,033,003 Damavand County – 100,690 Ray County – 319,305 Shemiranat County – 44,061 Varamin County – 526,294 Shahriar County – 624,440 Eslamshahr County – 485,688 Robat Karim County – 195,917 Pakdasht County – 291,397 Firuzkuh County – 38,712 Qods County – 290,663 Malard County – 373,994 Pishva County – 75,454 Baharestan County – 523,636 Pardis County Qarchak County – 303,832The largest cities of Tehran Province are: Andisheh, Baghestan, Chahardangeh, Eslamshahr, Qods, Golestan, Shahriar, Nasimshahr, Pardis, Robat Karim, Tehran, Varamin & Salehieh.

Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran. Tehran province has over 17,000 industrial units employing 26 % of all units in Iran; the province contains 30% of Iran's economy, comprises 40% of Iran's consumer market. The province has three hydro dams namely Latiyan and Amir Kabir as well as two natural lakes, providing the water supply of Tehran and the province; the province contains 170 mines, over 330 square kilometres of forests, over 12800 square kilometres of pasture. Speaking, year round, regions such as the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains in the mountains and rivers and artificial lakes formed behind the great dams of Amir Kabir and Lar along with natural lakes of Jaban and Tarr provide considerable recreation for the province. Moreover, due to excessive snowfall in the northern areas of the province during the winter season, the Alborz mountains form an excellent environment for winter sports such as skiing. Dizin and Tochal are the most popular skiing resorts. Tehran Province is covered with and connected to other provinces with a big Freeway and Expressway network: Freeway 2: This freeway connects Tehran to the capital city of neighboring province of Alborz and continues towards Tabriz and Europe.

Freeway 5: This Freeway connects city of Tehran to its southern suburbs such as Sabashahr, Robat Karim and Parand and continues towards Markazi Province to Saveh and Salafchegan. There are plans to continue the freeway towards Khuzestan. Freeway 7: This Freeway connects Tehran City to its airport, Imam Khomeini International Airport and continues towards Qom and Isfahan. Tehran–Pardis Fr

Gavin Bone

Gavin Bone is an English author and lecturer in the fields of magic, witchcraft and Neo-Paganism, an organizer in the Neo-Pagan community. He was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire in England, in 1964, he was brought up in Portsmouth, Hampshire. His mother visited mediums and tarot readers, a major influence in his occult interest, he attended several conferences and events in Portsmouth on the unexplained, which made him become interested in everything from UFOs to the Surrey Puma and the Bermuda Triangle. Firstly he wanted to pursue a career in the British Army, but was unable to go into regular service and served in 219 Wessex General Hospital RAMC instead, he left because of his political beliefs. He became involved with groups such as Greenpeace from 1981, he became interested in Wicca during the same period, having explored Buddhism and Taoism. He started to train as a spiritual healer, after he had attended The Joseph Carey Spiritualist Centre, he practised solitary from 1982 before finding his first magical group in 1985 working from the Fifth Dimension Occult store, Portsmouth.

His group included earth healing practices as well as High Magic. It was from this group that the first coven he joined emerged, based on Buckland's Seax Wicca, he was initiated into a Gardnerian based tradition. He has trained as a registered nurse and has studied complementary healing methods such as reflexology, he was initiated into Seax-Wica in 1986, was involved in the revival of British/Anglo-Saxon traditional shamanism in the late 1980s through a web site called PaganLink. He is developing the theory that Wicca may have some roots in tribal shamanistic healing traditions, as opposed to medieval ritual magic. Bone first met Janet Farrar and Stewart Farrar in 1989 at a Pagan camp at Groby, near Leicester, where they became friends, he accompanied them on a tour to the United States in 1992, after their return he moved to Ireland and became their business partner. He joined the Farrars as part of a "polyfidelitous relationship", they continued their personal and professional relationship since Stewart's death on 7 February 2000.

He co-authored several books with the Farrars, he is the production manager for their videos. He set up their website in 1996, which has become the “Pagan Information Network”, a contact network for Pagans across the Republic and Northern Ireland, for which Bone and Janet Farrar are the primary coordinators. Bone and Janet Farrar are active members in the Aquarian Tabernacle Church of Ireland, have links with several covens in the United States, New Zealand and Europe, they ran a progressive coven in Ireland called Coven Na Callaighe until early 2009, part of Teampall Na Callaighe, which once included an open worship group Clan Na Callaighe. Janet Farrar and Gavin Bone handfasted in Ireland, May 2001, they have been married since March 2014. Following attending Link-Up'89 in Groby, Gavin became involved in Pagan Link as a contact and facilitator for Portsmouth, with his wife Tania Andrade, they held moots in Portsmouth, in the Milton area, from this a small coven developed of no specific tradition.

