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Tehsil

A tehsil is an administrative division in some countries of the Indian subcontinent, translated to "township". It is a subdivision of the area within a district including the designated city, hamlet, or other populated place that serves as its administrative centre, with possible additional towns, a number of villages; the terms in India have replaced earlier geographical terms, such as thana. In some states of India, a newer unit called. A mandal is smaller than a tehsil, is meant for facilitating local self-government in the panchayat system; some states retain both the mandal levels of administration. As an entity of local government, the tehsil office exercises certain fiscal and administrative power over the villages and municipalities within its jurisdiction, it is the ultimate executive agency for related administrative matters. The chief official is called the tahsildar or, less the talukdar or taluka muktiarkar or tehsildar. Taluk or tehsil can be considered sub-districts in the Indian context.

In some instances, tehsils overlap with "blocks" and come under the land and revenue department, headed by tehsildar. Although they may on occasion share the same area with a subdivision of a revenue division, known as revenue blocks, the two are distinct. For example, Raipur district in Chhattisgarh state is administratively divided into 13 tehsils and 15 revenue blocks; the two are conflated. Tehsil/tahsil and taluka and their variants are used as English words without further translation. Since these terms are unfamiliar to English speakers outside the subcontinent, the word county has sometimes been provided as a gloss, on the basis that a tehsil, like a county, is an administrative unit hierarchically above the local city, town, or village, but subordinate to a larger state or province. India and Pakistan have an intermediate level of hierarchy: the district sometimes translated as county. In neither case is the analogy exact. India, as a vast country, is subdivided into many states and union territories for administrative purposes.

Further divisions of these states are known as districts. These districts are again divided into viz tehsils or talukas; these subdivisions are again divided into gram panchayats or village panchayaths. This was done for collecting land revenue and administration purposes, but now these subdivisions of areas to be governed is followed by other departments of government like education, irrigation, police, etc. The different departments of state government have offices at tehsil or taluka level to facilitate good governance and to provide facilities to common people easily. In India, the term tehsil is used in all northern states. In the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, taluka or taluk is more common; the word mandal is used in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. In eastern India, instead of tehsils the term community development block is used. Tehsildar is the chief or key government officer of each taluka. In some states different nomenclature like talukdar, amaldar, mandal officer is used.

In many states of India, the tehsildar works as a magistrate. Each taluka will have an office called taluka office or tehsil office or tehsildar office at a designated place within taluka area known as taluka headquarters. Tehsildar is the incharge of taluka office; this is similar to district district collector at district level. Throughout India, there is a three-tier local body/Panchayati Raj system within the state. At the top is the jilla/zilla panchayat. Taluka/Mandal Panchayat is the second layer of this system and below them are the gram panchayats or village panchayats; these panchayats at all the three levels have elected members from eligible voters of particular subdivision. These elected members form the bodies which help the administration in policy making, development works and bringing grievances of the common public to the notice of administration. In Pakistan, the term tehsil is used, except in Sindh, where the term taluko predominates, e.g. Larkana Taluko; the tehsil is the second-lowest tier of local government in Pakistan.

Each tehsil is subdivided into a number of union councils. In Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, tehsil has the same meaning as above, except in Malakand Division, where a district has two or more subdivisions, a subdivision has two or more tehsils; the subdivisions in Malakand Division are the same as tehsils in the rest of the country. Taluqdar, a land holder and tax collector Tehsildar, a revenue administrative officer Village accountant Administrative divisions of India 2001 maps provides maps of social and demographic data of India in 2001

10th Air Corps

X. Fliegerkorps was a formation of the German Luftwaffe in World War II, which specialised in coastal operations, it was formed 2 October 1939, in Hamburg from the 10. Flieger-Division. Generalleutnant Hans Ferdinand Geisler was put in command of the newly formed Flieger-Division on 3 September 1939, based at Blankenese, its force was the Heinkel 111 bombers of Kampfgeschwader 26. Geisler's Division was allocated the new Junkers Ju 88 bombers which were still being brought into service with Kampfgeschwader 25, on 7 September this was redesignated Kampfgeschwader 30; the Corps was stationed in north Germany in February 1940 when some of its aircraft were involved in a disastrous friendly fire incident that terminated the Kriegsmarine's Operation Wikinger. In early 1941, X. Fliegerkorps was transferred from Norway to Sicily to support the build-up of the Afrika Korps in Libya. On 12 January 1941, it had 80 Ju 88A-4 bombers of LG 1 and 12 Ju 88D-5 reconnaissance planes at Catania, 80 Ju 87R-1 dive-bombers of StG 1 and StG 2 at Trapani, 27 He 111H-6 torpedo bombers of KG 26 at Comiso and 34 Bf 110C-4 fighters of ZG 26 at Palermo.