He became a contact for the Pagan Federation as it expanded its contact network. He and his wife became part of Clan Bran, a clan of eclectic practitioners, it was based in Leicestershire before it moved to the Republic of Ireland. 1999 - The Pagan Path ISBN 0-919345-40-9 1999 - The Healing Craft ISBN 0-919345-18-2 2001 - The Complete Dictionary of European Gods and Goddesses ISBN 1-86163-122-7 2004 - Progressive Witchcraft ISBN 1-56414-719-3 2016 - Lifting the Veil ISBN 978-1-936863-85-3 Grimassi, Raven. Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft. Guiley, Rosemary Ellen; the Encyclopedia of Witches & Witchcraft. Knowles, George. Janet Farrar & Gavin Bone; the Home Pages of Janet Farrar and Gavin Bone

President of Croatia

The president of Croatia styled President of the Republic, is the head of state, commander in-chief of the military and chief representative of the Republic of Croatia both within the country and abroad. The President is the holder of the highest office in Croatia. However, the president is not the head of the executive branch as Croatia has a parliamentary system in which the holder of the post of Prime Minister is the most powerful person within the country's constitutional framework and everyday politics; the president maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system, safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president has the power to call ordinary and extraordinary elections for the Croatian Parliament, as well as to call referenda; the president formally appoints the prime minister on the basis of the balance of power in parliament and consultations conducted with the leaders of parliamentary parties, grants pardons and awards decorations and other state awards.

The president and Government cooperate in conducting foreign policy. In addition, the president is the commander-in-chief of the Croatian Armed Forces; the president appoints the director of the Security and Intelligence Agency in agreement with the prime minister. The president may dissolve the Parliament under circumstances provided by the Constitution. Although enjoying immunity, the president is impeachable for violation of the Constitution. In case of a temporary or permanent incapability by the president to discharge the duties of his or her office, the speaker of the Parliament assumes the office of acting president until the president resumes his or her duties, or until the election of a new president within 60 days of the permanent vacancy occurring; the Office of the President of the Republic consists of the immediate staff of the president of Croatia, as well as support staff reporting to the president. The office is located in the Presidential Palace in the Pantovčak area of Zagreb.

The Constitution of Croatia defines the appearance and use of the presidential standard, flown on the buildings of the Office of the President, the residence of the president, any vehicles in use by the president, in other ceremonial occasions. The president is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a five-year term. If no candidate in the elections secures more than 50% of all votes cast, a runoff election is held; the Constitution of Croatia sets a limit of a maximum of two terms in office. The president-elect is required to take an oath of office before the judges of the Constitutional Court. Franjo Tuđman won the first Croatian presidential elections in 1992 and in 1997. During his time in office, the constitution adopted in 1990 provided for a semi-presidential system, in the coming years further strengthened by laws aimed at providing Tuđman with sweeping powers, as his HDZ party held a supermajority in parliament throughout the 1990s. After his death in 1999, the constitution was amended and many presidential powers were transferred to parliament, to the prime minister and to his government.

Stjepan Mesić won two consecutive terms, in 2000 and in 2005, served as president until 2010. Ivo Josipović won the presidential election held from 2009 to 2010 and left office in 2015, after losing his reelection bid for a second term. Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović won the election held in December 2014 and January 2015, but was defeated in her bid for a second term. On 6 January 2020, leftist Zoran Milanović won the 2019-20 Croatian presidential election and he takes the oath on 18 February 2020; the president of Croatia styled President of the Republic represents the Republic of Croatia in the country and abroad as the head of state, maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president is barred from executing any other professional duty while in office; the president of Croatia calls elections for the Croatian Parliament and convenes the first meeting of the parliamentary assembly.

The president is required to appoint a prime minister, on the basis of the balance of power in the parliament. The appointed candidate is in turn required to seek confirmation from the parliament through a confidence vote, in order to receive a mandate to lead the Croatian Government; the president may call referenda, grant pardons and award decorations and other forms of recognition defined by legislation. The president of Croatia and the Government cooperate in the formulation and implementation of Croatia's foreign policy; this provision of the constitution is an occasional source of conflict between the president and the government. The president decides on the establishment of diplomatic missions and consular offices of the Republic of Croatia abroad, at the Government's proposal and with the countersignature of the prime minister; the president, following prior countersignature of the prime minister and recalls diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Croatia, at the proposal


Jesteburg is a municipality in the district of Harburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated 25 km south of Hamburg, 6 km east of Buchholz in der Nordheide. Jesteburg is the seat of the Samtgemeinde Jesteburg. In Jesteburg lies the confluence of two small rivers, the Schmale Aue and the Seeve; the first official mentioning of Jesteburg dates back to the year 1202, in a document signed by the Hartwig II, Archbishop of Bremen. The castle which gave the town its name is supposed to have guarded the Seeve passage until the 13th century. Remains of this Burg have not yet been found. In 1872/73, the railroad between Buchholz in der Nordheide and Lüneburg which still runs through Jesteburg was built. During an Allied air raid on nearby Hamburg in January 1943 incendiary bombs where dropped on Jesteburg, several buildings where destroyed. On 19 April 1945, the railroad bridge was blown up by the Wehrmacht to slow the advance of British troops. Between 1933 and 1945 the population of Jesteburg nearly doubled due to refugees.

In 1986/87, the Heimathaus was re-erected on the Niedersachsenplatz. The Heimathaus is a 450-year-old building from Eyendorf; the town of Jesteburg hosts the Kunststätte Bossard, an expressionist Gesamtkunstwerk. Media related to Jesteburg at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Elisabeth Real

Elisabeth Real, was a New Orleans businesswoman. She managed the merchant company of her second spouse by proxy during his absences and in her own name after 1740, in addition to running a successful boarding house, she was one of the first European settler women in the French colony of Louisiana, the real figure behind the famous Madame John's Legacy in the French Quarter. Elisabeth Real belonged to the first group of French women who were deported to Louisiana to become wives of the first male settlers during the epoch of John Law, she was around twenty years of age and from Oléron in Bordeaux. She married the settler captain Jean Pascal, given the land in New Orleans where the house Madame John's Legacy was built; when her spouse was killed in the Natchez massacre in 1729, she married François Marin. Both her husband's where shipowning traders, unofficially traded in smuggled goods, common in the merchant elite of New Orleans at the time, her second spouse was listed as innkeeper, the inn was located in the house Madame John's Legacy, built on the land she inherited from her first husband.

The inn was in practice managed by Elisabeth Real with a power of attorney from her husband, common for the New Orleans merchants like her spouse, who sailed along the Mississippi River or the Caribbean with their boats, being absent long periods of time. Her inn included a recreational garden in the French style, a gambling parlour as well as storage, which made it popular among travelling merchants; when she was widowed for a second time in 1740, she did not remarry but continued to manage the business as a merchant and innkeeper in her own name. She was a respected and successful member of New Orleans's society as a significant actor in the city's commercial life, she remained illiterate, but had her business documents written for her, she is known for her two wills. She socialized with the members of the colonial government, her daughter married into the elite and she was able to finance her son's education in France, she became an ancestor of several of the families of the Creole aristocracy.

Her inventory listed several luxury items such as Chinese porcelain, silver ornaments and silk. Shannon Lee Dawdy, Building the Devil's Empire: French Colonial New Orleans Barbara L. Voss, Eleanor Conlin, The Archaeology of Colonialism: Intimate Encounters and Sexual Effects

Jasper Heywood

Jasper Heywood was an English Jesuit priest. He is known as the English translator of three Latin plays of Seneca, the Troas, the Thyestes and Hercules Furens, he was son of John Heywood, became a fellow of Merton College, but was compelled to resign in 1558. In the same year he was elected a fellow of All Souls College, refusing to conform to the changes in religion at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth I, he gave up his fellowship and went to Rome, where he was received into the Society of Jesus. For seventeen years he was professor of moral theology and controversy in the Jesuit College at Dillingen, in present-day Bavaria. In 1581 he was sent to England as superior of the Jesuit mission, but his leniency in that position led to his recall. On his way back to the Continent, a violent storm drove him back to the English coast, he was arrested on the charge of being a priest, although efforts were made to induce him to abjure his opinions, he remained firm. He was condemned to perpetual exile on pain of death, died at Naples on 9 January 1598.

His nephew was preacher John Donne. Heywood's verse translations of Seneca were supplemented by other plays contributed by Alexander Neville, Thomas Nuce, John Studley and Thomas Newton. Newton collected these translations in one volume, his tenne tragedies translated into Englysh; the importance of this work in the development of English drama can hardly be overestimated. He wrote four poems published in 1576 in the Elizabethan collection known as The Paradise of Dainty Devices. Canons of Elizabethan poetry Dr. J. W. Cunliffe, On the Influence of Seneca upon Elizabethan Tragedy. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Jasper and John Heywood". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company