It was prominent in the axis effort to suppress Royal Navy interference with the supply routes from Italy by reducing Malta's effectiveness as a forward base. On 10 and 11 January 1941 X. Fliegerkorps planes sank HMS Southampton and damaged HMS Illustrious during Operation Excess. Bf 109E-7 fighters of JG 26 and JG 27 joined the offensive on Malta during February and March 1941; the Corps was moved out of Sicily in April 1941 for the Invasion of Greece. Maritime float planes replaced fighters and dive bombers. Strength on 10 May 1942 was 74 Ju 88 at Eleusis and Heraklion, 25 He 111 at Kalamaki, 53 Ar 196A-3, He 60c, Fokker T. VIII and Bv 138C-1 at Kavalla; the Corps was crucial in securing air superiority and German victory during the 1943 Dodecanese Campaign. The Corps was renamed to Kommandierender General der Deutschen Luftwaffe in Griechenland in March 1944 and disbanded on 5 September 1944 with the withdrawal of German forces from the country. General der Flieger Hans Geisler, 2 October 1939 – 31 August 1942 General der Flieger Bernhard Kühl, 3 June 1940 – 20 September 1940 General der Flieger Otto Hoffmann von Waldau, 31 August 1942 – 31 December 1942 Generalleutnant Alexander Holle, 1 January 1943 – 22 May 1943 General der Flieger Martin Fiebig, 22 May 1943 – 1 September 1944 Oberstleutnant Martin Harlinghausen, 1 November 1939 – 31.3.41 Generalleutnant Ulrich Kessler, 25 April 1940 – 21 May 1940 Generalleutnant Günther Korten, 1 April 1941 – March 1942 Oberst Sigismund Freiherr von Falkenhausen, 1 April 1942 - March 1943 Major Eckard Christian, 8 March 1943 – 2 June 1943 Generalmajor Walter Boenicke, June 1943 – 6 January 1944 Notes References X. Fliegerkorps @ Lexikon der Wehrmacht X. Fliegerkorps @ The Luftwaffe, 1933-45

Wine Street, Bristol

Wine Street, together with High Street, Broad Street and Corn Street, is one of the four cross streets which met at the Bristol High Cross, the heart of Bristol, England when it was a walled mediaeval town. From this crossroads Wine Street runs along a level ridge 175m north-eastwards to the top of Union Street. Wine Street was for centuries an important shopping street but, following wartime destruction and the decision to move Bristol's main shopping area to Broadmead, it now contains little notable architecture and acts as barrier between the Old City and Castle Park. Bristol City Council are now seeking to repair this by redeveloping the area. Wine Street, together with High Street, Corn Street and Broad Street, formed the earliest nucleus of Bristol. Ricart's Plan of 1479, one of the first English town plans, shows Wine Street with the High Cross at one end and Newgate at the other; the name Wine Street is thought to be a corruption of Winch Street, after a winch-operated pillory which stood at the eastern end of the street.

It was a commercial street from its earliest days: in 1286, Thomas de Westone and his wife Roysia took out a lease on two shops there for thirty years'at a poetical rent of a rose at the feast of St John the Baptist yearly'. By the 14th century, the four cross streets and Bristol Bridge were a defined shopping centre: Bristol Bridge, the prime site, was the location of jewellers and mercers. Samuel Pepys, his wife and servants came to the Horse Shoe Inn on Wine Street for a day in 1668, described Bristol as'in every way another London', though he noted that there were'no carts, it stands on vaults, only dog-carts'. In the early 17th century an open-sided corn market was built in the middle of Wine Street. Shown on Millerd's Map of 1671, this was 18 feet wide by 80 feet long, it left only a narrow passageway on either side for those who wished to go along the street, was demolished in 1727. A Cheese Market was erected between its former location and Mary le Port Street. Thomas Cadell, who went on to make a fortune in bookselling and publishing, was born on Wine Street in 1742.

Robert Southey, Poet Laureate from 1813 to 1843, was born on Wine Street in 1774. Southey is commemorated by post-war Southey House, though Southey's birthplace was at the other end of the street. By the 1820s, it seems the drapers of Wine Street were becoming complacent: William Ablett came from London to manage a shop here and wrote that'trade was conducted in a droning sort of way', shocked the local traders by his new-fangled ideas about window-dressing several times a week with lavish displays of shawls and bolts of fabric. Thomas Jones, whose department store started in Wine Street in 1843, was considered outrageous for selling not just drapery, but anything that would make a profit, his business grew into High Street and Mary le Port Street, incorporated the Guard House, where soldiers had once been billeted during the Civil War. At the turn of the 20th century, Wine Street still formed part of Bristol's chief shopping centre and contained many of Bristol's most exclusive shops and department stores.

In 1915 the globes and lanterns of its street lamps were painted blue to dim their light as an air raid precaution. Things things were different 25 years however: all buildings on Wine Street were destroyed or damaged beyond repair by aerial bombing on 24 November 1940, including the landmark Dutch House which stood on the corner of Wine Street and High Street. An eyewitness described the scene:...looking up Clare Street, I was appalled at the view of Wine Street. I could see All Saints Church intact, but beyond the site of the old High Cross all detail was lost in one vast sheet of orange flame. Wine Street had for many centuries been an important shopping area, a key part of Bristol's pre-war shopping axis which ran from Queens Road and Park Street, through St Nicholas Market, Wine Street and Castle Street and onwards to Old Market Street and Stapleton Road. Wine Street was widened in 1956, new buildings were erected on the north side of the street. Plans for the area to the south of Wine Street to become a new Civic Centre, including a city museum and art gallery, were eroded by the leasing of the Bank of England and the Norwich Union sites and dropped on the grounds of cost.

It was decided to create a'really splendid' park. Hugh Casson, Neville Conder and Partners produced a plan for this, but in the end the Parks Department laid out their own'emasculated' version of the park; the north side of Wine Street now has just three buildings: The Prudential Building, now let out as office suites. Andrew Foyle, in his Pevsner Architectural Guide to Bristol, describes Wine Street as'perhaps the saddest post-Blitz transformation', he is dismissive of the buildings on the north side, berating the Prudential Building's'dull stripped classicism' and describing the Vintry Building and Southey House as'singularly unimaginative'. He is scornful of the Bank of England building on the south side,'merely occupying the land, with bleak fenestration and a puny entrance', its'weak' extension'weakly set back over a parking access r